Downloads:

150,546

Downloads of v 3.0.2:

474

Last Update:

9/8/2014

Package Maintainer(s):

Software Author(s):

  • Pester Team

Tags:

powershell unit testing bdd tdd mocking

Pester

This is not the latest version of Pester available.

3.0.2 | Updated: 9/8/2014

Downloads:

150,546

Downloads of v 3.0.2:

474

Software Author(s):

  • Pester Team

Pester 3.0.2

This is not the latest version of Pester available.

All Checks are Unknown

2 Test of Unknown Status


Validation Testing Unknown


Verification Testing Unknown

To install Pester, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

To upgrade Pester, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

To uninstall Pester, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

NOTE: This applies to both open source and commercial editions of Chocolatey.

1. Ensure you are set for organizational deployment

Please see the organizational deployment guide

  • Open Source or Commercial:
    • Proxy Repository - Create a proxy nuget repository on Nexus, Artifactory Pro, or a proxy Chocolatey repository on ProGet. Point your upstream to https://chocolatey.org/api/v2. Packages cache on first access automatically. Make sure your choco clients are using your proxy repository as a source and NOT the default community repository. See source command for more information.
    • You can also just download the package and push it to a repository Download

3. Enter your internal repository url

(this should look similar to https://chocolatey.org/api/v2)

4. Choose your deployment method:


choco upgrade pester -y --source="'STEP 3 URL'" [other options]

See options you can pass to upgrade.

See best practices for scripting.

Add this to a PowerShell script or use a Batch script with tools and in places where you are calling directly to Chocolatey. If you are integrating, keep in mind enhanced exit codes.

If you do use a PowerShell script, use the following to ensure bad exit codes are shown as failures:


choco upgrade pester -y --source="'STEP 3 URL'" 
$exitCode = $LASTEXITCODE

Write-Verbose "Exit code was $exitCode"
$validExitCodes = @(0, 1605, 1614, 1641, 3010)
if ($validExitCodes -contains $exitCode) {
  Exit 0
}

Exit $exitCode

- name: Ensure pester installed
  win_chocolatey:
    name: pester
    state: present
    version: 3.0.2
    source: STEP 3 URL

See docs at https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/modules/win_chocolatey_module.html.

Coming early 2020! Central Managment Reporting available now! More information...


chocolatey_package 'pester' do
  action    :install
  version  '3.0.2'
  source   'STEP 3 URL'
end

See docs at https://docs.chef.io/resource_chocolatey_package.html.


Chocolatey::Ensure-Package
(
    Name: pester,
    Version: 3.0.2,
    Source: STEP 3 URL
);

Requires Otter Chocolatey Extension. See docs at https://inedo.com/den/otter/chocolatey.


cChocoPackageInstaller pester
{
   Name     = 'pester'
   Ensure   = 'Present'
   Version  = '3.0.2'
   Source   = 'STEP 3 URL'
}

Requires cChoco DSC Resource. See docs at https://github.com/chocolatey/cChoco.


package { 'pester':
  provider => 'chocolatey',
  ensure   => '3.0.2',
  source   => 'STEP 3 URL',
}

Requires Puppet Chocolatey Provider module. See docs at https://forge.puppet.com/puppetlabs/chocolatey.


salt '*' chocolatey.install pester version="3.0.2" source="STEP 3 URL"

See docs at https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.chocolatey.html.

5. If applicable - Chocolatey configuration/installation

See infrastructure management matrix for Chocolatey configuration elements and examples.

This package was approved as a trusted package on 1/20/2015.

Description

Pester provides a framework for running BDD style Tests to execute and validate PowerShell commands inside of PowerShell and offers a powerful set of Mocking Functions that allow tests to mimic and mock the functionality of any command inside of a piece of powershell code being tested. Pester tests can execute any command or script that is accesible to a pester test file. This can include functions, Cmdlets, Modules and scripts. Pester can be run in ad hoc style in a console or it can be integrated into the Build scripts of a Continuous Integration system.


tools\bin\pester.bat
@echo off
SET DIR=%~dp0%
SET ARGS=%*
if NOT '%1'=='' SET ARGS=%ARGS:"=\"%
if '%1'=='/?' goto usage
if '%1'=='-?' goto usage
if '%1'=='?' goto usage
if '%1'=='/help' goto usage
if '%1'=='help' goto usage

@PowerShell -NonInteractive -NoProfile -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Command ^
 "& Import-Module '%DIR%..\Pester.psm1';  & { Invoke-Pester -OutputXml Test.xml -EnableExit %ARGS%}"

goto finish
:usage
if NOT '%2'=='' goto help

echo To run pester for tests, just call pester or runtests with no arguments
echo.
echo Example: pester
echo.
echo For Detailed help information, call pester help with a help topic. See
echo help topic about_Pester for a list of all topics at the end
echo.
echo Example: pester help about_Pester
echo.
goto finish

:help
@PowerShell -NonInteractive -NoProfile -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Command ^
  "& Import-Module '%DIR%..\Pester.psm1'; & { Get-Help %2}"

:finish
exit /B %errorlevel%
tools\en-US\about_BeforeEach_AfterEach.help.txt
BeforeEach and AfterEach
-------------------------------

The BeforeEach and AfterEach commands allow you to define setup and teardown tasks that are
performed at the beginning and end of every It block. This can eliminate duplication of code
in test scripts, ensure that each test is performed on a pristine state regardless of their
order, and perform any necessary cleanup tasks after each test.

BeforeEach and AfterEach blocks may be defined inside of any Describe or Context. If they
are present in both a Context and its parent Describe, BeforeEach blocks in the Describe scope
are executed first, followed by BeforeEach blocks in the Context scope. AfterEach blocks are
the reverse of this, with the Context  AfterEach blocks executing before Describe.

The script blocks assigned to BeforeEach and AfterEach are dot-sourced in the Context or Describe
which contains the current It statement, so you don't have to worry about the scope of variable
assignments. Any variables that are assigned values within a BeforeEach block can be used inside
the body of the It block.

Note about syntax and placement
-------------------------------

Unlike most of the commands in a Pester script, BeforeEach and AfterEach blocks apply to the
entire Describe or Context scope in which they are defined, regardless of the order of commands
inside the Describe or Context. In other words, even if an It block appears before BeforeEach
or AfterEach in the tests file, the BeforeEach and AfterEach will still be executed.

Examples
-------------------------------

Describe 'Testing BeforeEach and AfterEach' {
    $afterEachVariable = 'AfterEach has not been executed yet'

    It 'Demonstrates that BeforeEach may be defined after the It command' {
        $beforeEachVariable | Should Be 'Set in a describe-scoped BeforeEach'
        $afterEachVariable | Should Be 'AfterEach has not been executed yet'
    }

    It 'Demonstrates that AfterEach has executed after the end of the first test' {
        $afterEachVariable | Should Be 'AfterEach has been executed'
    }

    BeforeEach {
        $beforeEachVariable = 'Set in a describe-scoped BeforeEach'
    }

    AfterEach {
        $afterEachVariable = 'AfterEach has been executed'
    }
}
tools\en-US\about_Mocking.help.txt
TOPIC
	Mocking

SYNOPSIS
	Pester provides a set of Mocking functions making it easy to fake dependencies 
	and also to verify behavior. Using these mocking functions can allow you to 
	"shim" a data layer or mock other complex functions that already have their 
	own tests.

DESCRIPTION
	With the set of Mocking functions that Pester exposes, one can:

	- Mock the behavior of ANY powershell command.
	- Verify that specific commands were (or were not) called.
	- Verify the number of times a command was called with a set of specified 
	 parameters.

MOCKING FUNCTIONS
	See Get-Help for any of the below functions for more detailed information.

	Mock
		Mocks the behavior of an existing command with an alternate 
		implementation.

	Assert-VerifiableMocks
		Checks if any Verifiable Mock has not been invoked. If so, this will 
		throw an exception.

	Assert-MockCalled
		Checks if a Mocked command has been called a certain number of times 
		and throws an exception if it has not.

EXAMPLE
  function Build ($version) {
    Write-Host "a build was run for version: $version"
  }

  function BuildIfChanged {
    $thisVersion = Get-Version
    $nextVersion = Get-NextVersion
    if ($thisVersion -ne $nextVersion) { Build $nextVersion }
    return $nextVersion
  }

  $here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
  $sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path).Replace(".Tests.", ".")
  . "$here\$sut"

  Describe "BuildIfChanged" {
    Context "When there are Changes" {
      Mock Get-Version {return 1.1}
      Mock Get-NextVersion {return 1.2}
      Mock Build {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {$version -eq 1.2}

      $result = BuildIfChanged

      It "Builds the next version" {
        Assert-VerifiableMocks
      }
      It "returns the next version number" {
        $result | Should Be 1.2
      }
    }
    Context "When there are no Changes" {
      Mock Get-Version { return 1.1 }
      Mock Get-NextVersion { return 1.1 }
      Mock Build {}

      $result = BuildIfChanged

      It "Should not build the next version" {
        Assert-MockCalled Build -Times 0 -ParameterFilter {$version -eq 1.1}
      }
    }
  }

MOCKING CALLS TO COMMANDS MADE FROM INSIDE SCRIPT MODULES

Let's say you have code like this inside a script module (.psm1 file):

  function BuildIfChanged {
    $thisVersion = Get-Version
    $nextVersion = Get-NextVersion
    if ($thisVersion -ne $nextVersion) { Build $nextVersion }
    return $nextVersion
  }

  function Build ($version) {
    Write-Host "a build was run for version: $version"
  }

  # Actual definitions of Get-Version and Get-NextVersion are not shown here,
  # since we'll just be mocking them anyway. However, the commands do need to
  # exist in order to be mocked, so we'll stick dummy functions here

  function Get-Version { return 0 }
  function Get-NextVersion { return 0 }

  Export-ModuleMember -Function BuildIfChanged

You wish to write a unit test for this module which mocks the calls to Get-Version
and Get-NextVersion from the module's BuildIfChanged command. In older versions of
Pester, this was not possible. As of version 3.0, there are two ways you can perform
unit tests of PowerShell script modules. The first is to inject mocks into a module:

For these example, we'll assume that the PSM1 file is named "MyModule.psm1", and that
it is installed on your PSModulePath.

  Import-Module MyModule

  Describe "BuildIfChanged" {
    Context "When there are Changes" {
      Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-Version { return 1.1 }
      Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-NextVersion { return 1.2 }

      # Just for giggles, we'll also mock Write-Host here, to demonstrate that you can
      # mock calls to commands other than functions defined within the same module.
      Mock -ModuleName MyModule Write-Host {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {
        $Object -eq 'a build was run for version: 1.2'
      }

      $result = BuildIfChanged

      It "Builds the next version and calls Write-Host" {
        Assert-VerifiableMocks
      }

      It "returns the next version number" {
        $result | Should Be 1.2
      }
    }

    Context "When there are no Changes" {
      Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-Version { return 1.1 }
      Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-NextVersion { return 1.1 }
      Mock -ModuleName MyModule Build { }

      $result = BuildIfChanged

      It "Should not build the next version" {
        Assert-MockCalled Build -ModuleName MyModule -Times 0 -ParameterFilter {
          $version -eq 1.1
        }
      }
    }
  }

Notice that in this example test script, all calls to Mock and Assert-MockCalled have had the
-ModuleName MyModule parameter added. This tells Pester to inject the mock into the module's scope,
which causes any calls to those commands from inside the module to execute the mock instead.

When you write your test script this way, you can mock commands that are called by the module's
internal functions. However, your test script is still limited to accessing the public, exported
members of the module. If you wanted to write a unit test that calls Build directly, for example,
it wouldn't work using the above technique. That's where the second approach to script module testing
comes into play. With Pester 3.0's InModuleScope command, you can cause entire sections of your test
script to execute inside the targeted script module. This gives you access to non-exported members of
the module. For example:

  Import-Module MyModule

  Describe "Unit testing the module's internal Build function:" {
    InModuleScope MyModule {
      $testVersion = 5.0
      Mock Write-Host { }

      Build $testVersion

      It 'Outputs the correct message' {
        Assert-MockCalled Write-Host -ParameterFilter {
          $Object -eq "a build was run for version: $testVersion"
        }
      }
    }
  }

Notice that when using InModuleScope, you no longer need to specify a -ModuleName parameter when calling
Mock or Assert-MockCalled for commands within that module. You are also able to directly call the Build
function, which the module does not export.

SEE ALSO
	Mock
	Assert-VerifiableMocks
	Assert-MockCalled
    InModuleScope
	Describe
	Context
	It
tools\en-US\about_Pester.help.txt
TOPIC
	Pester

SYNOPSIS
	Pester is a BDD based test runner for PowerShell.

DESCRIPTION
	Pester provides a framework for running Unit Tests to execute and validate 
	Powershell commands. Pester follows a file naming convention for naming 
	tests to be discovered by pester at test time and a simple set of 
	functions that expose a Testing DSL for isolating, running, evaluating and 
	reporting the results of Powershell commands.

	Pester tests can execute any command or script that is accesible to a 
	pester test file. This can include functions, Cmdlets, Modules and scripts. 
	Pester can be run in ad hoc style in a console or it can be integrated into 
	the Build scripts of a Continuous Integration system.

	Pester also contains a powerful set of Mocking Functions that allow tests to 
	mimic and mock the functionality of any command inside of a piece of 
	powershell code being tested. See about_Mocking.

CREATING A PESTER TEST
	To start using Pester, You may use the Add-Fixture function to scaffold both 
	a new implementation function and a test function.

	C:\PS>New-Fixture deploy Clean

	Creates two files:
	./deploy/Clean.ps1
	function clean {

	}

    ./deploy/clean.Tests.ps1
    $here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
    $sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path).Replace(".Tests.", ".")
    . "$here\$sut"

    Describe "clean" {

        It "does something useful" {
            $true | should be $false
        }
    }

    Now you have a skeleton of a clean function with a failing test. Pester 
    considers all files containing *Tests.ps1 to be a test file (see 
    Invoke-Pester) and by default it will look for these files and run all 
    Describe blocks inside the file (See Describe). The Describe block can 
    contain several behavior validations expressed in It blocks (see It). 
    Each It block should test one thing and throw an exception if the test 
    fails. Pester will consider any It block that throws an exception to be a 
    failed test. Pester provides a set of extensions that can perform various 
    comparisons between the values emited or altered by a test and an expected 
    value (see about_Should). 

RUNNNING A PESTER TEST
	Once you have some logic that you are ready to test, run the Tests file directly, 
	usually by pressing F5 in your ISE. 
	
	To run multiple test files, get summary for the test run, to get nUnit compatible XML
	report or to get PesterResult object use the Invoke-Pester command. You can zero in on 
	just one test (Describe block) or an entire tree of directories.

	function BuildIfChanged {
		$thisVersion=Get-Version
		$nextVersion=Get-NextVersion
		if($thisVersion -ne $nextVersion) {Build $nextVersion}
		return $nextVersion
	}

	$here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
    $sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path).Replace(".Tests.", ".")
    . "$here\$sut"

    Describe "BuildIfChanged" {
    	Context "When there are Changes" {
    		Mock Get-Version {return 1.1}
    		Mock Get-NextVersion {return 1.2}
    		Mock Build {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {$version -eq 1.2}

    		$result = BuildIfChanged

	        It "Builds the next version" {
	            Assert-VerifiableMocks
	        }
	        It "returns the next version number" {
	            $result | Should Be 1.2
	        }
        }
    	Context "When there are no Changes" {
    		Mock Get-Version -MockWith {return 1.1}
    		Mock Get-NextVersion -MockWith {return 1.1}
    		Mock Build {}

    		$result = BuildIfChanged

	        It "Should not build the next version" {
	            Assert-MockCalled Build -Times 0 -ParameterFilter{$version -eq 1.1}
	        }
        }
    }

	C:\PS>Invoke-Pester

	This will run all tests recursively from the current directory downwards 
	and print a report of all failing and passing tests to the console.

PESTER AND CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION
	Pester integrates well with almost any build automation solution. You 
	could create a MSBuild target that calls Pester's convenience Batch file:

	<Target Name="Tests">
	<Exec Command="cmd /c $(baseDir)pester\bin\pester.bat" />
	</Target>

	This will start a powershell session, import the Pester Module and call 
	invoke pester within the current directory. If any test fails, it will 
	return an exit code equal to the number of failed tests and all test 
	results will be saved to Test.xml using NUnit's Schema allowing you to 
	plug these results nicely into most Build systems like CruiseControl, 
	TeamCity, TFS or Jenkins.

OTHER EXAMPLES
	Pester's own tests. See all files in the Pester Functions folder 
	containing *Tests.ps1
	
	Chocolatey tests. Chocolatey is a popular powershell based Windows 
	package management system. It uses Pester tests to validate its own 
	functionality.

SEE ALSO
	about_Mocking
	Describe
	Context
	It
	Add-Fixture
	Invoke-Pester
	about_Should
	about_TestDrive
tools\en-US\about_should.help.txt
TOPIC
	Should

SYNOPSIS
	Provides assertion convenience methods for comparing objects and throwing 
	test failures when test expectations fail.

DESCRIPTION
	Should is an Extension of System.Object and can be used as a native type 
	inside Describe blocks. The various Should member methods can be invoked 
	directly from an object being compared. It is typically used in individual 
	It blocks to verify the results of an expectation. The Should method is 
	typically called from the "actual" object being compared and takes the 
	"expected" object as a parameter. Should includes several members that 
	perform various comparisons of objects and will throw a PesterFailure when 
	the objects do not evaluate to be comparable.

SHOULD MEMBERS

	Be
		Compares one object with another for equality and throws if the two 
		objects are not the same.

        $actual="Actual value"
        $actual | Should Be "actual value" # Test will pass
        $actual | Should Be "not actual value"  # Test will fail

    BeExactly
        Compares one object with another for equality and throws if the two objects are not the same.  This comparison is case sensitive.

        $actual="Actual value"
        $actual | Should BeExactly "Actual value" # Test will pass
        $actual | Should BeExactly "actual value" # Test will fail

	Exist
		Does not perform any comparison but checks if the object calling Exist 
		is presnt in a PS Provider. The object must have valid path syntax. It 
		essentially must pass a Test-Path call.

        $actual=(Dir . )[0].FullName
        Remove-Item $actual
        $actual | Should Exist # Test will fail

    Contain
        Checks to see if a file contains the specified text.  This search is not case sensitive and uses regular expressions. 
        
        Set-Content -Path TestDrive:\file.txt -Value 'I am a file.'
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I Am' # Test will pass
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain '^I.*file$' # Test will pass

        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I Am Not' # Test will fail

        Tip: Use [regex]::Escape("pattern") to match the exact text.
	    
        Set-Content -Path TestDrive:\file.txt -Value 'I am a file.'
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I.am.a.file' # Test will pass
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain ([regex]::Escape('I.am.a.file')) # Test will fail

    ContainExactly
        Checks to see if a file contains the specified text.  This search is case sensitive and uses regular expressions to match the text.

        Set-Content -Path TestDrive:\file.txt -Value 'I am a file.'
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I am' # Test will pass
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I Am' # Test will fail

    Match
		Uses a regular expression to compare two objects. This comparison is not case sensitive.

        "I am a value" | Should Match "I Am" # Test will pass
        "I am a value" | Should Match "I am a bad person" # Test will fail

        Tip: Use [regex]::Escape("pattern") to match the exact text.

        "Greg" | Should Match ".reg" # Test will pass
        "Greg" | Should Match ([regex]::Escape(".reg")) # Test will fail

    MatchExactly
        Uses a regular expression to compare two objects.  This comparison is case sensitive.

        "I am a value" | Should MatchExactly "I am" # Test will pass
        "I am a value" | Should MatchExactly "I Am" # Test will fail

    Throw
        Checks if an exception was thrown in the input ScriptBlock.

        { foo } | Should Throw # Test will pass
        { $foo = 1 } | Should Throw # Test will fail
        { foo } | Should Not Throw # Test will fail
        { $foo = 1 } | Should Not Throw # Test will pass

        Warning: The input object must be a ScriptBlock, otherwise it is processed outside of the assertion.

        Get-Process -Name "process" -ErrorAction Stop | Should Throw # Should pass, but the exception thrown by Get-Process causes the test to fail.

    BeNullOrEmpty
        Checks values for null or empty (strings). The static [String]::IsNullOrEmpty() method is used to do the comparison.

        $null | Should BeNullOrEmpty # Test will pass
        $null | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty # Test will fail
        @()   | Should BeNullOrEmpty # Test will pass
        ""    | Should BeNullOrEmpty # Test will pass

USING SHOULD IN A TEST

	function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
	    return $a + $b
	}

	Describe "Add-Numbers" {

	    It "adds positive numbers" {
	        $sum = Add-Numbers 2 3
	        $sum | should be 3
	    }
	}

	This test will fail since 3 will not be equal to the sum of 2 and 3.

SEE ALSO
	Describe
    Context
	It
tools\en-US\about_TestDrive.help.txt
TOPIC
	TestDrive

SYNOPSIS
	A PSDrive for file activity limited to the scope of a singe Describe or 
	Context block.

DESCRIPTION	
	A test may need to work with file operations and validate certain tyes of 
	file activities. It is usually desirable not to perform file activity tests 
	that will produce side effects outside of an individual test. Pester 
	creates a PSDrive inside the user's temporary drive that is accesible via a 
	names PSDrive TestDrive:. Pester will remove this drive after the test 
	completes. You may use this drive to isolate the file operations of your 
	test to a temporary store.

EXAMPLE
	function Add-Footer($path, $footer) {
	    Add-Content $path -Value $footer
	}

	Describe "Add-Footer" {
	    $testPath="TestDrive:\test.txt"
	    Set-Content $testPath -value "my test text."
	    Add-Footer $testPath "-Footer"
	    $result = Get-Content $testPath

	    It "adds a footer" {
	        (-join $result).Should.Be("my test text.-Footer")
	    }
	}
	
	When this test completes, the contents of the TestDrive PSDrive will 
	be removed.

SEE ALSO
	Context
	Describe
	It
	about_Should
tools\Examples\Calculator\Add-Numbers.ps1
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}
tools\Examples\Calculator\Add-Numbers.Tests.ps1
$here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
. "$here\Add-Numbers.ps1"

Describe -Tags "Example" "Add-Numbers" {

    It "adds positive numbers" {
        Add-Numbers 2 3 | Should Be 5
    }

    It "adds negative numbers" {
        Add-Numbers (-2) (-2) | Should Be (-4)
    }

    It "adds one negative number to positive number" {
        Add-Numbers (-2) 2 | Should Be 0
    }

    It "concatenates strings if given strings" {
        Add-Numbers two three | Should Be "twothree"
    }

    It "should not be 0" {
        Add-Numbers 2 3 | Should Not Be 0
    }
}

tools\Examples\Validator\Validator.Tests.ps1

function MyValidator($thing_to_validate) {
    return $thing_to_validate.StartsWith("s")
}

function Invoke-SomethingThatUsesMyValidator {
    param(
        [ValidateScript({MyValidator $_})]
        $some_param
    )
}

Describe "Testing a validator" {

    It "calls MyValidator" {
        Mock MyValidator -MockWith { return $true }
        Invoke-SomethingThatUsesMyValidator "test"
        $was_called_once = 1
        Assert-MockCalled MyValidator $was_called_once
    }

}

Describe "MyValidator" {

    It "passes things that start with the letter S" {
        $result = MyValidator "summer"
        $result | Should Be $true
    }

    It "does not pass a param that does not start with S" {
        $result = MyValidator "bummer"
        $result | Should Be $false
    }
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Be.ps1
#Be
function PesterBe($value, $expected) {
    return ($expected -eq $value)
}

function PesterBeFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if (-not (($expected -is [string]) -and ($value -is [string]))) 
    {
        return "Expected: {$expected}`nBut was:  {$value}"
    }
    <#joining the output strings to a single string here, otherwise I get 
       Cannot find an overload for "Exception" and the argument count: "4".
       at line: 63 in C:\Users\nohwnd\github\pester\Functions\Assertions\Should.ps1
       
    This is a quickwin solution, doing the join in the Should directly might be better
    way of doing this. But I don't want to mix two problems.
    #>
    ( Get-CompareStringMessage -Expected $expected -Actual $value ) -join "`n"
}

function NotPesterBeFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    return "Expected: value was {$value}, but should not have been the same"
}

#BeExactly
function PesterBeExactly($value, $expected) {
    return ($expected -ceq $value)
}

function PesterBeExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if (-not (($expected -is [string]) -and ($value -is [string]))) 
    {
        return "Expected exactly: {$expected}`nBut was: {$value}"
    }
    <#joining the output strings to a single string here, otherwise I get 
       Cannot find an overload for "Exception" and the argument count: "4".
       at line: 63 in C:\Users\nohwnd\github\pester\Functions\Assertions\Should.ps1
       
    This is a quickwin solution, doing the join in the Should directly might be better
    way of doing this. But I don't want to mix two problems.
    #>
    ( Get-CompareStringMessage -Expected $expected -Actual $value -CaseSensitive ) -join "`n"
}

function NotPesterBeExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    return "Expected: value was {$value}, but should not have been exactly the same"
}

#common functions
function Get-CompareStringMessage {
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [String]$Expected, 
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [String]$Actual,
        [switch]$CaseSensitive
    )
    
    $expectedLength = $expected.Length
    $actualLength = $actual.Length
    $maxLength = $expectedLength,$actualLength | Sort -Descending | select -First 1
    
    $differenceIndex = $null 
    for ($i = 0; $i -lt $maxLength -and ($null -eq $differenceIndex); ++$i){
        $differenceIndex = if ($CaseSensitive -and ($expected[$i] -cne $actual[$i])) 
        {
            $i
        }
        elseif ($expected[$i] -ne $actual[$i]) 
        {
            $i
        }     
    }
    
    [string]$output = $null
    if ($null -ne $differenceIndex)
    {   
        if ($expected.Length -ne $actual.Length) {
           "Expected string length $expectedLength but was $actualLength. Strings differ at index $differenceIndex."
        }
        else
        {
           "String lengths are both $expectedLength. Strings differ at index $differenceIndex."
        }
        
        
        "Expected: {{{0}}}" -f ( $expected | Expand-SpecialCharacters )
        "But was:  {{{0}}}" -f ( $actual | Expand-SpecialCharacters )
        
        $specialCharacterOffset = $null
        if ($differenceIndex -ne 0)
        {
            #count all the special characters before the difference
            $specialCharacterOffset = ($actual[0..($differenceIndex-1)] | 
                Where {"`n","`r","`t","`b","`0" -contains $_} | 
                Measure-Object | 
                select -ExpandProperty Count)
        }

        '-'*($differenceIndex+$specialCharacterOffset+11)+'^'
    }
}

function Expand-SpecialCharacters {
    param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
    [string[]]$InputObject) 
    process {
        $InputObject -replace "`n","\n" -replace "`r","\r" -replace "`t","\t" -replace "`0", "\0" -replace "`b","\b"
    }
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Be.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBe" {
        It "returns true if the 2 arguments are equal" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBe 1 1)
        }
        It "returns true if the 2 arguments are equal and have different case" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBe "A" "a")
        }

        It "returns false if the 2 arguments are not equal" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBe 1 2)
        }
    }
    Describe "PesterBeFailureMessage" {
        #the correctness of difference index value and the arrow pointing to the correct place 
        #are not tested here thoroughly, but the behaviour was visually checked and is
        #implicitly tested by using the whole output in the following tests
        
        
        It "Returns nothing for two identical strings" {
            #this situation should actually never happen, as the code is called 
            #only when the objects are not equal
            
            $string = "string"
            PesterBeFailureMessage $string $string | Should BeNullOrEmpty
        }
    
        It "Outputs less verbose message for two different objects that are not strings" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage 2 1 | Should Be "Expected: {1}`nBut was:  {2}"
        }
        
        It "Outputs verbose message for two strings of different length" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "actual" "expected" | Should Be "Expected string length 8 but was 6. Strings differ at index 0.`nExpected: {expected}`nBut was:  {actual}`n-----------^"
        }
        
        It "Outputs verbose message for two different strings of the same length" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "x" "y" | Should Be "String lengths are both 1. Strings differ at index 0.`nExpected: {y}`nBut was:  {x}`n-----------^"
        }
        
        It "Replaces non-printable characters correctly" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "`n`r`b`0`tx" "`n`r`b`0`ty" | Should Be "String lengths are both 6. Strings differ at index 5.`nExpected: {\n\r\b\0\ty}`nBut was:  {\n\r\b\0\tx}`n---------------------^"
        }
        
        It "The arrow points to the correct position when non-printable characters are replaced before the difference" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "123`n456" "123`n789" | Should Be "String lengths are both 7. Strings differ at index 4.`nExpected: {123\n789}`nBut was:  {123\n456}`n----------------^"
        }
        
        It "The arrow points to the correct position when non-printable characters are replaced after the difference" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "abcd`n123" "abc!`n123" | Should Be "String lengths are both 8. Strings differ at index 3.`nExpected: {abc!\n123}`nBut was:  {abcd\n123}`n--------------^"
        }
    }
}

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "BeExactly" {
        It "passes if letter case matches" {
            'a' | Should BeExactly 'a'
        }
        It "fails if letter case doesn't match" {
            'A' | Should Not BeExactly 'a'
        }
        It "passes for numbers" {
            1 | Should BeExactly 1
            2.15 | Should BeExactly 2.15
        }
    }
    
    Describe "PesterBeExactlyFailureMessage" {
        It "Writes verbose message for strings that differ by case" {
            PesterBeExactlyFailureMessage "a" "A" | Should Be "String lengths are both 1. Strings differ at index 0.`nExpected: {A}`nBut was:  {a}`n-----------^"
        }
    }
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\BeNullOrEmpty.ps1

function PesterBeNullOrEmpty($value) {
    if ($null -eq $value) {
        return $true
    }
    if ([String] -eq $value.GetType()) {
        return [String]::IsNullOrEmpty($value)
    }
    if ($null -ne $value.Count) {
        return $value.Count -lt 1
    }
    return $false
}

function PesterBeNullOrEmptyFailureMessage($value) {
    return "Expected: value to be empty but it was {$value}"
}

function NotPesterBeNullOrEmptyFailureMessage {
    return "Expected: value to not be empty"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\BeNullOrEmpty.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBeNullOrEmpty" {
        It "should return true if null" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeNullOrEmpty $null)
        }

        It "should return true if empty string" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeNullOrEmpty "")
        }

        It "should return true if empty array" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeNullOrEmpty @())
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Contain.ps1

function PesterContain($file, $contentExpecation) {
    return ((Get-Content $file) -match $contentExpecation)
}

function PesterContainFailureMessage($file, $contentExpecation) {
    return "Expected: file ${file} to contain {$contentExpecation}"
}

function NotPesterContainFailureMessage($file, $contentExpecation) {
    return "Expected: file {$file} to not contain ${contentExpecation} but it did"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Contain.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterContain" {
        Context "when testing file contents" {
            Setup -File "test.txt" "this is line 1`nrush is awesome"
            It "returns true if the file contains the specified content" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContain "$TestDrive\test.txt" "rush")
            }
            It "returns true if the file contains the specified content with different case" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContain "$TestDrive\test.txt" "RUSH")
            }

            It "returns false if the file does not contain the specified content" {
                Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterContain "$TestDrive\test.txt" "slime")
            }
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\ContainExactly.ps1

function PesterContainExactly($file, $contentExpecation) {
    return ((Get-Content $file) -cmatch $contentExpecation)
}

function PesterContainExactlyFailureMessage($file, $contentExpecation) {
    return "Expected: file ${file} to contain exactly {$contentExpecation}"
}

function NotPesterContainExactlyFailureMessage($file, $contentExpecation) {
    return "Expected: file {$file} to not contain exactly ${contentExpecation} but it did"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\ContainExactly.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterContainExactly" {
        Context "when testing file contents" {
            Setup -File "test.txt" "this is line 1`nPester is awesome"
            It "returns true if the file contains the specified content exactly" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContainExactly "$TestDrive\test.txt" "Pester")
            }

            It "returns false if the file does not contain the specified content exactly" {
                Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterContainExactly "$TestDrive\test.txt" "pESTER")
            }
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Exist.ps1

function PesterExist($value) {
    return (Test-Path $value)
}

function PesterExistFailureMessage($value) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to exist"
}

function NotPesterExistFailureMessage($value) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not exist, but it was found"
}


tools\Functions\Assertions\Exist.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterExist" {
        It "returns true for paths that exist" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterExist $TestDrive)
        }

        It "returns false for paths do not exist" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterExist "$TestDrive\nonexistant")
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Match.ps1

function PesterMatch($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return ($value -match $expectedMatch)
}

function PesterMatchFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to match the expression {$expectedMatch}"
}

function NotPesterMatchFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not match the expression ${expectedMatch}"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Match.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "Match" {
        It "returns true for things that match" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "ob" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "returns false for things that do not match" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "slime" | Should Be $false
        }

        It "passes for strings with different case" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "FOOBAR" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "uses regular expressions" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "\S{6}" | Should Be $true
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\MatchExactly.ps1

function PesterMatchExactly($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return ($value -cmatch $expectedMatch)
}

function PesterMatchExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to exactly match the expression {$expectedMatch}"
}

function NotPesterMatchExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not match the expression ${expectedMatch} exactly"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\MatchExactly.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "MatchExactly" {
        It "returns true for things that match exactly" {
            PesterMatchExactly "foobar" "ob" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "returns false for things that do not match exactly" {
            PesterMatchExactly "foobar" "FOOBAR" | Should Be $false
        }

        It "uses regular expressions" {
            PesterMatchExactly "foobar" "\S{6}" | Should Be $true
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\PesterThrow.ps1

$ActualExceptionMessage = ""
$ActualExceptionWasThrown = $false

# because this is a script block, the user will have to
# wrap the code they want to assert on in { }
function PesterThrow([scriptblock] $script, $expectedErrorMessage) {
    $Script:ActualExceptionMessage = ""
    $Script:ActualExceptionWasThrown = $false

    try {
        # Redirect to $null so script output does not enter the pipeline
        & $script > $null
    } catch {
        $Script:ActualExceptionWasThrown = $true
        $Script:ActualExceptionMessage = $_.Exception.Message
        $Script:ActualExceptionLine = Get-ExceptionLineInfo $_.InvocationInfo
    }

    if ($ActualExceptionWasThrown) {
        return Get-DoMessagesMatch $ActualExceptionMessage $expectedErrorMessage
    }
    return $false
}

function Get-DoMessagesMatch($value, $expected) {
    if ($expected -eq "") { return $false }
    return $value.Contains($expected)
}

function Get-ExceptionLineInfo($info) {
    # $info.PositionMessage has a leading blank line that we need to account for in PowerShell 2.0
    $positionMessage = $info.PositionMessage -split '\r?\n' -match '\S' -join "`r`n"
    return ($positionMessage -replace "^At ","from ")
}

function PesterThrowFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if ($expected) {
        return "Expected: the expression to throw an exception with message {{{0}}}, an exception was {2}raised, message was {{{1}}}`n    {3}" -f
               $expected, $ActualExceptionMessage,(@{$true="";$false="not "}[$ActualExceptionWasThrown]),($ActualExceptionLine  -replace "`n","`n    ")
    } else {
      return "Expected: the expression to throw an exception"
    }
}

function NotPesterThrowFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if ($expected) {
        return "Expected: the expression not to throw an exception with message {{{0}}}, an exception was {2}raised, message was {{{1}}}`n    {3}" -f
               $expected, $ActualExceptionMessage,(@{$true="";$false="not "}[$ActualExceptionWasThrown]),($ActualExceptionLine  -replace "`n","`n    ")
    } else {
        return "Expected: the expression not to throw an exception. Message was {{{0}}}`n    {1}" -f $ActualExceptionMessage,($ActualExceptionLine  -replace "`n","`n    ")
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\PesterThrow.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterThrow" {
        It "returns true if the statement throws an exception" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterThrow { throw })
        }

        It "returns false if the statement does not throw an exception" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterThrow { 1 + 1 })
        }

        It "returns true if the statement throws an exception and the actual error text matches the expected error text" {
            $expectedErrorMessage = "expected error message"
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterThrow { throw $expectedErrorMessage } $expectedErrorMessage)
        }

        It "returns false if the statement throws an exception and the actual error does not match the expected error text" {
            $unexpectedErrorMessage = "unexpected error message"
            $expectedErrorMessage = "some expected error message"
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterThrow { throw $unexpectedErrorMessage} $expectedErrorMessage)
        }

        It "returns true if the statement throws an exception and the actual error text matches the expected error pattern" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterThrow { throw "expected error"} "error")
        }
    }

    Describe "Get-DoMessagesMatch" {
        It "returns true if the actual message is the same as the expected message" {
            $expectedErrorMessage = "expected"
            $actualErrorMesage = "expected"
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch $actualErrorMesage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Be $True
        }

        It "returns false if the actual message is not the same as the expected message" {
            $expectedErrorMessage = "some expected message"
            $actualErrorMesage = "unexpected"
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch $actualErrorMesage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Be $False
        }

        It "returns false is there's no expectation" {
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch "" ""
            $result | Should Be $False
        }

        It "returns true if the expected error is contained in the actual message" {
            $actualErrorMesage = "this is a long error message"
            $expectedText = "long error"
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch $actualErrorMesage $expectedText
            $result | Should Be $True
        }
    }

    Describe 'PesterThrowFailureMessage' {
        $testScriptPath = Join-Path $TestDrive.FullName test.ps1

        It 'returns false if the actual message is not the same as the expected message' {
            $unexpectedErrorMessage = 'unexpected'
            $expectedErrorMessage = 'some expected message'
            Set-Content -Path $testScriptPath -Value "throw '$unexpectedErrorMessage'"

            PesterThrow { & $testScriptPath } $expectedErrorMessage > $null
            $result = PesterThrowFailureMessage $unexpectedErrorMessage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Match "^Expected: the expression to throw an exception with message {$expectedErrorMessage}, an exception was raised, message was {$unexpectedErrorMessage}`n    from $([RegEx]::Escape($testScriptPath)):\d+ char:\d+"
        }

        It 'returns true if the actual message is the same as the expected message' {
            PesterThrow { } > $null
            $result = PesterThrowFailureMessage 'error message'
            $result | Should Be 'Expected: the expression to throw an exception'
        }
    }

    Describe 'NotPesterThrowFailureMessage' {
        $testScriptPath = Join-Path $TestDrive.FullName test.ps1

        It 'returns false if the actual message is not the same as the expected message' {
            $unexpectedErrorMessage = 'unexpected'
            $expectedErrorMessage = 'some expected message'
            Set-Content -Path $testScriptPath -Value "throw '$unexpectedErrorMessage'"

            PesterThrow { & $testScriptPath } $expectedErrorMessage > $null
            $result = NotPesterThrowFailureMessage $unexpectedErrorMessage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Match "^Expected: the expression not to throw an exception with message {$expectedErrorMessage}, an exception was raised, message was {$unexpectedErrorMessage}`n    from $([RegEx]::Escape($testScriptPath)):\d+ char:\d+"
        }

        It 'returns true if the actual message is the same as the expected message' {
            Set-Content -Path $testScriptPath -Value "throw 'error message'"
            PesterThrow { & $testScriptPath } > $null
            $result = NotPesterThrowFailureMessage 'error message'
            $result | Should Match "^Expected: the expression not to throw an exception. Message was {error message}`n    from $([RegEx]::Escape($testScriptPath)):\d+ char:\d+"
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Should.ps1
function Parse-ShouldArgs([array] $shouldArgs) {
    if ($null -eq $shouldArgs) { $shouldArgs = @() }

    $parsedArgs = @{
        PositiveAssertion = $true
        ExpectedValue = $null
    }

    $assertionMethodIndex = 0
    $expectedValueIndex   = 1

    if ($shouldArgs.Count -gt 0 -and $shouldArgs[0].ToLower() -eq "not") {
        $parsedArgs.PositiveAssertion = $false
        $assertionMethodIndex += 1
        $expectedValueIndex   += 1
    }

    if ($assertionMethodIndex -lt $shouldArgs.Count)
    {
        $parsedArgs.AssertionMethod = "Pester$($shouldArgs[$assertionMethodIndex])"
    }
    else
    {
        throw 'You cannot call Should without specifying an assertion method.'
    }

    if ($expectedValueIndex -lt $shouldArgs.Count)
    {
        $parsedArgs.ExpectedValue = $shouldArgs[$expectedValueIndex]
    }

    return $parsedArgs
}

function Get-TestResult($shouldArgs, $value) {
    $assertionMethod = $shouldArgs.AssertionMethod
    $command = Get-Command $assertionMethod -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

    if ($null -eq $command)
    {
        $assertionMethod = $assertionMethod -replace '^Pester'
        throw "'$assertionMethod' is not a valid Should operator."
    }

    $testResult = (& $assertionMethod $value $shouldArgs.ExpectedValue)

    if ($shouldArgs.PositiveAssertion) {
        return -not $testResult
    }

    return $testResult
}

function Get-FailureMessage($shouldArgs, $value) {
    $failureMessageFunction = "$($shouldArgs.AssertionMethod)FailureMessage"
    if (-not $shouldArgs.PositiveAssertion) {
        $failureMessageFunction = "Not$failureMessageFunction"
    }

    return (& $failureMessageFunction $value $shouldArgs.ExpectedValue)
}
function New-ShouldException ($Message,$Line) {
    $exception = New-Object Exception $Message
    $errorID = 'PesterAssertionFailed'
    $errorCategory = [Management.Automation.ErrorCategory]::InvalidResult
    $errorRecord = New-Object Management.Automation.ErrorRecord $exception, $errorID, $errorCategory, $null
    $errorRecord.ErrorDetails = "$Message failed at line: $line"

    $errorRecord
}

function Should {
    begin {
        Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Should
        $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs $args
    }

    end {
        $input.MoveNext()
        do {
            $value = $input.Current

            $testFailed = Get-TestResult $parsedArgs $value

            if ($testFailed) {
                $ShouldExceptionLine = $MyInvocation.ScriptLineNumber
                $failureMessage = Get-FailureMessage $parsedArgs $value


                throw ( New-ShouldException -Message $failureMessage -Line $ShouldExceptionLine )
            }
        } until ($input.MoveNext() -eq $false)
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Should.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "Parse-ShouldArgs" {
        It "sanitizes assertions functions" {
            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs TestFunction
            $parsedArgs.AssertionMethod | Should Be PesterTestFunction
        }

        It "works with strict mode when using 'switch' style tests" {
            Set-StrictMode -Version Latest
            { throw 'Test' } | Should Throw
        }

        Context "for positive assertions" {

            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs testMethod, 1

            It "gets the expected value from the 2nd argument" {
                $ParsedArgs.ExpectedValue | Should Be 1
            }

            It "marks the args as a positive assertion" {
                $ParsedArgs.PositiveAssertion | Should Be $true
            }
        }

        Context "for negative assertions" {

            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Not, testMethod, 1

            It "gets the expected value from the third argument" {
                $ParsedArgs.ExpectedValue | Should Be 1
            }

            It "marks the args as a negative assertion" {
                $ParsedArgs.PositiveAssertion | Should Be $false
            }
        }

        Context "for the throw assertion" {

            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Throw

            It "translates the Throw assertion to PesterThrow" {
                $ParsedArgs.AssertionMethod | Should Be PesterThrow
            }

        }
    }

    Describe "Get-TestResult" {
        Context "for positive assertions" {
            function PesterTest { return $true }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Test

            It "returns false if the test returns true" {
                Get-TestResult $shouldArgs | Should Be $false
            }
        }

        Context "for negative assertions" {
            function PesterTest { return $false }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Not, Test

            It "returns false if the test returns false" {
                Get-TestResult $shouldArgs | Should Be $false
            }
        }
    }

    Describe "Get-FailureMessage" {
        Context "for positive assertions" {
            function PesterTestFailureMessage($v, $e) { return "slime $e $v" }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Test, 1

            It "should return the postive assertion failure message" {
                Get-FailureMessage $shouldArgs 2 | Should Be "slime 1 2"
            }
        }

        Context "for negative assertions" {
            function NotPesterTestFailureMessage($v, $e) { return "not slime $e $v" }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Not, Test, 1

            It "should return the negative assertion failure message" {
              Get-FailureMessage $shouldArgs 2 | Should Be "not slime 1 2"
            }
        }

    }

    Describe -Tag "Acceptance" "Should" {
        It "can use the Be assertion" {
            1 | Should Be 1
        }

        It "can use the Not Be assertion" {
            1 | Should Not Be 2
        }

        It "can use the BeNullOrEmpty assertion" {
            $null | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            @()   | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            ""    | Should BeNullOrEmpty
        }

        It "can use the Not BeNullOrEmpty assertion" {
            @("foo") | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            "foo"    | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            "   "    | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            @(1,2,3) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            12345    | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            $item1 = New-Object PSObject -Property @{Id=1; Name="foo"}
            $item2 = New-Object PSObject -Property @{Id=2; Name="bar"}
            @($item1, $item2) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
        }

        It "can handle exception thrown assertions" {
            { foo } | Should Throw
        }

        It "can handle exception should not be thrown assertions" {
            { $foo = 1 } | Should Not Throw
        }

        It "can handle Exist assertion" {
            $TestDrive | Should Exist
        }

        It "can handle the Match assertion" {
            "abcd1234" | Should Match "d1"
        }

        It "can test for file contents" {
            Setup -File "test.foo" "expected text"
            "$TestDrive\test.foo" | Should Contain "expected text"
        }

        It "ensures all assertion functions provide failure messages" {
            $assertionFunctions = @("PesterBe", "PesterThrow", "PesterBeNullOrEmpty", "PesterExist",
                "PesterMatch", "PesterContain")
            $assertionFunctions | % {
                "function:$($_)FailureMessage" | Should Exist
                "function:Not$($_)FailureMessage" | Should Exist
            }
        }

        # TODO understand the purpose of this test, perhaps some better wording
        It "can process functions with empty output as input" {
            function ReturnNothing {}

            # TODO figure out why this is the case
            if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion -eq "2.0") {
                { $(ReturnNothing) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty } | Should Not Throw
            } else {
                { $(ReturnNothing) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty } | Should Throw
            }
        }

    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Test-Assertion.ps1

function Test-PositiveAssertion($result) {
    if (-not $result) {
        throw "Expecting expression to pass, but it failed"
    }
}

function Test-NegativeAssertion($result) {
    if ($result) {
        throw "Expecting expression to pass, but it failed"
    }
}

tools\Functions\Context.ps1
function Context {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Provides logical grouping of It blocks within a single Describe block. Any Mocks defined
inside a Context are removed at the end of the Context scope, as are any files or folders
added to the TestDrive during the Context block's execution. Any BeforeEach or AfterEach
blocks defined inside a Context also only apply to tests within that Context .

.PARAMETER Name
The name of the Context. This is a phrase describing a set of tests within a describe.

.PARAMETER Fixture
Script that is executed. This may include setup specific to the context and one or more It
blocks that validate the expected outcomes.

.EXAMPLE
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}

Describe "Add-Numbers" {

    Context "when root does not exist" {
         It "..." { ... }
    }

    Context "when root does exist" {
        It "..." { ... }
        It "..." { ... }
        It "..." { ... }
    }
}

.LINK
Describe
It
BeforeEach
AfterEach
about_Should
about_Mocking
about_TestDrive

#>
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string] $Name,

        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [ScriptBlock] $Fixture  = $(Throw "No test script block is provided. (Have you put the open curly brace on the next line?)")
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Context

    $Pester.EnterContext($Name )
    $TestDriveContent = Get-TestDriveChildItem

    $Pester.CurrentContext | Write-Context

    try
    {
        Add-SetupAndTeardown -ScriptBlock $Fixture 
        $null = & $Fixture 
    }
    catch
    {
        $firstStackTraceLine = $_.InvocationInfo.PositionMessage.Trim() -split '\r?\n' | Select-Object -First 1
        $Pester.AddTestResult('Error occurred in Context block', $false, $null, $_.Exception.Message, $firstStackTraceLine)
        $Pester.TestResult[-1] | Write-PesterResult
    }

    Clear-SetupAndTeardown
    Clear-TestDrive -Exclude ($TestDriveContent | select -ExpandProperty FullName)
    Exit-MockScope
    $Pester.LeaveContext()
}

tools\Functions\Context.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe 'Testing Context' {
    It 'Has a non-mandatory fixture parameter which throws the proper error message if missing' {
        $command = Get-Command Context -Module Pester
        $command | Should Not Be $null

        $parameter = $command.Parameters['Fixture']
        $parameter | Should Not Be $null

        $attribute = $parameter.Attributes | Where-Object { $_.TypeId -eq [System.Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute] }
        $isMandatory = $null -ne $attribute -and $attribute.Mandatory

        $isMandatory | Should Be $false

        { Context Bogus } | Should Throw 'No test script block is provided'
    }
}
tools\Functions\Coverage.ps1
if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -le 2)
{
    function Exit-CoverageAnalysis { }
    function Get-CoverageReport { }
    function Show-CoverageReport { }
    function Enter-CoverageAnalysis {
        param ( $CodeCoverage )

        if ($CodeCoverage) { Write-Error 'Code coverage analysis requires PowerShell 3.0 or later.' }
    }

    return
}

function Enter-CoverageAnalysis
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [object[]] $CodeCoverage,
        [object] $PesterState
    )

    $coverageInfo =
    foreach ($object in $CodeCoverage)
    {
        Get-CoverageInfoFromUserInput -InputObject $object
    }

    $PesterState.CommandCoverage = @(Get-CoverageBreakpoints -CoverageInfo $coverageInfo)
}

function Exit-CoverageAnalysis
{
    param ([object] $PesterState)

    Set-StrictMode -Off

    $breakpoints = @($PesterState.CommandCoverage.Breakpoint) -ne $null
    if ($breakpoints.Count -gt 0)
    {
        Remove-PSBreakpoint -Breakpoint $breakpoints
    }
}

function Get-CoverageInfoFromUserInput
{
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [object]
        $InputObject
    )

    if ($InputObject -is [System.Collections.IDictionary])
    {
        $unresolvedCoverageInfo = Get-CoverageInfoFromDictionary -Dictionary $InputObject
    }
    else
    {
        $unresolvedCoverageInfo = New-CoverageInfo -Path ([string]$InputObject)
    }

    Resolve-CoverageInfo -UnresolvedCoverageInfo $unresolvedCoverageInfo
}

function New-CoverageInfo
{
    param ([string] $Path, [string] $Function = $null, [int] $StartLine = 0, [int] $EndLine = 0)

    return [pscustomobject]@{
        Path = $Path
        Function = $Function
        StartLine = $StartLine
        EndLine = $EndLine
    }
}

function Get-CoverageInfoFromDictionary
{
    param ([System.Collections.IDictionary] $Dictionary)

    [string] $path = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'Path', 'p'
    if ([string]::IsNullOrEmpty($path))
    {
        throw "Coverage value '$Dictionary' is missing required Path key."
    }

    $startLine = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'StartLine', 'Start', 's'
    $endLine = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'EndLine', 'End', 'e'
    [string] $function = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'Function', 'f'

    $startLine = Convert-UnknownValueToInt -Value $startLine -DefaultValue 0
    $endLine = Convert-UnknownValueToInt -Value $endLine -DefaultValue 0

    return New-CoverageInfo -Path $path -StartLine $startLine -EndLine $endLine -Function $function
}

function Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound
{
    param ([System.Collections.IDictionary] $Dictionary, [object[]] $Key)

    foreach ($keyToTry in $Key)
    {
        if ($Dictionary.Contains($keyToTry)) { return $Dictionary[$keyToTry] }
    }
}

function Convert-UnknownValueToInt
{
    param ([object] $Value, [int] $DefaultValue = 0)

    try
    {
        return [int] $Value
    }
    catch
    {
        return $DefaultValue
    }
}

function Resolve-CoverageInfo
{
    param ([psobject] $UnresolvedCoverageInfo)

    $path = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.Path

    try
    {
        $resolvedPaths = Resolve-Path -Path $path -ErrorAction Stop
    }
    catch
    {
        Write-Error "Could not resolve coverage path '$path': $($_.Exception.Message)"
        return
    }

    $filePaths =
    foreach ($resolvedPath in $resolvedPaths)
    {
        $item = Get-Item -LiteralPath $resolvedPath
        if ($item -is [System.IO.FileInfo] -and ('.ps1','.psm1') -contains $item.Extension)
        {
            $item.FullName
        }
        elseif (-not $item.PsIsContainer)
        {
            Write-Warning "CodeCoverage path '$path' resolved to a non-PowerShell file '$($item.FullName)'; this path will not be part of the coverage report."
        }
    }

    $params = @{
        StartLine = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.StartLine
        EndLine = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.EndLine
        Function = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.Function
    }

    foreach ($filePath in $filePaths)
    {
        $params['Path'] = $filePath
        New-CoverageInfo @params
    }
}

function Get-CoverageBreakpoints
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [object[]] $CoverageInfo
    )

    $fileGroups = @($CoverageInfo | Group-Object -Property Path)
    foreach ($fileGroup in $fileGroups)
    {
        Write-Verbose "Initializing code coverage analysis for file '$($fileGroup.Name)'"
        $totalCommands = 0
        $analyzedCommands = 0

        :commandLoop
        foreach ($command in Get-CommandsInFile -Path $fileGroup.Name)
        {
            $totalCommands++

            foreach ($coverageInfoObject in $fileGroup.Group)
            {
                if (Test-CoverageOverlapsCommand -CoverageInfo $coverageInfoObject -Command $command)
                {
                    $analyzedCommands++
                    New-CoverageBreakpoint -Command $command
                    continue commandLoop
                }
            }
        }

        Write-Verbose "Analyzing $analyzedCommands of $totalCommands commands in file '$($fileGroup.Name)' for code coverage"
    }
}

function Get-CommandsInFile
{
    param ([string] $Path)

    $errors = $null
    $tokens = $null
    $ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseFile($Path, [ref] $tokens, [ref] $errors)

    $predicate = { $args[0] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandBaseAst] }
    $searchNestedScriptBlocks = $true
    $ast.FindAll($predicate, $searchNestedScriptBlocks)
}

function Test-CoverageOverlapsCommand
{
    param ([object] $CoverageInfo, [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    if ($CoverageInfo.Function)
    {
        Test-CommandInsideFunction -Command $Command -Function $CoverageInfo.Function
    }
    else
    {
        Test-CoverageOverlapsCommandByLineNumber @PSBoundParameters
    }

}

function Test-CommandInsideFunction
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command, [string] $Function)

    for ($ast = $Command; $null -ne $ast; $ast = $ast.Parent)
    {
        $functionAst = $ast -as [System.Management.Automation.Language.FunctionDefinitionAst]
        if ($null -ne $functionAst -and $functionAst.Name -like $Function)
        {
            return $true
        }
    }

    return $false
}

function Test-CoverageOverlapsCommandByLineNumber
{
    param ([object] $CoverageInfo, [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    $commandStart = $Command.Extent.StartLineNumber
    $commandEnd = $Command.Extent.EndLineNumber
    $coverStart = $CoverageInfo.StartLine
    $coverEnd = $CoverageInfo.EndLine

    # An EndLine value of 0 means to cover the entire rest of the file from StartLine
    # (which may also be 0)
    if ($coverEnd -le 0) { $coverEnd = [int]::MaxValue }

    return (Test-RangeContainsValue -Value $commandStart -Min $coverStart -Max $coverEnd) -or
           (Test-RangeContainsValue -Value $commandEnd -Min $coverStart -Max $coverEnd)
}

function Test-RangeContainsValue
{
    param ([int] $Value, [int] $Min, [int] $Max)
    return $Value -ge $Min -and $Value -le $Max
}

function New-CoverageBreakpoint
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    if (IsIgnoredCommand -Command $Command) { return }

    $params = @{
        Script = $Command.Extent.File
        Line   = $Command.Extent.StartLineNumber
        Column = $Command.Extent.StartColumnNumber
        Action = { }
    }

    $breakpoint = Set-PSBreakpoint @params

    [pscustomobject] @{
        File       = $Command.Extent.File
        Function   = Get-ParentFunctionName -Ast $Command
        Line       = $Command.Extent.StartLineNumber
        Command    = Get-CoverageCommandText -Ast $Command
        Breakpoint = $breakpoint
    }
}

function IsIgnoredCommand
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    if (-not $Command.Extent.File)
    {
        # This can happen if the script contains "configuration" or any similarly implemented
        # dynamic keyword.  PowerShell modifies the script code and reparses it in memory, leading
        # to AST elements with no File in their Extent.
        return $true
    }

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 4)
    {
        if ($Command.Extent.Text -eq 'Configuration')
        {
            # More DSC voodoo.  Calls to "configuration" generate breakpoints, but their HitCount
            # stays zero (even though they are executed.)  For now, ignore them, unless we can come
            # up with a better solution.
            return $true
        }

        if (IsChildOfHashtableDynamicKeyword -Command $Command)
        {
            # The lines inside DSC resource declarations don't trigger their breakpooints when executed,
            # just like the "configuration" keyword itself.  I don't know why, at this point, but just like
            # configuration, we'll ignore it so it doesn't clutter up the coverage analysis with useless junk.
            return $true
        }
    }

    if (IsClosingLoopCondition -Command $Command)
    {
        # For some reason, the closing expressions of do/while and do/until loops don't trigger their breakpoints.
        # To avoid useless clutter, we'll ignore those lines as well.
        return $true
    }

    return $false
}

function IsChildOfHashtableDynamicKeyword
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    for ($ast = $Command.Parent; $null -ne $ast; $ast = $ast.Parent)
    {
        if ($ast -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandAst] -and
            $null -ne $ast.DefiningKeyword -and
            $ast.DefiningKeyword.BodyMode -eq [System.Management.Automation.Language.DynamicKeywordBodyMode]::Hashtable)
        {
            return $true
        }
    }

    return $false
}

function IsClosingLoopCondition
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    $ast = $Command

    while ($null -ne $ast.Parent)
    {
        if (($ast.Parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.DoWhileStatementAst] -or
            $ast.Parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.DoUntilStatementAst]) -and
            $ast.Parent.Condition -eq $ast)
        {
            return $true
        }

        $ast = $ast.Parent
    }

    return $false
}

function Get-ParentFunctionName
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Ast)

    $parent = $Ast.Parent

    while ($null -ne $parent -and $parent -isnot [System.Management.Automation.Language.FunctionDefinitionAst])
    {
        $parent = $parent.Parent
    }

    if ($null -eq $parent)
    {
        return ''
    }
    else
    {
        return $parent.Name
    }
}

function Get-CoverageCommandText
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Ast)

    $reportParentExtentTypes = @(
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.ReturnStatementAst]
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.ThrowStatementAst]
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.AssignmentStatementAst]
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.IfStatementAst]
    )

    $parent = Get-ParentNonPipelineAst -Ast $Ast

    if ($null -ne $parent)
    {
        if ($parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.HashtableAst])
        {
            return Get-KeyValuePairText -HashtableAst $parent -ChildAst $Ast
        }
        elseif ($reportParentExtentTypes -contains $parent.GetType())
        {
            return $parent.Extent.Text
        }
    }

    return $Ast.Extent.Text
}

function Get-ParentNonPipelineAst
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Ast)

    $parent = $null
    if ($null -ne $Ast) { $parent = $Ast.Parent }

    while ($parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.PipelineAst])
    {
        $parent = $parent.Parent
    }

    return $parent
}

function Get-KeyValuePairText
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.HashtableAst] $HashtableAst,
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $ChildAst
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Off

    foreach ($keyValuePair in $HashtableAst.KeyValuePairs)
    {
        if ($keyValuePair.Item2.PipelineElements -contains $ChildAst)
        {
            return '{0} = {1}' -f $keyValuePair.Item1.Extent.Text, $keyValuePair.Item2.Extent.Text
        }
    }

    # This shouldn't happen, but just in case, default to the old output of just the expression.
    return $ChildAst.Extent.Text
}

function Get-CoverageMissedCommands
{
    param ([object[]] $CommandCoverage)
    $CommandCoverage | Where-Object { $_.Breakpoint.HitCount -eq 0 }
}

function Get-CoverageReport
{
    param ([object] $PesterState)

    $totalCommandCount = $PesterState.CommandCoverage.Count

    $missedCommands = @(Get-CoverageMissedCommands -CommandCoverage $PesterState.CommandCoverage | Select-Object File, Line, Function, Command)
    $analyzedFiles = @($PesterState.CommandCoverage | Select-Object -ExpandProperty File -Unique)
    $fileCount = $analyzedFiles.Count

    $executedCommandCount = $totalCommandCount - $missedCommands.Count

    [pscustomobject] @{
        NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed = $totalCommandCount
        NumberOfFilesAnalyzed    = $fileCount
        NumberOfCommandsExecuted = $executedCommandCount
        NumberOfCommandsMissed   = $missedCommands.Count
        MissedCommands           = $missedCommands
        AnalyzedFiles            = $analyzedFiles
    }
}

function Show-CoverageReport
{
    param ([object] $CoverageReport)

    if ($null -eq $CoverageReport -or $CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed -eq 0)
    {
        return
    }

    $totalCommandCount = $CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed
    $fileCount = $CoverageReport.NumberOfFilesAnalyzed
    $executedPercent = ($CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted / $CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed).ToString("P2")

    $commandPlural = $filePlural = ''
    if ($totalCommandCount -gt 1) { $commandPlural = 's' }
    if ($fileCount -gt 1) { $filePlural = 's' }

    $commonParent = Get-CommonParentPath -Path $CoverageReport.AnalyzedFiles
    $report = $CoverageReport.MissedCommands | Select-Object -Property @(
        @{ Name = 'File'; Expression = { Get-RelativePath -Path $_.File -RelativeTo $commonParent } }
        'Function'
        'Line'
        'Command'
    )

    Write-Host ''
    Write-Host 'Code coverage report:'
    Write-Host "Covered $executedPercent of $totalCommandCount analyzed command$commandPlural in $fileCount file$filePlural."

    if ($CoverageReport.MissedCommands.Count -gt 0)
    {
        Write-Host ''
        Write-Host 'Missed commands:'
        $report | Format-Table -AutoSize | Out-Host
    }
}

function Get-CommonParentPath
{
    param ([string[]] $Path)

    $pathsToTest = @( $Path | Select-Object -Unique )

    if ($pathsToTest.Count -gt 0)
    {
        $parentPath = Split-Path -Path $pathsToTest[0] -Parent

        while ($parentPath.Length -gt 0)
        {
            $nonMatches = $pathsToTest -notmatch "^$([regex]::Escape($parentPath))"

            if ($nonMatches.Count -eq 0)
            {
                return $parentPath
            }
            else
            {
                $parentPath = Split-Path -Path $parentPath -Parent
            }
        }
    }

    return [string]::Empty
}

function Get-RelativePath
{
    param ( [string] $Path, [string] $RelativeTo )
    return $Path -replace "^$([regex]::Escape($RelativeTo))\\?"
}
tools\Functions\Coverage.Tests.ps1
if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -le 2) { return }

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe 'Code Coverage Analysis' {
        $root = (Get-PSDrive TestDrive).Root

        $null = New-Item -Path $root\TestScript.ps1 -ItemType File -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

        Set-Content -Path $root\TestScript.ps1 -Value @'
            function FunctionOne
            {
                function NestedFunction
                {
                    'I am the nested function.'
                    'I get fully executed.'
                }

                if ($true)
                {
                    'I am functionOne'
                    NestedFunction
                }
            }

            function FunctionTwo
            {
                'I am function two.  I never get called.'
            }

            FunctionOne

'@

        Context 'Entire file' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            # Path deliberately duplicated to make sure the code doesn't produce multiple breakpoints for the same commands
            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage "$root\TestScript.ps1", "$root\TestScript.ps1" -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 7
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 6
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 7
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed files' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfFilesAnalyzed | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the correct missed command' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am function two.  I never get called.'"
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Single function with missed commands' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\TestScript.ps1"; Function = 'FunctionTwo'} -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 0
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the correct missed command' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am function two.  I never get called.'"
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Single function with no missed commands' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\TestScript.ps1"; Function = 'FunctionOne'} -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 5
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 0
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Range of lines' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\TestScript.ps1"; StartLine = 11; EndLine = 12 } -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 2
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 2
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 2
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 0
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Wildcard resolution' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\*.ps1"; Function = '*' } -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 6
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 6
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed files' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfFilesAnalyzed | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the correct missed command' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am function two.  I never get called.'"
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }
    }

    Describe 'Stripping common parent paths' {
        $paths = @(
            'C:\Common\Folder\UniqueSubfolder1\File.ps1'
            'C:\Common\Folder\UniqueSubfolder2\File2.ps1'
            'C:\Common\Folder\UniqueSubfolder3\File3.ps1'
        )

        $commonPath = Get-CommonParentPath -Path $paths

        It 'Identifies the correct parent path' {
            $commonPath | Should Be 'C:\Common\Folder'
        }

        It 'Strips the common path correctly' {
            Get-RelativePath -Path $paths[0] -RelativeTo $commonPath |
            Should Be 'UniqueSubfolder1\File.ps1'
        }
    }

    if ((Get-Module -ListAvailable PSDesiredStateConfiguration) -and $PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 4)
    {
        Describe 'Analyzing coverage of a DSC configuration' {
            $root = (Get-PSDrive TestDrive).Root

            $null = New-Item -Path $root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1 -ItemType File -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

            Set-Content -Path $root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1 -Value @'
                $line1 = $true   # Triggers breakpoint
                $line2 = $true   # Triggers breakpoint

                configuration MyTestConfig   # does NOT trigger breakpoint
                {
                    Node localhost    # Triggers breakpoint
                    {
                        WindowsFeature XPSViewer   # Triggers breakpoint
                        {
                            Name = 'XPS-Viewer'  # does NOT trigger breakpoint
                            Ensure = 'Present'   # does NOT trigger breakpoint
                        }
                    }

                    return # does NOT trigger breakpoint

                    $doesNotExecute = $true   # Triggers breakpoint
                }

                $line3 = $true   # Triggers breakpoint

                return   # does NOT trigger breakpoint

                $doesnotexecute = $true   # Triggers breakpoint
'@

            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage "$root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1" -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 7
            }

            $null = . "$root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1"

            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState
            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands before running the configuration' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 4
            }

            MyTestConfig -OutputPath $root

            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState
            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands after running the configuration' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 2
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Describe.ps1
function Describe {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Creates a logical group of tests.  All Mocks and TestDrive contents
defined within a Describe block are scoped to that Describe; they
will no longer be present when the Describe block exits.  A Describe
block may contain any number of Context and It blocks.

.PARAMETER Name
The name of the test group. This is often an expressive phrase describing the scenario being tested.

.PARAMETER Fixture
The actual test script. If you are following the AAA pattern (Arrange-Act-Assert), this
typically holds the arrange and act sections. The Asserts will also lie in this block but are
typically nested each in its own It block. Assertions are typically performed by the Should
command within the It blocks.

.PARAMETER Tags
Optional parameter containing an array of strings.  When calling Invoke-Pester, it is possible to
specify a -Tag parameter which will only execute Describe blocks containing the same Tag.

.EXAMPLE
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}

Describe "Add-Numbers" {
    It "adds positive numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers 2 3
        $sum | Should Be 5
    }

    It "adds negative numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) (-2)
        $sum | Should Be (-4)
    }

    It "adds one negative number to positive number" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) 2
        $sum | Should Be 0
    }

    It "concatenates strings if given strings" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers two three
        $sum | Should Be "twothree"
    }
}

.LINK
It
Context
Invoke-Pester
about_Should
about_Mocking
about_TestDrive

#>

    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 0)]
        [string] $Name,
        [email protected](),
        [Parameter(Position = 1)]
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [ScriptBlock] $Fixture = $(Throw "No test script block is provided. (Have you put the open curly brace on the next line?)")
    )

    if ($null -eq (Get-Variable -Name Pester -ValueOnly -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue))
    {
        # User has executed a test script directly instead of calling Invoke-Pester
        $Pester = New-PesterState -Path (Resolve-Path .) -TestNameFilter $null -TagFilter @() -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState
        $script:mockTable = @{}
    }

    if($Pester.TestNameFilter -and ($Name -notlike $Pester.TestNameFilter))
    {
        #skip this test
        return
    }

    #TODO add test to test tags functionality
    if($Pester.TagFilter -and @(Compare-Object $Tags $Pester.TagFilter -IncludeEqual -ExcludeDifferent).count -eq 0) {return}

    $Pester.EnterDescribe($Name)
    
    $Pester.CurrentDescribe | Write-Describe
    New-TestDrive

    try
    {
        Add-SetupAndTeardown -ScriptBlock $Fixture
        $null = & $Fixture
    }
    catch
    {
        $firstStackTraceLine = $_.InvocationInfo.PositionMessage.Trim() -split '\r?\n' | Select-Object -First 1
        $Pester.AddTestResult('Error occurred in Describe block', $false, $null, $_.Exception.Message, $firstStackTraceLine)
        $Pester.TestResult[-1] | Write-PesterResult
    }

    Clear-SetupAndTeardown
    Remove-TestDrive
    Exit-MockScope
    $Pester.LeaveDescribe()
}

function Assert-DescribeInProgress
{
    param ($CommandName)
    if ($null -eq $Pester -or [string]::IsNullOrEmpty($Pester.CurrentDescribe))
    {
        throw "The $CommandName command may only be used inside a Describe block."
    }
}
tools\Functions\Describe.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe 'Testing Describe' {
    It 'Has a non-mandatory fixture parameter which throws the proper error message if missing' {
        $command = Get-Command Describe -Module Pester
        $command | Should Not Be $null

        $parameter = $command.Parameters['Fixture']
        $parameter | Should Not Be $null

        $attribute = $parameter.Attributes | Where-Object { $_.TypeId -eq [System.Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute] }
        $isMandatory = $null -ne $attribute -and $attribute.Mandatory

        $isMandatory | Should Be $false

        { Describe Bogus } | Should Throw 'No test script block is provided'
    }
}
tools\Functions\In.ps1
function In {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
A convenience function that executes a scrit from a specified path.

.DESCRIPTION
Before the script block passed to the execute parameter is invoked,
the current location is set to the path specified. Once the script
block has been executed, the location will be reset to the location
the script was in prior to calling In.

.PARAMETER Path
The path that the execute block will be executed in.

.PARAMETER execute
The script to be executed in the path provided.

#>

param(
    $path,
    [ScriptBlock] $execute
)
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName In

    $old_pwd = $pwd
    pushd $path
    $pwd = $path
    try {
        & $execute
    } finally {
        popd
        $pwd = $old_pwd
    }
}
tools\Functions\In.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "the In statement" {
        Setup -Dir "test_path"

        It "executes a command in that directory" {
            In "$TestDrive" -Execute { "" | Out-File "test_file" }
            "$TestDrive\test_file" | Should Exist
        }

        It "updates the `$pwd variable when executed" {
            In "$TestDrive\test_path" -Execute { $env:Pester_Test=$pwd }
            $env:Pester_Test | Should Match "test_path"
            $env:Pester_Test=""
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\InModuleScope.ps1
function InModuleScope
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
   Allows you to execute parts of a test script within the
   scope of a PowerShell script module.
.DESCRIPTION
   By injecting some test code into the scope of a PowerShell
   script module, you can use non-exported functions, aliases
   and variables inside that module, to perform unit tests on 
   its internal implementation.

   InModuleScope may be used anywhere inside a Pester script,
   either inside or outside a Describe block.
.PARAMETER ModuleName
   The name of the module into which the test code should be
   injected. This module must already be loaded into the current
   PowerShell session.
.PARAMETER ScriptBlock
   The code to be executed within the script module.
.EXAMPLE
    # The script module:
    function PublicFunction
    {
        # Does something
    }

    function PrivateFunction
    {
        return $true
    }

    Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction

    # The test script:

    Import-Module MyModule

    InModuleScope MyModule {
        Describe 'Testing MyModule' {
            It 'Tests the Private function' {
                PrivateFunction | Should Be $true
            }
        }
    }

    Normally you would not be able to access "PrivateFunction" from
    the powershell session, because the module only exported
    "PublicFunction".  Using InModuleScope allowed this call to
    "PrivateFunction" to work successfully.
#>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $ModuleName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    if ($null -eq (Get-Variable -Name Pester -ValueOnly -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue))
    {
        # User has executed a test script directly instead of calling Invoke-Pester
        $Pester = New-PesterState -Path (Resolve-Path .) -TestNameFilter $null -TagFilter @() -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState
        $script:mockTable = @{}
    }

    try
    {
        $module = Get-Module -Name $ModuleName -All -ErrorAction Stop
    }
    catch
    {
        throw "No module named '$ModuleName' is currently loaded."
    }

    $originalState = $Pester.SessionState
    $originalScriptBlockScope = Get-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock

    try
    {
        $Pester.SessionState = $module.SessionState

        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock -SessionState $module.SessionState

        & $ScriptBlock
    }
    finally
    {
        $Pester.SessionState = $originalState
        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock -SessionStateInternal $originalScriptBlockScope 
    }
}
tools\Functions\InModuleScope.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe "Module scope separation" {
    Context "When users define variables with the same name as Pester parameters" {
        $test = "This is a test."

        It "does not hide user variables" {
            $test | Should Be 'This is a test.'
        }
    }

    It "Does not expose Pester implementation details to the SUT" {
        # Changing the Get-PesterResult function's name would cause this test to pass artificially.
        # TODO : come up with a better way of verifying that only the desired commands from the Pester
        # module are visible to the SUT.

        (Get-Item function:\Get-PesterResult -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) | Should Be $null
    }
}

Describe "Executing test code inside a module" {
    New-Module -Name TestModule {
        function InternalFunction { 'I am the internal function' }
        function PublicFunction   { InternalFunction }
        Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction
    } | Import-Module -Force

    It "Cannot call module internal functions, by default" {
        { InternalFunction } | Should Throw
    }

    InModuleScope TestModule {
        It "Can call module internal functions using InModuleScope" {
            InternalFunction | Should Be 'I am the internal function'
        }

        It "Can mock functions inside the module without using Mock -ModuleName" {
            Mock InternalFunction { 'I am the mock function.' }
            InternalFunction | Should Be 'I am the mock function.'
        }
    }

    Remove-Module TestModule -Force
}
tools\Functions\It.ps1
function It {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Validates the results of a test inside of a Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
The It command is intended to be used inside of a Describe or Context Block.
If you are familiar with the AAA pattern (Arrange-Act-Assert), the body of
the It block is the appropriate location for an assert. The convention is to
assert a single expectation for each It block. The code inside of the It block
should throw a terminating error if the expectation of the test is not met and
thus cause the test to fail. The name of the It block should expressively state
the expectation of the test.

In addition to using your own logic to test expectations and throw exceptions,
you may also use Pester's Should command to perform assertions in plain language.

.PARAMETER Name
An expressive phsae describing the expected test outcome.

.PARAMETER Test
The script block that should throw an exception if the
expectation of the test is not met.If you are following the
AAA pattern (Arrange-Act-Assert), this typically holds the
Assert.

.EXAMPLE
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}

Describe "Add-Numbers" {
    It "adds positive numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers 2 3
        $sum | Should Be 5
    }

    It "adds negative numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) (-2)
        $sum | Should Be (-4)
    }

    It "adds one negative number to positive number" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) 2
        $sum | Should Be 0
    }

    It "concatenates strings if given strings" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers two three
        $sum | Should Be "twothree"
    }
}

.LINK
Describe
Context
about_should
#>
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]$name,
        [ScriptBlock] $test = $(Throw "No test script block is provided. (Have you put the open curly brace on the next line?)")
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName It

    $Pester.EnterTest($name)
    Invoke-SetupBlocks

    $PesterException = $null
    try{
        $null = & $test
    } catch {
        $PesterException = $_
    }

    $Result = Get-PesterResult -Test $Test -Exception $PesterException
    $Pester.AddTestResult($Result.name, $Result.Success, $null, $result.failuremessage, $result.StackTrace )
    $Pester.testresult[-1] | Write-PesterResult

    Invoke-TeardownBlocks
    Exit-MockScope
    $Pester.LeaveTest()
}

function Get-PesterResult {
    param([ScriptBlock] $Test, $Time, $Exception)
    $testResult = @{
        name = $name
        time = $time
        failureMessage = ""
        stackTrace = ""
        success = $false
    };

    if(-not $exception)
    {
        $testResult.success = $true
    }
    else
    {
        if ($exception.FullyQualifiedErrorID -eq 'PesterAssertionFailed')
        {
            $failureMessage = $exception.exception.message
            $file = $test.File
            $line = if ( $exception.ErrorDetails.message -match "\d+$" )  { $matches[0] }
        }
        else {
            $failureMessage = $exception.ToString()
            $file = $Exception.InvocationInfo.ScriptName
            $line = $Exception.InvocationInfo.ScriptLineNumber
        }

        $testResult.failureMessage = $failureMessage -replace "Exception calling", "Assert failed on"
        $testResult.stackTrace = "at line: $line in $file"
    }
    return $testResult
}
tools\Functions\It.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

function List-ExtraKeys($baseHash, $otherHash) {
    $extra_keys = @()
    $otherHash.Keys | ForEach-Object {
        if ( -not $baseHash.ContainsKey($_)) {
            $extra_keys += $_
        }
    }

    return $extra_keys
}

Describe "It - Caller scoped tests" {
    It "should pass if assertions pass" {
        $test = 'something'
        $test | should be "something"
    }

    $result = $null
    try
    {
        It "no test block"
    }
    catch
    {
        $result = $_
    }

    It "throws if no test block given" {
        $result | Should Not Be $null
    }

    $result = $null
    try
    {
        It "empty test block" { }
    }
    catch
    {
        $result = $_
    }

    It "won't throw if success test block given" {
        $result | Should Be $null
    }
}

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "It - Module scoped tests" {
        It "records the correct stack line number of failed tests" {
            #the $script scriptblock below is used as a position marker to determine
            #on which line the test failed.
            try{"something" | should be "nothing"}catch{ $ex=$_} ; $script={}
            $result = Get-PesterResult $script 0 $ex
            $result.Stacktrace | should match "at line: $($script.startPosition.StartLine) in "
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Mock.ps1
function Mock {

<#
.SYNOPSIS
Mocks the behavior of an existing command with an alternate
implementation.

.DESCRIPTION
This creates new behavior for any existing command within the scope of a
Describe or Context block. The function allows you to specify a script block
that will become the command's new behavior.

Optionally, you may create a Parameter Filter which will examine the
parameters passed to the mocked command and will invoke the mocked
behavior only if the values of the parameter values pass the filter. If
they do not, the original command implementation will be invoked instead
of a mock.

You may create multiple mocks for the same command, each using a different
ParameterFilter. ParameterFilters will be evaluated in reverse order of
their creation. The last one created will be the first to be evaluated.
The mock of the first filter to pass will be used. The exception to this
rule are Mocks with no filters. They will always be evaluated last since
they will act as a "catch all" mock.

Mocks can be marked Verifiable. If so, the Assert-VerifiableMocks command
can be used to check if all Verifiable mocks were actually called. If any
verifiable mock is not called, Assert-VerifiableMocks will throw an
exception and indicate all mocks not called.

If you wish to mock commands that are called from inside a script module,
you can do so by using the -ModuleName parameter to the Mock command. This
injects the mock into the specified module. If you do not specify a
module name, the mock will be created in the same scope as the test script.
You may mock the same command multiple times, in different scopes, as needed.
Each module's mock maintains a separate call history and verified status.

.PARAMETER CommandName
The name of the command to be mocked.

.PARAMETER MockWith
A ScriptBlock specifying the behvior that will be used to mock CommandName.
The default is an empty ScriptBlock.
NOTE: Do not specify param or dynamicparam blocks in this script block.
These will be injected automatically based on the signature of the command
being mocked, and the MockWith script block can contain references to the
mocked commands parameter variables.

.PARAMETER Verifiable
When this is set, the mock will be checked when Assert-VerifiableMocks is
called.

.PARAMETER ParameterFilter
An optional filter to limit mocking behavior only to usages of
CommandName where the values of the parameters passed to the command
pass the filter.

This ScriptBlock must return a boolean value. See examples for usage.

.PARAMETER ModuleName
Optional string specifying the name of the module where this command
is to be mocked.  This should be a module that _calls_ the mocked
command; it doesn't necessarily have to be the same module which
originally implemented the command.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} }

Using this Mock, all calls to Get-ChildItem will return a hashtable with a
FullName property returning "A_File.TXT"

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path.StartsWith($env:temp) }

This Mock will only be applied to Get-ChildItem calls within the user's temp directory.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Set-Content {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "some_path" -and $Value -eq "Expected Value" }

When this mock is used, if the Mock is never invoked and Assert-VerifiableMocks is called, an exception will be thrown. The command behavior will do nothing since the ScriptBlock is empty.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path.StartsWith($env:temp\1) }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path.StartsWith($env:temp\2) }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "C_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path.StartsWith($env:temp\3) }

Multiple mocks of the same command may be used. The parameter filter determines which is invoked. Here, if Get-ChildItem is called on the "2" directory of the temp folder, then B_File.txt will be returned.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName="B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "$env:temp\me" }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName="A_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path.StartsWith($env:temp) }

Get-ChildItem $env:temp\me

Here, both mocks could apply since both filters will pass. A_File.TXT will be returned because it was the most recent Mock created.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "$env:temp\me" }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} }

Get-ChildItem c:\windows

Here, A_File.TXT will be returned. Since no filter was specified, it will apply to any call to Get-ChildItem that does not pass another filter.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "$env:temp\me" }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} }

Get-ChildItem $env:temp\me

Here, B_File.TXT will be returned. Even though the filterless mock was created more recently. This illustrates that filterless Mocks are always evaluated last regardlss of their creation order.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} } -ModuleName MyTestModule

Using this Mock, all calls to Get-ChildItem from within the MyTestModule module
will return a hashtable with a FullName property returning "A_File.TXT"

.EXAMPLE
Get-Module -Name ModuleMockExample | Remove-Module
New-Module -Name ModuleMockExample  -ScriptBlock {
    function Hidden { "Internal Module Function" }
    function Exported { Hidden }

    Export-ModuleMember -Function Exported
} | Import-Module -Force

Describe "ModuleMockExample" {

    It "Hidden function is not directly accessible outside the module" {
        { Hidden } | Should Throw
    }

    It "Original Hidden function is called" {
        Exported | Should Be "Internal Module Function"
    }

    It "Hidden is replaced with our implementation" {
        Mock Hidden { "Mocked" } -ModuleName ModuleMockExample
        Exported | Should Be "Mocked"
    }
}

This example shows how calls to commands made from inside a module can be
mocked by using the -ModuleName parameter.


.LINK
Assert-MockCalled
Assert-VerifiableMocks
Describe
Context
It
about_Should
about_Mocking
#>

    param(
        [string]$CommandName,
        [ScriptBlock]$MockWith={},
        [switch]$Verifiable,
        [ScriptBlock]$ParameterFilter = {$True},
        [string]$ModuleName
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Mock

    $filterTest = Test-ParameterFilter -ScriptBlock $ParameterFilter

    if ($filterTest -isnot [bool]) { throw [System.Management.Automation.PSArgumentException] 'The Parameter Filter must return a boolean' }

    $contextInfo = Validate-Command $CommandName $ModuleName
    $CommandName = $contextInfo.Command.Name

    if ($contextInfo.Session.Module -and $contextInfo.Session.Module.Name)
    {
        $ModuleName = $contextInfo.Session.Module.Name
    }
    else
    {
        $ModuleName = ''
    }

    $mockWithCopy = [scriptblock]::Create($MockWith.ToString())
    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $mockWithCopy -SessionState $contextInfo.Session

    $block = @{
        Mock       = $mockWithCopy
        Filter     = $ParameterFilter
        Verifiable = $Verifiable
        Scope      = Get-ScopeForMock -PesterState $pester
    }

    $mock = $mockTable["$ModuleName||$CommandName"]

    if (-not $mock)
    {
        $metadata                = $null
        $cmdletBinding           = ''
        $paramBlock              = ''
        $dynamicParamBlock       = ''
        $dynamicParamScriptBlock = $null

        if ($contextInfo.Command.psobject.Properties['ScriptBlock'] -or $contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Cmdlet')
        {
            $metadata = [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetaData]$contextInfo.Command
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('Verbose')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('Debug')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('ErrorAction')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('WarningAction')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('ErrorVariable')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('WarningVariable')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('OutVariable')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('OutBuffer')

            $cmdletBinding = [Management.Automation.ProxyCommand]::GetCmdletBindingAttribute($metadata)
            $paramBlock    = [Management.Automation.ProxyCommand]::GetParamBlock($metadata)

            if ($contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Cmdlet')
            {
                $dynamicParamBlock = "dynamicparam { Get-MockDynamicParameters -CmdletName '$($contextInfo.Command.Name)' -Parameters `$PSBoundParameters }"
            }
            else
            {
                $dynamicParamBlock = "dynamicparam { Get-MockDynamicParameters -ModuleName '$ModuleName' -FunctionName '$CommandName' -Parameters `$PSBoundParameters }"

                $dynamicParamStatements = Get-DynamicParamBlock -ScriptBlock $contextInfo.Command.ScriptBlock
                $dynamicParamScriptBlock = [scriptblock]::Create("$cmdletBinding`r`nparam( $paramBlock )`r`n$dynamicParamStatements")

                $sessionStateInternal = Get-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $contextInfo.Command.ScriptBlock

                if ($null -ne $sessionStateInternal)
                {
                    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $dynamicParamScriptBlock -SessionStateInternal $sessionStateInternal
                }
            }
        }

        $newContent = Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-Content function:\MockPrototype
        $mockScript = [scriptblock]::Create("$cmdletBinding`r`nparam( $paramBlock )`r`n$dynamicParamBlock`r`nprocess{`r`n$newContent}")

        $mock = @{
            OriginalCommand         = $contextInfo.Command
            Blocks                  = @()
            CommandName             = $CommandName
            SessionState            = $contextInfo.Session
            Scope                   = $pester.Scope
            Metadata                = $metadata
            CallHistory             = @()
            DynamicParamScriptBlock = $dynamicParamScriptBlock
        }

        $mockTable["$ModuleName||$CommandName"] = $mock

        if ($contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Function')
        {
            $scriptBlock =
            {
                if ($ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Exists("Function:\$args"))
                {
                    $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Rename("Function:\$args", "script:PesterIsMocking_$args", $true)
                }
            }

            $null = Invoke-InMockScope -SessionState $mock.SessionState -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $CommandName
        }

        $scriptBlock = { $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Set("Function:\script:$($args[0])", $args[1], $true, $true) }
        $null = Invoke-InMockScope -SessionState $mock.SessionState -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $CommandName, $mockScript
    }

    $mock.Blocks = @(
        $mock.Blocks | Where-Object { $_.Filter.ToString() -eq '$True' }
        if ($block.Filter.ToString() -eq '$True') { $block }

        $mock.Blocks | Where-Object { $_.Filter.ToString() -ne '$True' }
        if ($block.Filter.ToString() -ne '$True') { $block }
    )
}


function Assert-VerifiableMocks {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Checks if any Verifiable Mock has not been invoked. If so, this will throw an exception.

.DESCRIPTION
This can be used in tandem with the -Verifiable switch of the Mock
function. Mock can be used to mock the behavior of an existing command
and optionally take a -Verifiable switch. When Assert-VerifiableMocks
is called, it checks to see if any Mock marked Verifiable has not been
invoked. If any mocks have been found that specified -Verifiable and
have not been invoked, an exception will be thrown.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Set-Content {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {$Path -eq "some_path" -and $Value -eq "Expected Value"}

{ ...some code that never calls Set-Content some_path -Value "Expected Value"... }

Assert-VerifiableMocks

This will throw an exception and cause the test to fail.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Set-Content {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {$Path -eq "some_path" -and $Value -eq "Expected Value"}

Set-Content some_path -Value "Expected Value"

Assert-VerifiableMocks

This will not throw an exception because the mock was invoked.

#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Assert-VerifiableMocks

    [email protected]{}
    $mockTable.Keys | % {
        $m=$_; $mockTable[$m].blocks | ? { $_.Verifiable } | % { $unVerified[$m]=$_ }
    }
    if($unVerified.Count -gt 0) {
        foreach($mock in $unVerified.Keys){
            $array = $mock -split '\|\|'
            $function = $array[1]
            $module = $array[0]

            $message = "`r`n Expected $function "
            if ($module) { $message += "in module $module " }
            $message += "to be called with $($unVerified[$mock].Filter)"
        }
        throw $message
    }
}

function Assert-MockCalled {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Checks if a Mocked command has been called a certain number of times
and throws an exception if it has not.

.DESCRIPTION
This command verifies that a mocked command has been called a certain number
of times.  If the call history of the mocked command does not match the parameters
passed to Assert-MockCalled, Assert-MockCalled will throw an exception.

.PARAMETER CommandName
The mocked command whose call history should be checked.

.PARAMETER ModuleName
The module where the mock being checked was injected.  This is optional,
and must match the ModuleName that was used when setting up the Mock.

.PARAMETER Times
The number of times that the mock must be called to avoid an exception
from throwing.

.PARAMETER Exactly
If this switch is present, the number specified in Times must match
exactly the number of times the mock has been called. Otherwise it
must match "at least" the number of times specified.  If the value
passed to the Times parameter is zero, the Exactly switch is implied.

.PARAMETER ParameterFilter
An optional filter to qualify wich calls should be counted. Only those
calls to the mock whose parameters cause this filter to return true
will be counted.

.PARAMETER Scope
An optional parameter specifying the Pester scope in which to check for
calls to the mocked command.  By default, Assert-MockCalled will find
all calls to the mocked command in the current Context block (if present),
or the current Describe block (if there is no active Context.)  Valid
values are Describe, Context and It. If you use a scope of Describe or
Context, the command will identify all calls to the mocked command in the
current Describe / Context block, as well as all child scopes of that block.

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content {}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content

This will throw an exception and cause the test to fail if Set-Content is not called in Some Code.

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content -parameterFilter {$path.StartsWith("$env:temp\")}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content 2 { $path -eq "$env:temp\test.txt" }

This will throw an exception if some code calls Set-Content on $path=$env:temp\test.txt less than 2 times

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content {}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content 0

This will throw an exception if some code calls Set-Content at all

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content {}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content -Exactly 2

This will throw an exception if some code does not call Set-Content Exactly two times.

.EXAMPLE
Describe 'Assert-MockCalled Scope behavior' {
    Mock Set-Content { }

    It 'Calls Set-Content at least once in the It block' {
        {... Some Code ...}

        Assert-MockCalled Set-Content -Exactly 0 -Scope It
    }
}

Checks for calls only within the current It block.

.EXAMPLE
Describe 'Describe' {
    Mock -ModuleName SomeModule Set-Content { }

    {... Some Code ...}

    It 'Calls Set-Content at least once in the Describe block' {
        Assert-MockCalled -ModuleName SomeModule Set-Content
    }
}

Checks for calls to the mock within the SomeModule module.  Note that both the Mock
and Assert-MockCalled commands use the same module name.

.NOTES
The parameter filter passed to Assert-MockCalled does not necessarily have to match the parameter filter
(if any) which was used to create the Mock.  Assert-MockCalled will find any entry in the command history
which matches its parameter filter, regardless of how the Mock was created.  However, if any calls to the
mocked command are made which did not match any mock's parameter filter (resulting in the original command
being executed instead of a mock), these calls to the original command are not tracked in the call history.
In other words, Assert-MockCalled can only be used to check for calls to the mocked implementation, not
to the original.

#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param(
    [string]$CommandName,
    [switch]$Exactly,
    [int]$Times=1,
    [ScriptBlock]$ParameterFilter = {$True},
    [string] $ModuleName,

    [ValidateSet('Describe','Context','It')]
    [string] $Scope
)

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Assert-MockCalled

    if (-not $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('ModuleName') -and $null -ne $pester.SessionState.Module)
    {
        $ModuleName = $pester.SessionState.Module.Name
    }

    $mock = $script:mockTable["$ModuleName||$commandName"]

    $moduleMessage = ''
    if ($ModuleName)
    {
        $moduleMessage = " in module $ModuleName"
    }

    if (-not $mock)
    {
        throw "You did not declare a mock of the $commandName Command${moduleMessage}."
    }

    if (-not $Scope)
    {
        if ($pester.CurrentContext)
        {
            $Scope = 'Context'
        }
        else
        {
            $Scope = 'Describe'
        }
    }

    $qualifiedCalls = @(
        $mock.CallHistory |
        Where-Object {
            $params = @{
                ScriptBlock     = $ParameterFilter
                BoundParameters = $_.BoundParams
                ArgumentList    = $_.Args
                Metadata        = $mock.Metadata
            }

            (Test-MockCallScope -CallScope $_.Scope -DesiredScope $Scope) -and (Test-ParameterFilter @params)
        }
    )

    if($qualifiedCalls.Length -ne $times -and ($Exactly -or ($times -eq 0))) {
        throw "Expected ${commandName}${$moduleMessage} to be called $times times exactly but was called $($qualifiedCalls.Length.ToString()) times"
    } elseif($qualifiedCalls.Length -lt $times) {
        throw "Expected ${commandName}${moduleMessage} to be called at least $times times but was called $($qualifiedCalls.Length) times"
    }
}

function Test-MockCallScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [string] $CallScope,
        [string] $DesiredScope
    )

    # It would probably be cleaner to replace all of these scope strings with an enumerated type at some point.
    $scopes = 'Describe', 'Context', 'It'

    return ([array]::IndexOf($scopes, $CallScope) -ge [array]::IndexOf($scopes, $DesiredScope))
}

function Exit-MockScope {
    if ($null -eq $mockTable) { return }

    $currentScope = $pester.Scope
    $parentScope = $pester.ParentScope

    $scriptBlock =
    {
        param ([string] $CommandName)

        $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Remove("Function:\$CommandName", $false, $true, $true)
        if ($ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Exists("Function:\PesterIsMocking_$CommandName", $true, $true))
        {
            $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Rename("Function:\PesterIsMocking_$CommandName", "script:$CommandName", $true)
        }
    }

    $mockKeys = [string[]]$mockTable.Keys

    foreach ($mockKey in $mockKeys)
    {
        $mock = $mockTable[$mockKey]
        $mock.Blocks = @($mock.Blocks | Where {$_.Scope -ne $currentScope})

        if ($null -eq $parentScope)
        {
            $null = Invoke-InMockScope -SessionState $mock.SessionState -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $mock.CommandName
            $mockTable.Remove($mockKey)
        }
        else
        {
            foreach ($historyEntry in $mock.CallHistory)
            {
                if ($historyEntry.Scope -eq $currentScope) { $historyEntry.Scope = $parentScope }
            }
        }
    }
}

function Validate-Command([string]$CommandName, [string]$ModuleName) {
    $module = $null
    $origCommand = $null

    $scriptBlock = { $ExecutionContext.InvokeCommand.GetCommand($args[0], 'All') }

    if ($ModuleName) {
        $module = Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\Get-Module $ModuleName -All |
                  Sort ModuleType |
                  Where { ($origCommand = & $_ $scriptBlock $commandName) } |
                  Select -First 1
    }

    $session = $pester.SessionState

    if (-not $origCommand) {
        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -SessionState $session
        $origCommand = & $scriptBlock $commandName
    }

    if ($origCommand -and $origCommand.CommandType -eq [System.Management.Automation.CommandTypes]::Alias) {
        $origCommand = $origCommand.ResolvedCommand
    }

    if (-not $origCommand) {
        throw ([System.Management.Automation.CommandNotFoundException] "Could not find Command $commandName")
    }

    if ($module) {
        $session = & @($module)[0] { $ExecutionContext.SessionState }
    }

    @{Command = $origCommand; Session = $session}
}

function MockPrototype {
    $functionName = $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Name

    $moduleName = ''
    if ($ExecutionContext.SessionState.Module)
    {
        $moduleName = $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Module.Name
    }

    $ArgumentList = Get-Variable -Name args -ValueOnly -Scope Local -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
    if ($null -eq $ArgumentList) { $ArgumentList = @() }

    Invoke-Mock -CommandName $functionName -ModuleName $moduleName -BoundParameters $PSBoundParameters -ArgumentList $ArgumentList
}

function Invoke-Mock {
    <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        This command is used by Pester's Mocking framework.  You do not need to call it directly.
    #>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $CommandName,

        [string]
        $ModuleName,

        [hashtable]
        $BoundParameters = @{},

        [object[]]
        $ArgumentList = @()
    )

    if ($mock = $mockTable["$ModuleName||$CommandName"])
    {
        for ($idx = $mock.Blocks.Length; $idx -gt 0; $idx--)
        {
            $block = $mock.Blocks[$idx - 1]

            $params = @{
                ScriptBlock     = $block.Filter
                BoundParameters = $BoundParameters
                ArgumentList    = $ArgumentList
                Metadata        = $mock.Metadata
            }

            if (Test-ParameterFilter @params)
            {
                $block.Verifiable = $false
                $mock.CallHistory += @{CommandName = "$ModuleName||$CommandName"; BoundParams = $BoundParameters; Args = $ArgumentList; Scope = $pester.Scope }

                $scriptBlock = {
                    param (
                        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
                        [scriptblock]
                        $ScriptBlock,

                        [hashtable]
                        $BoundParameters = @{},

                        [object[]]
                        $ArgumentList = @(),

                        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata]
                        $Metadata
                    )

                    # This script block exists to hold variables without polluting the test script's current scope.
                    # Dynamic parameters in functions, for some reason, only exist in $PSBoundParameters instead
                    # of being assigned a local variable the way static parameters do.  By calling Set-DynamicParameterValues,
                    # we create these variables for the caller's use in a Parameter Filter or within the mock itself, and
                    # by doing it inside this temporary script block, those variables don't stick around longer than they
                    # should.

                    # Because Set-DynamicParameterVariables might potentially overwrite our $ScriptBlock, $BoundParameters and/or $ArgumentList variables,
                    # we'll stash them in names unlikely to be overwritten.

                    $___ScriptBlock___ = $ScriptBlock
                    $___BoundParameters___ = $BoundParameters
                    $___ArgumentList___ = $ArgumentList

                    Set-DynamicParameterVariables -SessionState $ExecutionContext.SessionState -Parameters $BoundParameters -Metadata $Metadata
                    & $___ScriptBlock___ @___BoundParameters___ @___ArgumentList___
                }

                Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -SessionState $mock.SessionState
                & $scriptBlock -ScriptBlock $block.Mock -ArgumentList $ArgumentList -BoundParameters $BoundParameters -Metadata $mock.Metadata

                return
            }
        }

        & $mock.OriginalCommand @ArgumentList @BoundParameters
    }
    elseif ($mock = $mockTable["||$CommandName"])
    {
        # This situation can happen if the test script is dot-sourced in the global scope.  Under these conditions,
        # a module can wind up executing Invoke-Mock when that was not the intent of the test.  Try to recover from
        # this by executing the original command.

        & $mock.OriginalCommand @ArgumentList @BoundParameters
    }
    else
    {
        # If this ever happens, it's a bug in Pester.  The scriptBlock that calls Invoke-Mock should be removed at the same time as the entry in the mock table.
        throw "Internal error detected:  Mock for '$CommandName' in module '$ModuleName' was called, but does not exist in the mock table."
    }
}

function Invoke-InMockScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]
        $SessionState,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock,

        [Parameter(ValueFromRemainingArguments = $true)]
        [object[]]
        $ArgumentList = @()
    )

    if ($SessionState.Module)
    {
        $SessionState.Module.Invoke($ScriptBlock, $ArgumentList)
    }
    else
    {
        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock -SessionState $SessionState
        & $ScriptBlock @ArgumentList
    }
}

function Test-ParameterFilter
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock,

        [System.Collections.IDictionary]
        $BoundParameters,

        [object[]]
        $ArgumentList,

        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata]
        $Metadata
    )

    if ($null -eq $BoundParameters)   { $BoundParameters = @{} }
    if ($null -eq $ArgumentList)      { $ArgumentList = @() }

    $paramBlock = Get-ParamBlockFromBoundParameters -BoundParameters $BoundParameters -Metadata $Metadata

    $scriptBlockString = "
        $paramBlock

        Set-StrictMode -Off
        $ScriptBlock
    "

    $cmd = [scriptblock]::Create($scriptBlockString)
    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $cmd -SessionState $pester.SessionState

    & $cmd @BoundParameters @ArgumentList
}

function Get-ParamBlockFromBoundParameters
{
    param (
        [System.Collections.IDictionary] $BoundParameters,
        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata] $Metadata
    )

    $params = foreach ($paramName in $BoundParameters.Keys)
    {
        if (IsCommonParameter -Name $paramName -Metadata $Metadata)
        {
            continue
        }

        "`${$paramName}"
    }

    $params = $params -join ','

    if ($null -ne $Metadata)
    {
        $cmdletBinding = [System.Management.Automation.ProxyCommand]::GetCmdletBindingAttribute($Metadata)
    }
    else
    {
        $cmdletBinding = ''
    }

    return "$cmdletBinding param ($params)"
}

function IsCommonParameter
{
    param (
        [string] $Name,
        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata] $Metadata
    )

    if ($null -ne $Metadata)
    {
        if ([System.Management.Automation.Internal.CommonParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
        if ($Metadata.SupportsShouldProcess -and [System.Management.Automation.Internal.ShouldProcessParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
        if ($Metadata.SupportsPaging -and [System.Management.Automation.PagingParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
        if ($Metadata.SupportsTransactions -and [System.Management.Automation.Internal.TransactionParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
    }

    return $false
}

function Get-ScopeForMock
{
    param ($PesterState)

    $scope = $PesterState.Scope
    if ($scope -eq 'It') { $scope = $PesterState.ParentScope }

    return $scope
}

function Set-DynamicParameterVariables
{
    <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        This command is used by Pester's Mocking framework.  You do not need to call it directly.
    #>

    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]
        $SessionState,

        [hashtable]
        $Parameters,

        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata]
        $Metadata
    )

    if ($null -eq $Parameters) { $Parameters = @{} }

    foreach ($keyValuePair in $Parameters.GetEnumerator())
    {
        $variableName = $keyValuePair.Key

        if (-not (IsCommonParameter -Name $variableName -Metadata $Metadata))
        {
            if ($ExecutionContext.SessionState -eq $SessionState)
            {
                Set-Variable -Scope 1 -Name $variableName -Value $keyValuePair.Value -Force -Confirm:$false -WhatIf:$false
            }
            else
            {
                $SessionState.PSVariable.Set($variableName, $keyValuePair.Value)
            }
        }
    }
}

function Get-DynamicParamBlock
{
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -le 2)
    {
        $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance, NonPublic'
        $dynamicParams = [scriptblock].GetField('_dynamicParams', $flags).GetValue($ScriptBlock)

        if ($null -ne $dynamicParams)
        {
            return $dynamicParams.ToString()

        }
    }
    else
    {
        if ($null -ne $ScriptBlock.Ast.Body.DynamicParamBlock)
        {
            $statements = $ScriptBlock.Ast.Body.DynamicParamBlock.Statements |
                          Select-Object -ExpandProperty Extent |
                          Select-Object -ExpandProperty Text

            return $statements -join "`r`n"
        }
    }
}

function Get-MockDynamicParameters
{
    <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        This command is used by Pester's Mocking framework.  You do not need to call it directly.
    #>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'Cmdlet')]
        [string] $CmdletName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'Function')]
        [string] $FunctionName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Function')]
        [string] $ModuleName,

        [hashtable] $Parameters
    )

    switch ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName)
    {
        'Cmdlet'
        {
            Get-DynamicParametersForCmdlet -CmdletName $CmdletName -Parameters $Parameters
        }

        'Function'
        {
            Get-DynamicParametersForMockedFunction -FunctionName $FunctionName -ModuleName $ModuleName -Parameters $Parameters
        }
    }
}

function Get-DynamicParametersForCmdlet
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string] $CmdletName,

        [System.Collections.IDictionary] $Parameters
    )

    if ($null -eq $Parameters) { $Parameters = @{} }

    try
    {
        $command = Get-Command -Name $CmdletName -CommandType Cmdlet -ErrorAction Stop

        if (@($command).Count -gt 1)
        {
            throw "Name '$CmdletName' resolved to multiple Cmdlets"
        }
    }
    catch
    {
        $PSCmdlet.ThrowTerminatingError($_)
    }

    $cmdlet = New-Object $command.ImplementingType.FullName
    if ($cmdlet -isnot [System.Management.Automation.IDynamicParameters])
    {
        return
    }

    $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance, Nonpublic'
    $context = $ExecutionContext.GetType().GetField('_context', $flags).GetValue($ExecutionContext)
    [System.Management.Automation.Cmdlet].GetProperty('Context', $flags).SetValue($cmdlet, $context, $null)

    foreach ($keyValuePair in $Parameters.GetEnumerator())
    {
        $property = $cmdlet.GetType().GetProperty($keyValuePair.Key)
        if ($null -eq $property -or -not $property.CanWrite) { continue }

        $isParameter = [bool]($property.GetCustomAttributes([System.Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute], $true))
        if (-not $isParameter) { continue }

        $property.SetValue($cmdlet, $keyValuePair.Value, $null)
    }

    $cmdlet.GetDynamicParameters()
}

function Get-DynamicParametersForMockedFunction
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $FunctionName,

        [string]
        $ModuleName,

        [System.Collections.IDictionary]
        $Parameters
    )

    $mock = $mockTable["$ModuleName||$FunctionName"]

    if (-not $mock)
    {
        throw "Internal error detected:  Mock for '$FunctionName' in module '$ModuleName' was called, but does not exist in the mock table."
    }

    if ($mock.DynamicParamScriptBlock)
    {
        return & $mock.DynamicParamScriptBlock @Parameters
    }
}
tools\Functions\Mock.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

function FunctionUnderTest
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)]
        [string]
        $param1
    )

    return "I am a real world test"
}

function FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams([string]$param1) {
    return "I am a real world test with no params"
}

filter FilterUnderTest { $_ }

function CommonParamFunction (
    [string] ${Uncommon},
    [switch]
    ${Verbose},
    [switch]
    ${Debug},
    [System.Management.Automation.ActionPreference]
    ${ErrorAction},
    [System.Management.Automation.ActionPreference]
    ${WarningAction},
    [System.String]
    ${ErrorVariable},
    [System.String]
    ${WarningVariable},
    [System.String]
    ${OutVariable},
    [System.Int32]
    ${OutBuffer} ){
    return "Please strip me of my common parameters. They are far too common."
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest { return "I am the mock test that was passed $param1"}

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "boundArg"

    It "Should rename function under test" {
        $renamed = (Test-Path function:PesterIsMocking_FunctionUnderTest)
        $renamed | Should Be $true
    }

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the mock test that was passed boundArg"
    }
}

Describe "When the caller mocks a command Pester uses internally" {
    Mock Write-Host { }

    Context "Context run when Write-Host is mocked" {
        It "does not make extra calls to the mocked command" {
            Write-Host 'Some String'
            Assert-MockCalled 'Write-Host' -Exactly 1
        }

        It "retains the correct mock count after the first test completes" {
            Assert-MockCalled 'Write-Host' -Exactly 1
        }
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing cmdlet" {
    Mock Get-Process {return "I am not Get-Process"}

    $result=Get-Process

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "I am not Get-Process"
    }

    It 'Should not resolve $args to the parent scope' {
        { $args = 'From', 'Parent', 'Scope'; Get-Process SomeName } | Should Not Throw
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on an alias' {
    Mock dir {return 'I am not dir'}

    $result = dir

    It 'Should Invoke the mocked script' {
        $result | Should Be 'I am not dir'
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on a filter' {
    Mock FilterUnderTest {return 'I am not FilterUnderTest'}

    $result = 'Yes I am' | FilterUnderTest

    It 'Should Invoke the mocked script' {
        $result | Should Be 'I am not FilterUnderTest'
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on an external script' {
    $ps1File = New-Item 'TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1' -ItemType File -Force
    $ps1File | Set-Content -Value "'I am tempExternalScript.ps1'"

    Mock 'TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1' {return 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'}

    <#
        # Invoking the script using its absolute path is not supported

        $result = TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the absolute-path-qualified mocked script using just the script name' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = & TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the absolute-path-qualified mocked script using the command-invocation operator (&)' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = . TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the absolute-path-qualified mocked script using dot source notation' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }
    #>

    Push-Location TestDrive:\

    try
    {
        $result = tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the mocked script using just the script name' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = & tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the mocked script using the command-invocation operator' {
            #the command invocation operator is (&). Moved this to comment because it breaks the contionuous builds.
            #there is issue for this on GH

            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = . tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the mocked script using dot source notation' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        <#
            # Invoking the script using only its relative path is not supported

            $result = .\tempExternalScript.ps1
            It 'Should Invoke the relative-path-qualified mocked script' {
                $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
            }
        #>

    }
    finally
    {
        Pop-Location
    }

    Remove-Item $ps1File -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on an application command' {
    Mock schtasks.exe {return 'I am not schtasks.exe'}

    $result = schtasks.exe

    It 'Should Invoke the mocked script' {
        $result | Should Be 'I am not schtasks.exe'
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock in the Describe block" {
    Mock Out-File {return "I am not Out-File"}

    It "Should mock Out-File successfully" {
        $outfile = "test" | Out-File "TestDrive:\testfile.txt"
        $outfile | Should Be "I am not Out-File"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing cmdlet to handle pipelined input" {
    Mock Get-ChildItem {
        if($_ -eq 'a'){
            return "AA"
        }
        if($_ -eq 'b'){
            return "BB"
        }
    }

    $result = ''
    "a", "b" | Get-ChildItem | % { $result += $_ }

    It "Should process the pipeline in the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "AABB"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing cmdlet with Common params" {
    Mock CommonParamFunction

    $result=[string](Get-Content function:\CommonParamFunction)

    It "Should strip verbose" {
        $result.contains("`${Verbose}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip Debug" {
        $result.contains("`${Debug}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip ErrorAction" {
        $result.contains("`${ErrorAction}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip WarningAction" {
        $result.contains("`${WarningAction}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip ErrorVariable" {
        $result.contains("`${ErrorVariable}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip WarningVariable" {
        $result.contains("`${WarningVariable}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip OutVariable" {
        $result.contains("`${OutVariable}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip OutBuffer" {
        $result.contains("`${OutBuffer}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should not strip an Uncommon param" {
        $result.contains("`${Uncommon}") | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on non-existing function" {
    try{
        Mock NotFunctionUnderTest {return}
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw correct error" {
        $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "Could not find command NotFunctionUnderTest"
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock, StrictMode is enabled, and variables are used in the ParameterFilter' {
    Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

    $result = $null
    $testValue = 'test'

    try
    {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest { 'I am the mock' } -ParameterFilter { $param1 -eq $testValue }
    }
    catch
    {
        $result = $_
    }

    It 'Does not throw an error when testing the parameter filter' {
        $result | Should Be $null
    }

    It 'Calls the mock properly' {
        FunctionUnderTest $testValue | Should Be 'I am the mock'
    }

    It 'Properly asserts the mock was called when there is a variable in the parameter filter' {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest -Exactly 1 -ParameterFilter { $param1 -eq $testValue }
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function without matching bound params" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "test"}

    $result=FunctionUnderTest "badTest"

    It "Should redirect to real function" {
        $result | Should Be "I am a real world test"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function with matching bound params" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "badTest"}

    $result=FunctionUnderTest "badTest"

    It "Should return mocked result" {
        $result | Should Be "fake results"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function without matching unbound arguments" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "test" -and $args[0] -eq 'notArg0'}

    $result=FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams -param1 "test" "arg0"

    It "Should redirect to real function" {
        $result | Should Be "I am a real world test with no params"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function with matching unbound arguments" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "badTest" -and $args[0] -eq 'arg0'}

    $result=FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams "badTest" "arg0"

    It "Should return mocked result" {
        $result | Should Be "fake results"
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on a function that has no parameters' {
    function Test-Function { }
    Mock Test-Function { return $args.Count }

    It 'Sends the $args variable properly with 2+ elements' {
        Test-Function 1 2 3 4 5 | Should Be 5
    }

    It 'Sends the $args variable properly with 1 element' {
        Test-Function 1 | Should Be 1
    }

    It 'Sends the $args variable properly with 0 elements' {
        Test-Function | Should Be 0
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on cmdlet Used by Mock" {
    Mock Set-Item {return "I am not Set-Item"}
    Mock Set-Item {return "I am not Set-Item"}

    $result = Set-Item "mypath" -value "value"

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "I am not Set-Item"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on More than one command" {
    Mock Invoke-Command {return "I am not Invoke-Command"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the mock test"}

    $result = Invoke-Command {return "yes I am"}
    $result2 = FunctionUnderTest

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the first Mock" {
        $result | Should Be "I am not Invoke-Command"
    }
    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the second Mock" {
        $result2 | Should Be "I am the mock test"
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on a module-internal function.' {
    New-Module -Name TestModule {
        function InternalFunction { 'I am the internal function' }
        function PublicFunction   { InternalFunction }
        function PublicFunctionThatCallsExternalCommand { Start-Sleep 0 }
        Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction, PublicFunctionThatCallsExternalCommand
    } | Import-Module -Force

    New-Module -Name TestModule2 {
        function InternalFunction { 'I am the second module internal function' }
        function InternalFunction2 { 'I am the second module, second function' }
        function PublicFunction   { InternalFunction }
        function PublicFunction2 { InternalFunction2 }
        Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction, PublicFunction2
    } | Import-Module -Force

    It 'Should fail to call the internal module function' {
        { TestModule\InternalFuncTion } | Should Throw
    }

    It 'Should call the actual internal module function from the public function' {
        TestModule\PublicFunction | Should Be 'I am the internal function'
    }

    Context 'Using Mock -ModuleName "ModuleName" "CommandName" syntax' {
        Mock -ModuleName TestModule InternalFunction { 'I am the mock test' }

        It 'Should call the mocked function' {
            TestModule\PublicFunction | Should Be 'I am the mock test'
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule Start-Sleep { }

        It 'Should mock calls to external functions from inside the module' {
            PublicFunctionThatCallsExternalCommand

            Assert-MockCalled -ModuleName TestModule Start-Sleep -Exactly 1
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule2 InternalFunction -ParameterFilter { $args[0] -eq 'Test' } {
            "I'm the mock who's been passed parameter Test"
        }

        It 'Should only call mocks within the same module' {
            TestModule2\PublicFunction | Should Be 'I am the second module internal function'
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule2 InternalFunction2 {
            InternalFunction 'Test'
        }

        It 'Should call mocks from inside another mock' {
            TestModule2\PublicFunction2 | Should Be "I'm the mock who's been passed parameter Test"
        }
    }

    Remove-Module TestModule -Force
    Remove-Module TestModule2 -Force
}

Describe "When Applying multiple Mocks on a single command" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the Second mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "two"}

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "one"
    $result2= FunctionUnderTest "two"

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the first Mock" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the first mock test"
    }
    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the second Mock" {
        $result2 | Should Be "I am the Second mock test"
    }
}

Describe "When Applying multiple Mocks with filters on a single command where both qualify" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1.Length -gt 0 }
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the Second mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -gt 1 }

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "one"

    It "The last Mock should win" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the Second mock test"
    }
}

Describe "When Applying multiple Mocks on a single command where one has no filter" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the paramless mock test"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the Second mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "two"}

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "one"
    $result2= FunctionUnderTest "three"

    It "The parameterless mock is evaluated last" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the first mock test"
    }

    It "The parameterless mock will be applied if no other wins" {
        $result2 | Should Be "I am the paramless mock test"
    }
}

Describe "When Creating a Verifiable Mock that is not called" {
    Context "In the test script's scope" {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am a verifiable test"} -Verifiable -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
        FunctionUnderTest "three" | Out-Null

        try {
            Assert-VerifiableMocks
        } Catch {
            $result=$_
        }

        It "Should throw" {
            $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "`r`n Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called with `$param1 -eq `"one`""
        }
    }

    Context "In a module's scope" {
        New-Module -Name TestModule -ScriptBlock {
            function ModuleFunctionUnderTest { return 'I am the function under test in a module' }
        } | Import-Module -Force

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule ModuleFunctionUnderTest {return "I am a verifiable test"} -Verifiable -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
        TestModule\ModuleFunctionUnderTest "three" | Out-Null

        try {
            Assert-VerifiableMocks
        } Catch {
            $result=$_
        }

        It "Should throw" {
            $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "`r`n Expected ModuleFunctionUnderTest in module TestModule to be called with `$param1 -eq `"one`""
        }

        Remove-Module TestModule -Force
    }
}

Describe "When Creating a Verifiable Mock that is called" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest -Verifiable -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"
    It "Assert-VerifiableMocks Should not throw" {
        { Assert-VerifiableMocks } | Should Not Throw
    }
}

Describe "When Creating a Verifiable Mock with a filter that does not return a boolean" {
    $result=""

    try{
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am a verifiable test"} -parameterFilter {"one"}
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw" {
        $result | Should Be "The Parameter Filter must return a boolean"
    }
}

Describe "When Calling Assert-MockCalled 0 without exactly" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"

    try {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 0
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw if mock was called" {
        $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called 0 times exactly but was called 1 times"
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was not called" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 0 { $param1 -eq "stupid" }
    }
}

Describe "When Calling Assert-MockCalled with exactly" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"
    FunctionUnderTest "one"

    try {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest -exactly 3
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw if mock was not called the number of times specified" {
        $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called 3 times exactly but was called 2 times"
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was called the number of times specified" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest -exactly 2 { $param1 -eq "one" }
    }
}

Describe "When Calling Assert-MockCalled without exactly" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"
    FunctionUnderTest "one"

    try {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 3
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw if mock was not called atleast the number of times specified" {
        $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called at least 3 times but was called 2 times"
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was called at least the number of times specified" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was called at exactly the number of times specified" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 2 { $param1 -eq "one" }
    }
}

Describe "Using Pester Scopes (Describe,Context,It)" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the paramless mock test"}

    Context "When in the first context" {
        It "should mock Describe scoped paramles mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }
        It "should mock Describe scoped single param mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the first mock test"
        }
    }

    Context "When in the second context" {
        It "should mock Describe scoped paramles mock again" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }
        It "should mock Describe scoped single param mock again" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the first mock test"
        }
    }

    Context "When using mocks in both scopes" {
        Mock FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams {return "I am the other function"}

        It "should mock Describe scoped mock." {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }
        It "should mock Context scoped mock." {
            FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams | should be "I am the other function"
        }
    }

    Context "When context hides a describe mock" {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the context mock"}
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the parameterized context mock"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}

        It "should use the context paramles mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the context mock"
        }
        It "should use the context parameterized mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the parameterized context mock"
        }
    }

    Context "When context no longer hides a describe mock" {
        It "should use the describe mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }

        It "should use the describe parameterized mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the first mock test"
        }
    }

    Context 'When someone calls Mock from inside an It block' {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest { return 'I am the context mock' }

        It 'Sets the mock' {
            Mock FunctionUnderTest { return 'I am the It mock' }
        }

        It 'Leaves the mock active in the parent scope' {
            FunctionUnderTest | Should Be 'I am the It mock'
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Testing mock history behavior from each scope' {
    function MockHistoryChecker { }
    Mock MockHistoryChecker { 'I am the describe mock.' }

    Context 'Without overriding the mock in lower scopes' {
        It "Reports that zero calls have been made to in the describe scope" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 0 -Scope Describe
        }

        It 'Calls the describe mock' {
            MockHistoryChecker | Should Be 'I am the describe mock.'
        }

        It "Reports that zero calls have been made in an It block, after a context-scoped call" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 0 -Scope It
        }

        It "Reports one Context-scoped call" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1
        }

        It "Reports one Describe-scoped call" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1 -Scope Describe
        }
    }

    Context 'After exiting the previous context' {
        It 'Reports zero context-scoped calls in the new context.' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 0
        }

        It 'Reports one describe-scoped call from the previous context' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1 -Scope Describe
        }
    }

    Context 'While overriding mocks in lower scopes' {
        Mock MockHistoryChecker { 'I am the context mock.' }

        It 'Calls the context mock' {
            MockHistoryChecker | Should Be 'I am the context mock.'
        }

        It 'Reports one context-scoped call' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1
        }

        It 'Reports two describe-scoped calls, even when one is an override mock in a lower scope' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 2 -Scope Describe
        }

        It 'Calls an It-scoped mock' {
            Mock MockHistoryChecker { 'I am the It mock.' }
            MockHistoryChecker | Should Be 'I am the It mock.'
        }

        It 'Reports 2 context-scoped calls' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 2
        }

        It 'Reports 3 describe-scoped calls' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 3 -Scope Describe
        }
    }

    It 'Reports 3 describe-scoped calls using the default scope in a Describe block' {
        Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 3
    }
}

Describe "Using a single no param Describe" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the describe mock test"}

    Context "With a context mocking the same function with no params"{
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the context mock test"}
        It "Should use the context mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the context mock test"
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Dot Source Test' {
    # This test is only meaningful if this test file is dot-sourced in the global scope.  If it's executed without
    # dot-sourcing or run by Invoke-Pester, there's no problem.

    function TestFunction { Test-Path -Path 'Test' }
    Mock Test-Path { }

    $null = TestFunction

    It "Calls the mock with parameter 'Test'" {
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Path -Exactly 1 -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq 'Test' }
    }

    It "Doesn't call the mock with any other parameters" {
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Path -Exactly 0 -ParameterFilter { $Path -ne 'Test' }
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking Cmdlets with dynamic parameters' {
    $mockWith = { if (-not $CodeSigningCert) { throw 'CodeSigningCert variable not found, or set to false!' } }
    Mock Get-ChildItem -MockWith $mockWith -ParameterFilter { [bool]$CodeSigningCert }

    It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
        { Get-ChildItem -Path Cert:\ -CodeSigningCert } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Get-ChildItem
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking functions with dynamic parameters' {

    # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
    # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

    function Get-Greeting {
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param (
            $Name
        )

        DynamicParam {
            if ($Name -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                $ParamDictionary
            }
        }

        end
        {
            if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                    $Name,
                    '\b\w',
                    { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                )
            }

            "Welcome $Name!"
        }
    }

    $mockWith = { if (-not $Capitalize) { throw 'Capitalize variable not found, or set to false!' } }
    Mock Get-Greeting -MockWith $mockWith -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }

    It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
        { Get-Greeting -Name lowercase -Capitalize } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Get-Greeting
    }

    Context 'When a variable with the same name as a dynamic parameter exists in a parent scope' {
        $Capitalize = $false

        It 'Still sets the parameter variable properly in the parameter filter and mock body' {
            { Get-Greeting -Name lowercase -Capitalize } | Should Not Throw
            Assert-MockCalled Get-Greeting -Scope It
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking Cmdlets with dynamic parameters in a module' {
    New-Module -Name TestModule {
        function PublicFunction   { Get-ChildItem -Path Cert:\ -CodeSigningCert }
    } | Import-Module -Force

    $mockWith = { if (-not $CodeSigningCert) { throw 'CodeSigningCert variable not found, or set to false!' } }
    Mock Get-ChildItem -MockWith $mockWith -ModuleName TestModule -ParameterFilter { [bool]$CodeSigningCert }

    It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
        { TestModule\PublicFunction } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Get-ChildItem -ModuleName TestModule
    }

    Remove-Module TestModule -Force
}

Describe 'Mocking functions with dynamic parameters in a module' {
    New-Module -Name TestModule {
        function PublicFunction { Get-Greeting -Name lowercase -Capitalize }

        $script:DoDynamicParam = $true

        # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
        # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

        function Get-Greeting {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                $Name
            )

            DynamicParam {
                # This check is here to make sure the mocked version can still work if the
                # original function's dynamicparam block relied on script-scope variables.
                if (-not $script:DoDynamicParam) { return }

                if ($Name -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                    $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                    $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                    $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                    $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                    $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                    $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                    $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                    $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                    $ParamDictionary
                }
            }

            end
            {
                if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                    $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                        $Name,
                        '\b\w',
                        { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                    )
                }

                "Welcome $Name!"
            }
        }
    } | Import-Module -Force

    $mockWith = { if (-not $Capitalize) { throw 'Capitalize variable not found, or set to false!' } }
    Mock Get-Greeting -MockWith $mockWith -ModuleName TestModule -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }

    It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
        { TestModule\PublicFunction } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Get-Greeting -ModuleName TestModule
    }

    Remove-Module TestModule -Force
}

Describe 'DynamicParam blocks in other scopes' {
    New-Module -Name TestModule1 {
        $script:DoDynamicParam = $true

        function DynamicParamFunction {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param ( )

            DynamicParam {
                if ($script:DoDynamicParam)
                {
                    Get-MockDynamicParameters -CmdletName Get-ChildItem -Parameters @{ Path = [string[]]'Cert:\' }
                }
            }

            end
            {
                'I am the original function'
            }
        }
    } | Import-Module -Force

    New-Module -Name TestModule2 {
        function CallingFunction
        {
            DynamicParamFunction -CodeSigningCert
        }

        function CallingFunction2 {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [ValidateScript({ [bool](DynamicParamFunction -CodeSigningCert) })]
                [string]
                $Whatever
            )
        }
    } | Import-Module -Force

    Mock DynamicParamFunction { if ($CodeSigningCert) { 'I am the mocked function' } } -ModuleName TestModule2

    It 'Properly evaluates dynamic parameters when called from another scope' {
        CallingFunction | Should Be 'I am the mocked function'
    }

    It 'Properly evaluates dynamic parameters when called from another scope when the call is from a ValidateScript block' {
        CallingFunction2 -Whatever 'Whatever'
    }

    Remove-Module TestModule1 -Force
    Remove-Module TestModule2 -Force
}

Describe 'Parameter Filters and Common Parameters' {
    function Test-Function { [CmdletBinding()] param ( ) }

    Mock Test-Function { } -ParameterFilter { $VerbosePreference -eq 'Continue' }

    It 'Applies common parameters correctly when testing the parameter filter' {
        { Test-Function -Verbose } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Function
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Function -ParameterFilter { $VerbosePreference -eq 'Continue' }
    }
}
tools\Functions\New-Fixture.ps1
function New-Fixture {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    This function generates two scripts, one that defines a function
    and another one that contains its tests.

    .DESCRIPTION
    This function generates two scripts, one that defines a function
    and another one that contains its tests. The files are by default
    placed in the current directory and are called and populated as such:


    The script defining the funciton: .\Clean.ps1:

    function Clean {

    }

    The script containg the example test .\Clean.Tests.ps1:

    $here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
    $sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path).Replace(".Tests.", ".")
    . "$here\$sut"

    Describe "Clean" {

        It "does something useful" {
            $false | Should Be $true
        }
    }


    .PARAMETER Name
    Defines the name of the function and the name of the test to be created.

    .PARAMETER Path
    Defines path where the test and the function should be created, you can use full or relative path.
    If the parameter is not specified the scripts are created in the current directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-Fixture -Name Clean

    Creates the scripts in the current directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-Fixture C:\Projects\Cleaner Clean

    Creates the scripts in the C:\Projects\Cleaner directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-Fixture Cleaner Clean

    Creates a new folder named Cleaner in the current directory and creates the scripts in it.

    .LINK
    Describe
    Context
    It
    about_Pester
    about_Should
    #>

    param (
        [String]$Path = $PWD,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [String]$Name
    )
    #region File contents
    #keep this formatted as is. the forma is output to the file as is, including indentation
    $scriptCode = "function $name {`r`n`r`n}"

    $testCode = '$here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
$sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path).Replace(".Tests.", ".")
. "$here\$sut"

Describe "#name#" {
    It "does something useful" {
        $true | Should Be $false
    }
}' -replace "#name#",$name

    #endregion

    $Path = $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Path.GetUnresolvedProviderPathFromPSPath($Path)

    Create-File -Path $Path -Name "$Name.ps1" -Content $scriptCode
    Create-File -Path $Path -Name "$Name.Tests.ps1" -Content $testCode
}

function Create-File ($Path,$Name,$Content) {
    if (-not (Test-Path -Path $Path)) {
        New-Item -ItemType Directory -Path $Path | Out-Null
    }

    $FullPath = Join-Path -Path $Path -ChildPath $Name
    if (-not (Test-Path -Path $FullPath)) {
        Set-Content -Path  $FullPath -Value $Content -Encoding UTF8
        Get-Item -Path $FullPath
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Warning "Skipping the file '$FullPath', because it already exists."
    }
}
tools\Functions\New-Fixture.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe "New-Fixture" {
    It "Name parameter is mandatory:" {
        (get-command New-Fixture ).Parameters.Name.ParameterSets.__AllParameterSets.IsMandatory | Should Be $true
    }

    Context "Only Name parameter is specified:" {
        It "Creates fixture in current directory:" {
            $name = "Test-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
    }

    Context "Name and Path parameter is specified:" {
        #use different fixture names to avoid interference among the test cases
        #claning up would be also possible, but difficult if the assertion fails
        It "Creates fixture in full Path:" {
            $name = "Test-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\full"

            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path $path | Out-Null

            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist

            #cleanup
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Remove-Item -Force
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Remove-Item -Force
        }

        It "Creates fixture in relative Path:" {
            $name = "Relative1-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path relative | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path "$path\relative" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path "$path\relative" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
        It "Creates fixture if Path is set to '.':" {
            $name = "Relative2-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path . | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
        It "Creates fixture if Path is set to '(pwd)':" {
            $name = "Relative3-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path (pwd) | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
        It "Writes warning if file exists" {
            $name = "Warning-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            Mock -Verifiable -ModuleName Pester Write-Warning { }

            #Create the same files twice
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path $path | Out-Null
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path $path -WarningVariable warnings -WarningAction SilentlyContinue | Out-Null

            Assert-VerifiableMocks
        }

    }
    #TODO add tests that validate the contents of default files
}

tools\Functions\PesterState.ps1
function New-PesterState
{
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [String]$Path,
        [String[]]$TagFilter,
        [String[]]$TestNameFilter,
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]$SessionState
    )

    if ($null -eq $SessionState) { $SessionState = $ExecutionContext.SessionState }

    New-Module -Name Pester -AsCustomObject -ScriptBlock {
        param (
            [String]$_path,
            [String[]]$_tagFilter,
            [String[]]$_testNameFilter,
            [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]$_sessionState
        )

        #public read-only
        $Path = $_path
        $TagFilter = $_tagFilter
        $TestNameFilter = $_testNameFilter

        $script:SessionState = $_sessionState
        $script:CurrentContext = ""
        $script:CurrentDescribe = ""
        $script:CurrentTest = ""
        $script:Stopwatch = [System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch]::StartNew()
        $script:MostRecentTimestamp = 0
        $script:CommandCoverage = @()
        $script:BeforeEach = @()
        $script:AfterEach = @()

        $script:TestResult = @()

        function EnterDescribe ($Name)
        {
            if ($CurrentDescribe)
            {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "You already are in Describe, you cannot enter Describe twice"
            }
            $script:CurrentDescribe = $Name
        }

        function LeaveDescribe
        {
            if ( $CurrentContext ) {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "Cannot leave Describe before leaving Context"
            }

            $script:CurrentDescribe = $null
        }

        function EnterContext ($Name)
        {
            if ( -not $CurrentDescribe )
            {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "Cannot enter Context before entering Describe"
            }

            if ( $CurrentContext )
            {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "You already are in Context, you cannot enter Context twice"
            }

            if ($CurrentTest)
            {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "You already are in It, you cannot enter Context inside It"
            }

            $script:CurrentContext = $Name
        }

        function LeaveContext
        {
            if ($CurrentTest)
            {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "Cannot leave Context before leaving It"
            }

            $script:CurrentContext = $null
        }

        function EnterTest([string]$Name)
        {
            if (-not $script:CurrentDescribe)
            {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "Cannot enter Context before entering Describe"
            }

            if ( $CurrentTest )
            {
                throw Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object InvalidOperationException "You already are in It, you cannot enter It twice"
            }

            $script:CurrentTest = $Name
        }

        function LeaveTest
        {
            $script:CurrentTest = $null
        }

        function AddTestResult ( [string]$Name, [bool]$Passed, [Nullable[TimeSpan]]$Time, [string]$FailureMessage, [String]$StackTrace )
        {
            $previousTime = $script:MostRecentTimestamp
            $script:MostRecentTimestamp = $script:Stopwatch.Elapsed

            if ($null -eq $Time)
            {
                $Time = $script:MostRecentTimestamp - $previousTime
            }

            $Script:TestResult += Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\New-Object -TypeName PsObject -Property @{
                Describe       = $CurrentDescribe
                Context        = $CurrentContext
                Name           = $Name
                Passed         = $Passed
                Time           = $Time
                FailureMessage = $FailureMessage
                StackTrace     = $StackTrace
            } | Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\Select-Object Describe, Context, Name, Passed, Time, FailureMessage, StackTrace
        }

        $ExportedVariables = "Path",
        "TagFilter",
        "TestNameFilter",
        "TestResult",
        "CurrentContext",
        "CurrentDescribe",
        "CurrentTest",
        "SessionState",
        "CommandCoverage",
        "BeforeEach",
        "AfterEach"

        $ExportedFunctions = "EnterContext",
        "LeaveContext",
        "EnterDescribe",
        "LeaveDescribe",
        "EnterTest",
        "LeaveTest",
        "AddTestResult"

        Export-ModuleMember -Variable $ExportedVariables -function $ExportedFunctions
    } -ArgumentList $Path, $TagFilter, $TestNameFilter, $SessionState |
    Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name TotalCount -Value {
        @( $this.TestResult ).Count
    } -PassThru |
    Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name PassedCount -Value {
        @( $this.TestResult | where { $_.Passed } ).count
    } -PassThru |
    Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name FailedCount -Value {
        @( $this.TestResult | where { -not $_.Passed } ).count
    } -PassThru |
    Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name Time -Value {
        $this.TestResult | foreach { [timespan]$total=0 } { $total = $total + ( $_.time ) } { [timespan]$total }
    } -PassThru |
    Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name Scope -Value {
        if ($this.CurrentTest) { 'It' }
        elseif ($this.CurrentContext)  { 'Context' }
        elseif ($this.CurrentDescribe) { 'Describe' }
        else { $null }
    } -Passthru |
    Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name ParentScope -Value {
        $parentScope = $null
        $scope = $this.Scope

        if ($scope -eq 'It' -and $this.CurrentContext)
        {
            $parentScope = 'Context'
        }

        if ($null -eq $parentScope -and $scope -ne 'Describe' -and $this.CurrentDescribe)
        {
            $parentScope = 'Describe'
        }

        return $parentScope
    } -PassThru
}

function Write-Describe
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]$Name
    )
    process {
        Write-Host Describing $Name -ForegroundColor Magenta
    }
}

function Write-Context
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]$Name
    )
    process {
        $margin = "   "
        Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\Write-Host ${margin}Context $Name -ForegroundColor Magenta
    }
}

function Write-PesterResult
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $TestResult
    )
    process {
        $testDepth = if ( $TestResult.Context ) { 4 } elseif ( $TestResult.Describe ) { 1 } else { 0 }

        $margin = " " * $TestDepth
        $error_margin = $margin + "  "
        $output = $TestResult.name
        $humanTime = Get-HumanTime $TestResult.Time.TotalSeconds

        if($TestResult.Passed)
        {
            "$margin[+] $output $humanTime" | Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\Write-Host -ForegroundColor DarkGreen
        }
        else {
            "$margin[-] $output $humanTime" | Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\Write-Host -ForegroundColor red
            Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\Write-Host -ForegroundColor red $($TestResult.failureMessage -replace '(?m)^',$error_margin)
            Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\Write-Host -ForegroundColor red $($TestResult.stackTrace -replace '(?m)^',$error_margin)
        }
    }
}

function Write-PesterReport
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $PesterState
    )

    Write-Host "Tests completed in $(Get-HumanTime $PesterState.Time.TotalSeconds)"
    Write-Host "Passed: $($PesterState.PassedCount) Failed: $($PesterState.FailedCount)"
}
tools\Functions\PesterState.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "New-PesterState" {
        it "Path is mandatory parameter" {
            (get-command New-PesterState ).Parameters.Path.ParameterSets.__AllParameterSets.IsMandatory | Should Be $true
        }

        Context "Path parameter is set" {
            it "sets the path property" {
                $p = new-pesterstate -path "path"
                $p.Path | should be  "path"
            }
        }

        Context "Path and TestNameFilter parameter is set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -path "path" -TestNameFilter "filter"

            it "sets the path property" {
                $p.Path | should be  "path"
            }

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TestNameFilter | should be "filter"
            }

        }
        Context "Path and TagFilter parameter is set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -path "path" -TagFilter "tag","tag2"

            it "sets the path property" {
                $p.Path | should be  "path"
            }

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TagFilter | should be ("tag","tag2")
            }
        }
        Context "Path TestNameFilter and TagFilter parameter is set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -path "path" -TagFilter "tag","tag2" -testnamefilter "filter"

            it "sets the path property" {
                $p.Path | should be  "path"
            }

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TagFilter | should be ("tag","tag2")
            }

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TagFilter | should be ("tag","tag2")
            }

        }
    }

    Describe "Pester state object" {
        $p = New-PesterState -Path "Local"

        Context "entering describe" {
            It "enters describe" {
                $p.EnterDescribe("describe")
                $p.CurrentDescribe | should be "Describe"
            }
            It "can enter describe only once" {
                { $p.EnterDescribe("describe") } | Should Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | should be "describe"
            }
        }
        Context "leaving describe" {
            It "leaves describe" {
                $p.LeaveDescribe()
                $p.CurrentDescribe | should benullOrEmpty
            }
            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | should benullOrEmpty
            }
        }

        context "Entering It from Describe" {
            $p.EnterDescribe('Describe')

            It "Enters It successfully" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'It'
            }

            It "Cannot enter It after already entered" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Throw
            }

            It "Cannot enter Context from inside It" {
                { $p.EnterContext("Context") } | Should Throw
            }
        }

        context "Leaving It from Describe" {
            It "Leaves It to Describe" {
                { $p.LeaveTest() } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'Describe'
            }

            $p.LeaveDescribe()
        }

        Context "entering Context" {
            it "Cannot enter Context before Describe" {
                { $p.EnterContext("context") } | should throw
            }

            it "enters context from describe" {
                $p.EnterDescribe("Describe")
                $p.EnterContext("Context")
                $p.CurrentContext | should be "Context"
            }
            It "can enter context only once" {
                { $p.EnterContext("Context") } | Should Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | should be "Context"
            }
        }

        Context "leaving context" {
            it "cannot leave describe before leaving context" {
                { $p.LeaveDescribe() } | should throw
            }
            it "leaves context" {
                $p.LeaveContext()
                $p.CurrentContext | should BeNullOrEmpty
            }
            It "Returns from context to describe" {
                $p.Scope | should be "Describe"
            }

            $p.LeaveDescribe()
        }

        context "Entering It from Context" {
            $p.EnterDescribe('Describe')
            $p.EnterContext('Context')

            It "Enters It successfully" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'It'
            }

            It "Cannot enter It after already entered" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Throw
            }
        }

        context "Leaving It from Context" {
            It "Leaves It to Context" {
                { $p.LeaveTest() } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'Context'
            }

            $p.LeaveContext()
            $p.LeaveDescribe()
        }

        context "adding test result" {
            $p.EnterDescribe('Describe')

            it "adds passed test" {
                $p.AddTestResult("result",$true, 100)
                $result = $p.TestResult[-1]
                $result.Name | should be "result"
                $result.passed | should be $true
                $result.time.ticks | should be 100
            }
            it "adds failed test" {
                $p.AddTestResult("result",$false, 100, "fail", "stack")
                $result = $p.TestResult[-1]
                $result.Name | should be "result"
                $result.passed | should be $false
                $result.time.ticks | should be 100
                $result.FailureMessage | should be "fail"
                $result.StackTrace | should be "stack"
            }

            it "can add test result before entering describe" {
                if ($p.CurrentContext) { $p.LeaveContext()}
                if ($p.CurrentDescribe) { $p.LeaveDescribe() }
                { $p.addTestResult(1,1,1) } | should not throw
            }

        }

    }
}
tools\Functions\SetupTeardown.ps1
function BeforeEach
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Defines a series of steps to perform at the beginning of every It block within
    the current Context or Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
    BeforeEach and AfterEach are unique in that they apply to the entire Context
    or Describe block, even those that come before the BeforeEach or AfterEach
    definition within the Context or Describe.  For a full description of this
    behavior, as well as how multiple BeforeEach or AfterEach blocks interact
    with each other, please refer to the about_BeforeEach_AfterEach help file.

.LINK
    about_BeforeEach_AfterEach
#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName BeforeEach
}

function AfterEach
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Defines a series of steps to perform at the end of every It block within
    the current Context or Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
    BeforeEach and AfterEach are unique in that they apply to the entire Context
    or Describe block, even those that come before the BeforeEach or AfterEach
    definition within the Context or Describe.  For a full description of this
    behavior, as well as how multiple BeforeEach or AfterEach blocks interact
    with each other, please refer to the about_BeforeEach_AfterEach help file.

.LINK
    about_BeforeEach_AfterEach
#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName AfterEach
}

function Clear-SetupAndTeardown
{
    $pester.BeforeEach = @( $pester.BeforeEach | Where-Object { $_.Scope -ne $pester.Scope } )
    $pester.AfterEach  = @( $pester.AfterEach  | Where-Object { $_.Scope -ne $pester.Scope } )
}

function Invoke-SetupBlocks
{
    $orderedSetupBlocks = @(
        $pester.BeforeEach | Where-Object { $_.Scope -eq 'Describe' }
        $pester.BeforeEach | Where-Object { $_.Scope -eq 'Context'  }
    )

    foreach ($setupBlock in $orderedSetupBlocks)
    {
        try
        {
            . $setupBlock.ScriptBlock
        }
        catch
        {
            Write-Error -ErrorRecord $_
        }
    }
}

function Invoke-TeardownBlocks
{
    $orderedTeardownBlocks = @(
        $pester.AfterEach | Where-Object { $_.Scope -eq 'Context'  }
        $pester.AfterEach | Where-Object { $_.Scope -eq 'Describe' }
    )

    foreach ($teardownBlock in $orderedTeardownBlocks)
    {
        try
        {
            . $teardownBlock.ScriptBlock
        }
        catch
        {
            Write-Error -ErrorRecord $_
        }
    }
}

function Add-SetupAndTeardown
{
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    $codeText = $ScriptBlock.ToString()
    $tokens = ParseCodeIntoTokens -CodeText $codeText

    for ($i = 0; $i -lt $tokens.Count; $i++)
    {
        if ($tokens[$i].Type -eq [System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::Command -and
            (IsSetupOrTeardownCommand -CommandName $tokens[$i].Content))
        {
            $openBraceIndex, $closeBraceIndex = Get-BraceIndecesForCommand -Tokens $tokens -CommandIndex $i
            Add-SetupTeardownFromTokens -Tokens $tokens -CommandIndex $i -OpenBraceIndex $openBraceIndex -CloseBraceIndex $closeBraceIndex -CodeText $codeText
            $i = $closeBraceIndex
        }
        elseif ($tokens[$i].Type -eq [System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::GroupStart)
        {
            # We don't want to parse Setup or Teardown commands in child scopes here, so anything
            # bounded by a GroupStart / GroupEnd token pair which is not immediately preceded by
            # a setup / teardown command name is ignored.
            $i = Get-GroupCloseTokenIndex -Tokens $tokens -GroupStartTokenIndex $i
        }
    }
}

function ParseCodeIntoTokens
{
    param ([string] $CodeText)

    $parseErrors = $null
    $tokens = [System.Management.Automation.PSParser]::Tokenize($CodeText, [ref] $parseErrors)

    if ($parseErrors.Count -gt 0)
    {
        $currentScope = $pester.Scope
        throw "The current $currentScope block contains syntax errors."
    }

    return $tokens
}

function IsSetupOrTeardownCommand
{
    param ([string] $CommandName)
    return (IsSetupCommand -CommandName $CommandName) -or (IsTeardownCommand -CommandName $CommandName)
}

function IsSetupCommand
{
    param ([string] $CommandName)
    return $CommandName -eq 'BeforeEach'
}

function IsTeardownCommand
{
    param ([string] $CommandName)
    return $CommandName -eq 'AfterEach'
}

function Get-BraceIndecesForCommand
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $CommandIndex
    )

    $openingGroupTokenIndex = Get-GroupStartTokenForCommand -Tokens $Tokens -CommandIndex $CommandIndex
    $closingGroupTokenIndex = Get-GroupCloseTokenIndex -Tokens $Tokens -GroupStartTokenIndex $openingGroupTokenIndex

    return $openingGroupTokenIndex, $closingGroupTokenIndex
}

function Get-GroupStartTokenForCommand
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $CommandIndex
    )

    # We may want to allow newlines, other parameters, etc at some point.  For now it's good enough to
    # just verify that the next token after our BeforeEach or AfterEach command is an opening curly brace.

    $commandName = $Tokens[$CommandIndex].Content

    if ($CommandIndex + 1 -ge $tokens.Count -or
        $tokens[$CommandIndex + 1].Type -ne [System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::GroupStart -or
        $tokens[$CommandIndex + 1].Content -ne '{')
    {
        throw "The $commandName command must be immediately followed by the opening brace of a script block."
    }

    return $CommandIndex + 1
}

function Get-GroupCloseTokenIndex
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $GroupStartTokenIndex
    )

    $groupLevel = 1

    for ($i = $GroupStartTokenIndex + 1; $i -lt $Tokens.Count; $i++)
    {
        switch ($Tokens[$i].Type)
        {
            ([System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::GroupStart)
            {
                $groupLevel++
                break
            }

            ([System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::GroupEnd)
            {
                $groupLevel--

                if ($groupLevel -le 0)
                {
                    return $i
                }

                break
            }
        }
    }

    throw 'No corresponding GroupEnd token was found.'
}

function Add-SetupTeardownFromTokens
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $CommandIndex,
        [int] $OpenBraceIndex,
        [int] $CloseBraceIndex,
        [string] $CodeText
    )

    $commandName = $Tokens[$CommandIndex].Content

    $blockStart = $Tokens[$OpenBraceIndex + 1].Start
    $blockLength = $Tokens[$CloseBraceIndex].Start - $blockStart
    $setupOrTeardownCodeText = $codeText.Substring($blockStart, $blockLength)

    $setupOrTeardownBlock = [scriptblock]::Create($setupOrTeardownCodeText)
    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $setupOrTeardownBlock -SessionState $pester.SessionState

    if (IsSetupCommand -CommandName $commandName)
    {
        Add-BeforeEach -ScriptBlock $setupOrTeardownBlock
    }
    else
    {
        Add-AfterEach -ScriptBlock $setupOrTeardownBlock
    }
}

function Add-BeforeEach
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $props = @{
        Scope       = $pester.Scope
        ScriptBlock = $ScriptBlock
    }

    $pester.BeforeEach += @(New-Object psobject -Property $props)

}

function Add-AfterEach
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $props = @{
        Scope       = $pester.Scope
        ScriptBlock = $ScriptBlock
    }

    $pester.AfterEach += @(New-Object psobject -Property $props)
}
tools\Functions\SetupTeardown.Tests.ps1
Describe 'Describe-Scoped setup' {
    BeforeEach {
        $testVariable = 'From BeforeEach'
    }

    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    It 'Assigns the correct value in first test' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'From BeforeEach'
        $testVariable = 'Set in It'
    }

    It 'Assigns the correct value in subsequent tests' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'From BeforeEach'
    }
}

Describe 'Context-scoped setup' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    Context 'The context' {
        BeforeEach {
            $testVariable = 'From BeforeEach'
        }

        It 'Assigns the correct value inside the context' {
            $testVariable | Should Be 'From BeforeEach'
        }
    }

    It 'Reports the original value after the Context' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in Describe'
    }
}

Describe 'Multiple setup blocks' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    BeforeEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in Describe BeforeEach'
    }

    Context 'The context' {
        It 'Executes Describe setup blocks first, then Context blocks in the order they were defined (even if they are defined after the It block.)' {
            $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in the second Context BeforeEach'
        }

        BeforeEach {
            $testVariable = 'Set in the first Context BeforeEach'
        }

        BeforeEach {
            $testVariable = 'Set in the second Context BeforeEach'
        }
    }

    It 'Continues to execute Describe setup blocks after the Context' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in Describe BeforeEach'
    }
}

Describe 'Describe-scoped teardown' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    AfterEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in AfterEach'
    }

    It 'Does not modify the variable before the first test' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in Describe'
    }

    It 'Modifies the variable after the first test' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in AfterEach'
    }
}

Describe 'Multiple teardown blocks' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    AfterEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in Describe AfterEach'
    }

    Context 'The context' {
        AfterEach {
            $testVariable = 'Set in the first Context AfterEach'
        }

        It 'Performs a test in Context' { }

        It 'Executes Describe teardown blocks after Context teardown blocks' {
            $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in the second Describe AfterEach'
        }
    }

    AfterEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in the second Describe AfterEach'
    }
}
tools\Functions\TestDrive.ps1
#
function New-TestDrive ([Switch]$PassThru) {
    $Path = New-RandomTempDirectory
    $DriveName = "TestDrive"

    if (-not (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Test-Path -Path $Path))
    {
        New-Item -ItemType Container -Path $Path | Out-Null
    }

    #setup the test drive
    if ( -not (Get-PSDrive -Name $DriveName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) )
    {
        New-PSDrive -Name $DriveName -PSProvider FileSystem -Root $Path -Scope Global -Description "Pester test drive" | Out-Null
    }

    #publish the global TestDrive variable used in few places within the module
    if (-not (Get-Variable -Name $DriveName -Scope Global -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue))
    {
        New-Variable -Name $DriveName -Scope Global -Value $Path
    }

    if ( $PassThru ) { Get-PSDrive -Name $DriveName }
}


function Clear-TestDrive ([String[]]$Exclude) {
    $Path = (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-PSDrive -Name TestDrive).Root
    if (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Test-Path -Path $Path )
    {
        #Get-ChildItem -Exclude did not seem to work with full paths
        Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-ChildItem -Recurse -Path $Path |
        Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility\Sort-Object -Descending  -Property "FullName" |
        Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\Where-Object { $Exclude -NotContains $_.FullName } |
        Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Remove-Item -Force -Recurse
    }
}

function New-RandomTempDirectory {
    do
    {
        $Path = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath ([Guid]::NewGuid())
    } until (-not (  Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Test-Path -Path $Path ))

    New-Item -ItemType Container -Path $Path
}

function Get-TestDriveItem {
    #moved here from Pester.psm1
    param( [string]$Path )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Get-TestDriveItem
    Get-Item $(Join-Path $TestDrive $Path )
}

function Get-TestDriveChildItem {
    $Path = (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-PSDrive -Name TestDrive).Root
    if (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Test-Path -Path $Path )
    {
        Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-ChildItem -Recurse -Path $Path
    }
}

function Remove-TestDrive {

    $DriveName = "TestDrive"
    $Drive = Get-PSDrive -Name $DriveName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
    $Path = ($Drive).Root


    if ($pwd -like "$DriveName*" ) {
        #will staying in the test drive cause issues?
        #TODO review this
        Write-Warning -Message "Your current path is set to ${pwd}:. You should leave ${DriveName}:\ before leaving Describe."
    }

    if ( $Drive )
    {
        $Drive | Remove-PSDrive -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
    }

    if (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Test-Path -Path $Path)
    {
        Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Remove-Item -Path $Path -Force -Recurse
    }

    if (Get-Variable -Name $DriveName -Scope Global -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) {
        Remove-Variable -Scope Global -Name $DriveName -Force
    }
}

function Setup {
    #included for backwards compatibility
    param(
    [switch]$Dir,
    [switch]$File,
    $Path,
    $Content = "",
    [switch]$PassThru
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Setup

    $TestDriveName = Get-PSDrive TestDrive | Select -ExpandProperty Root

    if ($Dir) {
        $item = New-Item -Name $Path -Path "${TestDriveName}\" -Type Container -Force
    }
    if ($File) {
        $item = $Content | New-Item -Name $Path -Path "${TestDriveName}\" -Type File -Force
    }

    if($PassThru) {
        return $item
    }
}
tools\Functions\TestDrive.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe "Setup" {
    It "returns a location that is in a temp area" {
        $TestDrive -like "${$env:temp}*" | Should Be $true
    }

    It "creates a drive location called TestDrive:" {
        "TestDrive:\" | Should Exist
    }
}

Describe "TestDrive" {
    It "handles creation of a drive with . characters in the path" {
        # currently untested but requirement needs to be here
    }
}

Describe "Create filesystem with directories" {
    Setup -Dir "dir1"
    Setup -Dir "dir2"

    It "creates directory when called with no file content" {
        "TestDrive:\dir1" | Should Exist
    }

    It "creates another directory when called with no file content and doesnt remove first directory" {
        $result = Test-Path "TestDrive:\dir2"
        $result = $result -and (Test-Path "TestDrive:\dir1")
        $result | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "Create nested directory structure" {
    Setup -Dir "parent/child"

    It "creates parent directory" {
        "TestDrive:\parent" | Should Exist
    }

    It "creates child directory underneath parent" {
        "TestDrive:\parent\child" | Should Exist
    }
}

Describe "Create a file with no content" {
    Setup -File "file"

    It "creates file" {
        "TestDrive:\file" | Should Exist
    }

    It "also has no content" {
        Get-Content "TestDrive:\file" | Should BeNullOrEmpty
    }
}

Describe "Create a file with content" {
    Setup -File "file" "file contents"

    It "creates file" {
        "TestDrive:\file" | Should Exist
    }

    It "adds content to the file" {
        Get-Content "TestDrive:\file" | Should Be "file contents"
    }
}

Describe "Create file with passthru" {
    $thefile = Setup -File "thefile" -PassThru

    It "returns the file from the temp location" {
        $thefile.FullName -like "${env:TEMP}*" | Should Be $true
        $thefile.Exists | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "Create directory with passthru" {
    $thedir = Setup -Dir "thedir" -PassThru

    It "returns the directory from the temp location" {
        $thedir.FullName -like "${env:TEMP}*" | Should Be $true
        $thedir.Exists | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "TestDrive scoping" {
    $describe = Setup -File 'Describe' -PassThru
    Context "Describe file is available in context" {
        It "Finds the file" {
            $describe | Should Exist
        }
        #create file for the next test
        Setup -File 'Context'

        It "Creates It-scoped contents" {
            Setup -File 'It'
            'TestDrive:\It' | Should Exist
        }

        It "Does not clear It-scoped contents on exit" {
            'TestDrive:\It' | Should Exist
        }
    }

    It "Context file are removed when returning to Describe" {
        "TestDrive:\Context" | Should Not Exist
    }

    It "Describe file is still available in Describe" {
        $describe | Should Exist
    }
}

Describe "Cleanup" {
    Setup -Dir "foo"
}

Describe "Cleanup" {
    It "should have removed the temp folder from the previous fixture" {
        Test-Path "$TestDrive\foo" | Should Not Exist
    }

    It "should also remove the TestDrive:" {
        Test-Path "TestDrive:\foo" | Should Not Exist
    }
}

Describe "Cleanup when Remove-Item is mocked" {
    Mock Remove-Item {}

    Context "add a temp directory" {
        Setup -Dir "foo"
    }

    Context "next context" {

        It "should have removed the temp folder" {
            "$TestDrive\foo" | Should Not Exist
        }

    }
}

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "New-RandomTempDirectory" {
        It "creates randomly named directory" {
            $first = New-RandomTempDirectory
            $second = New-RandomTempDirectory

            $first | Remove-Item -Force
            $second | Remove-Item -Force

            $first.name | Should Not Be $second.name

        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\TestResults.ps1
function Get-HumanTime($Seconds) {
    if($Seconds -gt 0.99) {
        $time = [math]::Round($Seconds, 2)
        $unit = "s"
    }
    else {
        $time = [math]::Floor($Seconds * 1000)
        $unit = "ms"
    }
    return "$time$unit"
}

function GetFullPath ([string]$Path) {
    $fullpath = Resolve-Path -Path $Path -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue -ErrorVariable Error
    if ($fullpath)
    {
        $fullpath
    }
    else
    {
        $error[0].TargetObject
    }
}

function Export-NUnitReport {
    param (
        [parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [PSObject]$InputObject,
        [parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [String]$Path
    )

    #the xmlwriter create method can resolve relatives paths by itself. but its current directory might
    #be different from what PowerShell sees as the current directory so I have to resolve the path beforehand
    #working around the limitations of Resolve-Path
    $Path = GetFullPath -Path $Path

    # Create The Document
    $settings = New-Object -TypeName Xml.XmlWriterSettings
    $settings.Indent = $true
    $settings.NewLineOnAttributes = $false
    try {
        $XmlWriter = [Xml.XmlWriter]::Create($Path,$settings)

        # Write the XML Declaration
        $XmlWriter.WriteStartDocument($false)

        # Write Root Element
        $xmlWriter.WriteStartElement("test-results")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("xmlns","xsi", $null, "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("xsi","noNamespaceSchemaLocation", [Xml.Schema.XmlSchema]::InstanceNamespace , "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("name","Pester")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("total", $InputObject.TotalCount)
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("errors", "0")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("failures", $InputObject.FailedCount)
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("not-run", "0")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("inconclusive", "0")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("ignored", "0")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("skipped", "0")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("invalid", "0")
        $date = Get-Date
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("date", (Get-Date -Date $date -Format "yyyy-MM-dd"))
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("time", (Get-Date -Date $date -Format "HH:mm:ss"))

        #Write environment information
        $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("environment")
        $environment = Get-RunTimeEnvironment
        $environment.GetEnumerator() | foreach {
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString($_.Name, $_.Value)
        }
        $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close the Environment tag

        #Write culture information
        $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("culture-info")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("current-culture", ([System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture).Name)
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("current-uiculture", ([System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentUiCulture).Name)
        $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close culture-info tag

        #Write root test-suite element containing all the describes
        $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("test-suite")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("type", "Powershell")
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("name", $InputObject.Path)
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("executed", "True")

        $isSuccess = $inputObject.FailedCount -eq 0
        $result = if ($isSuccess) { "Success" }  else { "Failure"}
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("result", $result)
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("success",[string]$isSuccess)
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("time",(Convert-TimeSpan $InputObject.Time))
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("asserts","0")
        $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("results")

        $Describes = $InputObject.TestResult | Group -Property Describe
        $Describes | foreach {
            $currentDescribe = $_
            $DescribeInfo = Get-TestSuiteInfo $currentDescribe

            #Write test suites
            $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("test-suite")

            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("type", "Powershell")
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("name", $DescribeInfo.name)
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("executed", "True")
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("result", $DescribeInfo.resultMessage)
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("success", $DescribeInfo.success)
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("time",$DescribeInfo.totalTime)
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("asserts","0")
            $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("results")

            #Write test-results
            $currentDescribe.Group | foreach {
                $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("test-case")
                $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("name", $_.Name)
                $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("executed", "True")
                $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("time", (Convert-TimeSpan $_.Time))
                $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("asserts", "0")
                $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("success", $_.Passed)
                if ($_.Passed)
                {
                    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("result", "Success")
                }
                else
                {
                    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString("result", "Failure")
                    $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement("failure")
                    $xmlWriter.WriteElementString("message", $_.FailureMessage)
                    $XmlWriter.WriteElementString("stack-trace", $_.StackTrace)
                    $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() # Close failure tag
                }
                $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close test-case tag
            }

            $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close results tag
            $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close test-suite tag
        }

        $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close results tag
        $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close test-suite tag

        $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() #Close the test-result tag

        $XmlWriter.Flush()
    }
    finally
    {
        if ($XmlWriter) {
            #make sure the writer is closed, otherwise it keeps the file locked
            try { $xmlWriter.Close() } catch {}
        }
    }
}

function Get-TestSuiteInfo ($DescribeGroup) {
    $suite = @{
        resultMessage = "Failure"
        success = "False"
        totalTime = "0.0"
        name = $DescribeGroup.name
    }

    #calculate the time first, I am converting the time into string in the TestCases
    $suite.totalTime = (Get-TestTime $DescribeGroup.Group)
    $suite.success = (Get-TestSuccess $DescribeGroup.Group)
    if($suite.success -eq "True")
    {
        $suite.resultMessage = "Success"
    }
    $suite
}

function Convert-TimeSpan {
    param (
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $TimeSpan
    )
    process {
        if ($TimeSpan) {
            [string][math]::round(([TimeSpan]$TimeSpan).totalseconds,4)
        }
        else
        {
            "0"
        }
    }
}
function Get-TestTime($tests) {
    [TimeSpan]$totalTime = 0;
    if ($tests)
    {
        $tests | foreach {
            $totalTime += $_.time
        }
    }
    $totalTime | Convert-TimeSpan
}

function Get-TestSuccess($tests) {
    #if any fails, the whole suite fails
    $result = $true
    $tests | foreach {
        if (-not $_.Passed) {
            $result = $false
        }
    }
    [String]$result
}

function Get-RunTimeEnvironment() {
    $osSystemInformation = (Get-WmiObject Win32_OperatingSystem)
    @{
        "nunit-version" = "2.5.8.0"
        "os-version" = $osSystemInformation.Version
        platform = $osSystemInformation.Name
        cwd = (Get-Location).Path #run path
        "machine-name" = $env:ComputerName
        user = $env:Username
        "user-domain" = $env:userDomain
        "clr-version" = $PSVersionTable.ClrVersion.ToString()
    }
}

function Exit-WithCode ($FailedCount) {
    $host.SetShouldExit($FailedCount)
}
tools\Functions\TestResults.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "Write nunit test results" {
        Setup -Dir "Results"

        It "should write a successful test result" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",$true,(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestCase = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-case'
            $xmlTestCase.name     | Should Be "Successful testcase"
            $xmlTestCase.result   | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestCase.time     | Should Be "1"
        }

        It "should write a failed test result" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $time = [TimeSpan]25000000 #2.5 seconds
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase",$false,$time,'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"','at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1')

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestCase = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-case'
            $xmlTestCase.name                   | Should Be "Failed testcase"
            $xmlTestCase.result                 | Should Be "Failure"
            $xmlTestCase.time                   | Should Be "2.5"
            $xmlTestCase.failure.message        | Should Be 'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"'
            $xmlTestCase.failure.'stack-trace'  | Should Be 'at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1'
        }

         It "should write the test summary" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Testcase",$true,(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestResult = $xmlResult.'test-results'
            $xmlTestResult.total    | Should Be 1
            $xmlTestResult.failures | Should Be 0
            $xmlTestResult.date     | Should Be $true
            $xmlTestResult.time     | Should Be $true
        }

        it "should write the test-suite information" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",$true,[timespan]10000000) #1.0 seconds
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",$true,[timespan]11000000) #1.1 seconds

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlTestResult = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'
            $xmlTestResult.type     | Should Be "Powershell"
            $xmlTestResult.name     | Should Be "Mocked Describe"
            $xmlTestResult.result   | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestResult.success  | Should Be "True"
            $xmlTestResult.time     | Should Be 2.1
        }

        it "should write two test-suite elements for two describes" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",$true,(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #2')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase",$false,(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 2))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlTestSuite1 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[0]
            $xmlTestSuite1.name     | Should Be "Describe #1"
            $xmlTestSuite1.result   | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestSuite1.success  | Should Be "True"
            $xmlTestSuite1.time     | Should Be 1.0
            $xmlTestSuite2 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[1]
            $xmlTestSuite2.name     | Should Be "Describe #2"
            $xmlTestSuite2.result   | Should Be "Failure"
            $xmlTestSuite2.success  | Should Be "False"
            $xmlTestSuite2.time     | Should Be 2.0
        }

        it "should write the environment information" {
            $state = New-PesterState "."
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $state $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlEnvironment = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'environment'
            $xmlEnvironment.'os-Version'    | Should Be $true
            $xmlEnvironment.platform        | Should Be $true
            $xmlEnvironment.cwd             | Should Be (Get-Location).Path
            if ($env:Username) {
                $xmlEnvironment.user        | Should Be $env:Username
            }
            $xmlEnvironment.'machine-name'  | Should Be $env:ComputerName
        }

        it "Should validate test results against the nunit 2.5 schema" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",$true,(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #2')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase",$false,(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 2))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xml = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $schemePath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
            $xml.Schemas.Add($null,$schemePath) > $null
            { $xml.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
        }

        it "handles special characters in block descriptions well [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./""- " {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./"- #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./""-",$true,(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xml = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $schemePath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
            $xml.Schemas.Add($null,$schemePath) > $null
            { $xml.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
        }
    }

    Describe "Get-TestTime" {
        function Using-Culture {
            param (
                [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
                [ScriptBlock]$ScriptBlock,
                [System.Globalization.CultureInfo]$Culture='en-US'
            )

            $oldCulture = [System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture
            try
            {
                [System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = $Culture
                $ExecutionContext.InvokeCommand.InvokeScript($ScriptBlock)
            }
            finally
            {
                [System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = $oldCulture
            }
        }

        It "output is culture agnostic" {
            #on cs-CZ, de-DE and other systems where decimal separator is ",". value [double]3.5 is output as 3,5
            #this makes some of the tests fail, it could also leak to the nUnit report if the time was output

            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]35000000 } #3.5 seconds

            #using the string formatter here to know how the string will be output to screen
            $Result = { Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Out-String -Stream } | Using-Culture -Culture de-DE
            $Result | Should Be "3.5"
        }
        It "Time is measured in seconds with 0,1 millisecond as lowest value" {
            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]1000 }
            Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Should Be 0.0001
            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]100 }
            Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Should Be 0
            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]1234567 }
            Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Should Be 0.1235
        }
    }

    Describe "GetFullPath" {
        It "Resolves non existing path correctly" {
            pushd TestDrive:\
            $p = GetFullPath notexistingfile.txt
            popd
            $p | Should Be TestDrive:\notexistingfile.txt
        }

        It "Resolves existing path correctly" {
            pushd TestDrive:\
            New-Item -ItemType File -Name existingfile.txt
            $p = GetFullPath existingfile.txt
            popd
            $p | Should Be TestDrive:\existingfile.txt
        }

        It "Resolves full path correctly" {
            GetFullPath C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe | Should Be C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe
        }
    }
}
tools\Pester.psm1
# Pester
# Version: 3.0.2
# Changeset: 

$moduleRoot = Split-Path -Path $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path

"$moduleRoot\Functions\*.ps1", "$moduleRoot\Functions\Assertions\*.ps1" |
Resolve-Path |
Where-Object { -not ($_.ProviderPath.Contains(".Tests.")) } |
ForEach-Object { . $_.ProviderPath }

function Invoke-Pester {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Invokes Pester to run all tests (files containing *.Tests.ps1) recursively under the Path

.DESCRIPTION
Upon calling Invoke-Pester. All files that have a name containing
"*.Tests.ps1" will have there tests defined in their Describe blocks
executed. Invoke-Pester begins at the location of Path and
runs recursively through each sub directory looking for
*.Tests.ps1 files for tests to run. If a TestName is provided,
Invoke-Pester will only run tests that have a describe block with a
matching name. By default, Invoke-Pester will end the test run with a
simple report of the number of tests passed and failed output to the
console. One may want pester to "fail a build" in the event that any
tests fail. To accomodate this, Invoke-Pester will return an exit
code equal to the number of failed tests if the EnableExit switch is
set. Invoke-Pester will also write a NUnit style log of test results
if the OutputXml parameter is provided. In these cases, Invoke-Pester
will write the result log to the path provided in the OutputXml
parameter.

Optionally, Pester can generate a report of how much code is covered
by the tests, and information about any commands which were not
executed.

.PARAMETER Path
The path where Invoke-Pester begins to search for test files. The default is the current directory. Aliased 'relative_path' for backwards compatibility.

.PARAMETER TestName
Informs Invoke-Pester to only run Describe blocks that match this name.

.PARAMETER EnableExit
Will cause Invoke-Pester to exit with a exit code equal to the number of failed tests once all tests have been run. Use this to "fail" a build when any tests fail.

.PARAMETER OutputXml
The path where Invoke-Pester will save a NUnit formatted test results log file. If this path is not provided, no log will be generated.

.PARAMETER Tag
Informs Invoke-Pester to only run Describe blocks tagged with the tags specified. Aliased 'Tags' for backwards compatibility.

.PARAMETER PassThru
Returns a Pester result object containing the information about the whole test run, and each test.

.PARAMETER CodeCoverage
Instructs Pester to generate a code coverage report in addition to running tests.  You may pass either hashtables or strings to this parameter.
If strings are used, they must be paths (wildcards allowed) to source files, and all commands in the files are analyzed for code coverage.
By passing hashtables instead, you can limit the analysis to specific lines or functions within a file.
Hashtables must contain a Path key (which can be abbreviated to just "P"), and may contain Function (or "F"), StartLine (or "S"), and EndLine ("E") keys to narrow down the commands to be analyzed.
If Function is specified, StartLine and EndLine are ignored.
If only StartLine is defined, the entire script file starting with StartLine is analyzed.
If only EndLine is present, all lines in the script file up to and including EndLine are analyzed.
Both Function and Path (as well as simple strings passed instead of hashtables) may contain wildcards.

.Example
Invoke-Pester

This will find all *.Tests.ps1 files and run their tests. No exit code will be returned and no log file will be saved.

.Example
Invoke-Pester ./tests/Utils*

This will run all tests in files under ./Tests that begin with Utils and alsocontains .Tests.

.Example
Invoke-Pester -TestName "Add Numbers"

This will only run the Describe block named "Add Numbers"

.Example
Invoke-Pester -EnableExit -OutputXml "./artifacts/TestResults.xml"

This runs all tests from the current directory downwards and writes the results according to the NUnit schema to artifatcs/TestResults.xml just below the current directory. The test run will return an exit code equal to the number of test failures.

.EXAMPLE
Invoke-Pester -CodeCoverage 'ScriptUnderTest.ps1'

Runs all *.Tests.ps1 scripts in the current directory, and generates a coverage report for all commands in the "ScriptUnderTest.ps1" file.

.EXAMPLE
Invoke-Pester -CodeCoverage @{ Path = 'ScriptUnderTest.ps1'; Function = 'FunctionUnderTest' }

Runs all *.Tests.ps1 scripts in the current directory, and generates a coverage report for all commands in the "FunctionUnderTest" function in the "ScriptUnderTest.ps1" file.

.EXAMPLE
Invoke-Pester -CodeCoverage @{ Path = 'ScriptUnderTest.ps1'; StartLine = 10; EndLine = 20 }

Runs all *.Tests.ps1 scripts in the current directory, and generates a coverage report for all commands on lines 10 through 20 in the "ScriptUnderTest.ps1" file.

.LINK
Describe
about_pester

#>
    param(
        [Parameter(Position=0,Mandatory=0)]
        [Alias('relative_path')]
        [string]$Path = ".",
        [Parameter(Position=1,Mandatory=0)]
        [string]$TestName,
        [Parameter(Position=2,Mandatory=0)]
        [switch]$EnableExit,
        [Parameter(Position=3,Mandatory=0)]
        [string]$OutputXml,
        [Parameter(Position=4,Mandatory=0)]
        [Alias('Tags')]
        [string]$Tag,
        [switch]$PassThru,

        [object[]] $CodeCoverage = @()
    )

    $script:mockTable = @{}

    $pester = New-PesterState -Path (Resolve-Path $Path) -TestNameFilter $TestName -TagFilter ($Tag -split "\s") -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState
    Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage $CodeCoverage -PesterState $pester

    $message = "Executing all tests in '$($pester.Path)'"
    if ($TestName) { $message += " matching test name '$TestName'" }

    Write-Host $message

    $scriptBlock = { & $args[0] }
    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState

    Get-ChildItem $pester.Path -Filter "*.Tests.ps1" -Recurse |
    where { -not $_.PSIsContainer } |
    foreach {
        $testFile = $_

        try
        {
            & $scriptBlock $testFile.PSPath
        }
        catch
        {
            $firstStackTraceLine = $_.ScriptStackTrace -split '\r?\n' | Select-Object -First 1
            $pester.AddTestResult("Error occurred in test script '$($testFile.FullName)'", $false, $null, $_.Exception.Message, $firstStackTraceLine)
            $pester.TestResult[-1] | Write-PesterResult
        }
    }

    $pester | Write-PesterReport
    $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $pester
    Show-CoverageReport -CoverageReport $coverageReport
    Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $pester

    if($OutputXml) {
        #TODO make this legacy option and move the nUnit report out of invoke-pester
        #TODO add warning message that informs the user how to use the nunit output properly
        Export-NunitReport $pester $OutputXml
    }

    if ($PassThru) {
        #remove all runtime properties like current* and Scope
        $properties = @(
            "Path","TagFilter","TestNameFilter","TotalCount","PassedCount","FailedCount","Time","TestResult"

            if ($CodeCoverage)
            {
                @{ Name = 'CodeCoverage'; Expression = { $coverageReport } }
            }
        )

        $pester | Select -Property $properties
    }

    if ($EnableExit) { Exit-WithCode -FailedCount $pester.FailedCount }
}

function Set-ScriptBlockScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'FromSessionState')]
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]
        $SessionState,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'FromSessionStateInternal')]
        $SessionStateInternal
    )

    $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance,NonPublic'

    if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'FromSessionState')
    {
        $SessionStateInternal = $SessionState.GetType().GetProperty('Internal', $flags).GetValue($SessionState, $null)
    }

    [scriptblock].GetProperty('SessionStateInternal', $flags).SetValue($ScriptBlock, $SessionStateInternal, $null)
}

function Get-ScriptBlockScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance,NonPublic'
    [scriptblock].GetProperty('SessionStateInternal', $flags).GetValue($ScriptBlock, $null)
}

Export-ModuleMember Describe, Context, It, In, Mock, Assert-VerifiableMocks, Assert-MockCalled
Export-ModuleMember New-Fixture, Get-TestDriveItem, Should, Invoke-Pester, Setup, InModuleScope, Invoke-Mock
Export-ModuleMember BeforeEach, AfterEach, Get-MockDynamicParameters, Set-DynamicParameterVariables

In cases where actual malware is found, the packages are subject to removal. Software sometimes has false positives. Moderators do not necessarily validate the safety of the underlying software, only that a package retrieves software from the official distribution point and/or validate embedded software against official distribution point (where distribution rights allow redistribution).

Chocolatey Pro provides runtime protection from possible malware.

Version Downloads Last Updated Status
Pester 4.8.1 7932 Saturday, May 11, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.8.0 904 Wednesday, May 1, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.3 3277 Saturday, March 23, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.2 1206 Friday, March 8, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.1 435 Tuesday, March 5, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.0 253 Sunday, March 3, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.4.1 8794 Thursday, September 20, 2018 Approved
Pester 4.4.0 4821 Friday, July 20, 2018 Approved
Pester 4.4.0-beta2 105 Sunday, July 8, 2018 Approved

This package has no dependencies.

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