Downloads:

150,546

Downloads of v 3.4.6:

27,321

Last Update:

1/13/2017

Package Maintainer(s):

Software Author(s):

  • Pester Team

Tags:

powershell unit testing bdd tdd mocking admin

Pester

This is not the latest version of Pester available.

3.4.6 | Updated: 1/13/2017

Downloads:

150,546

Downloads of v 3.4.6:

27,321

Software Author(s):

  • Pester Team

Pester 3.4.6

This is not the latest version of Pester available.

All Checks are Passing

2 Passing Test


Validation Testing Passed


Verification Testing Passed

Details

To install Pester, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

To upgrade Pester, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

To uninstall Pester, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

NOTE: This applies to both open source and commercial editions of Chocolatey.

1. Ensure you are set for organizational deployment

Please see the organizational deployment guide

  • Open Source or Commercial:
    • Proxy Repository - Create a proxy nuget repository on Nexus, Artifactory Pro, or a proxy Chocolatey repository on ProGet. Point your upstream to https://chocolatey.org/api/v2. Packages cache on first access automatically. Make sure your choco clients are using your proxy repository as a source and NOT the default community repository. See source command for more information.
    • You can also just download the package and push it to a repository Download

3. Enter your internal repository url

(this should look similar to https://chocolatey.org/api/v2)

4. Choose your deployment method:


choco upgrade pester -y --source="'STEP 3 URL'" [other options]

See options you can pass to upgrade.

See best practices for scripting.

Add this to a PowerShell script or use a Batch script with tools and in places where you are calling directly to Chocolatey. If you are integrating, keep in mind enhanced exit codes.

If you do use a PowerShell script, use the following to ensure bad exit codes are shown as failures:


choco upgrade pester -y --source="'STEP 3 URL'" 
$exitCode = $LASTEXITCODE

Write-Verbose "Exit code was $exitCode"
$validExitCodes = @(0, 1605, 1614, 1641, 3010)
if ($validExitCodes -contains $exitCode) {
  Exit 0
}

Exit $exitCode

- name: Ensure pester installed
  win_chocolatey:
    name: pester
    state: present
    version: 3.4.6
    source: STEP 3 URL

See docs at https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/modules/win_chocolatey_module.html.

Coming early 2020! Central Managment Reporting available now! More information...


chocolatey_package 'pester' do
  action    :install
  version  '3.4.6'
  source   'STEP 3 URL'
end

See docs at https://docs.chef.io/resource_chocolatey_package.html.


Chocolatey::Ensure-Package
(
    Name: pester,
    Version: 3.4.6,
    Source: STEP 3 URL
);

Requires Otter Chocolatey Extension. See docs at https://inedo.com/den/otter/chocolatey.


cChocoPackageInstaller pester
{
   Name     = 'pester'
   Ensure   = 'Present'
   Version  = '3.4.6'
   Source   = 'STEP 3 URL'
}

Requires cChoco DSC Resource. See docs at https://github.com/chocolatey/cChoco.


package { 'pester':
  provider => 'chocolatey',
  ensure   => '3.4.6',
  source   => 'STEP 3 URL',
}

Requires Puppet Chocolatey Provider module. See docs at https://forge.puppet.com/puppetlabs/chocolatey.


salt '*' chocolatey.install pester version="3.4.6" source="STEP 3 URL"

See docs at https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.chocolatey.html.

5. If applicable - Chocolatey configuration/installation

See infrastructure management matrix for Chocolatey configuration elements and examples.

This package was approved as a trusted package on 7/17/2017.

Description

Pester provides a framework for running BDD style Tests to execute and validate PowerShell commands inside of PowerShell and offers a powerful set of Mocking Functions that allow tests to mimic and mock the functionality of any command inside of a piece of PowerShell code being tested. Pester tests can execute any command or script that is accessible to a pester test file. This can include functions, Cmdlets, Modules and scripts. Pester can be run in ad hoc style in a console or it can be integrated into the Build scripts of a Continuous Integration system.


chocolateyInstall.ps1
[CmdletBinding()]
param ( )

end
{
    $modulePath      = Join-Path -Path $env:ProgramFiles -ChildPath WindowsPowerShell\Modules
    $targetDirectory = Join-Path -Path $modulePath -ChildPath Pester
    $scriptRoot      = Split-Path -Path $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path -Parent
    $sourceDirectory = Join-Path -Path $scriptRoot -ChildPath Tools

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 5)
    {
        $manifestFile    = Join-Path -Path $sourceDirectory -ChildPath Pester.psd1
        $manifest        = Test-ModuleManifest -Path $manifestFile -WarningAction Ignore -ErrorAction Stop
        $targetDirectory = Join-Path -Path $targetDirectory -ChildPath $manifest.Version.ToString()
    }

    Update-Directory -Source $sourceDirectory -Destination $targetDirectory
    
    $binPath = Join-Path -Path $targetDirectory -ChildPath bin
    Install-ChocolateyPath $binPath

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -lt 4)
    {
        $modulePaths = [Environment]::GetEnvironmentVariable('PSModulePath', 'Machine') -split ';'
        if ($modulePaths -notcontains $modulePath)
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message "Adding '$modulePath' to PSModulePath."

            $modulePaths = @(
                $modulePath
                $modulePaths
            )

            $newModulePath = $modulePaths -join ';'

            [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable('PSModulePath', $newModulePath, 'Machine')
            $env:PSModulePath += ";$modulePath"
        }
    }
}

begin
{
    function Update-Directory
    {
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param (
            [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
            [string] $Source,

            [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
            [string] $Destination
        )

        $Source = $PSCmdlet.GetUnresolvedProviderPathFromPSPath($Source)
        $Destination = $PSCmdlet.GetUnresolvedProviderPathFromPSPath($Destination)

        if (-not (Test-Path -LiteralPath $Destination))
        {
            $null = New-Item -Path $Destination -ItemType Directory -ErrorAction Stop
        }

        try
        {
            $sourceItem = Get-Item -LiteralPath $Source -ErrorAction Stop
            $destItem = Get-Item -LiteralPath $Destination -ErrorAction Stop

            if ($sourceItem -isnot [System.IO.DirectoryInfo] -or $destItem -isnot [System.IO.DirectoryInfo])
            {
                throw 'Not Directory Info'
            }
        }
        catch
        {
            throw 'Both Source and Destination must be directory paths.'
        }

        $sourceFiles = Get-ChildItem -Path $Source -Recurse |
                       Where-Object -FilterScript { -not $_.PSIsContainer }

        foreach ($sourceFile in $sourceFiles)
        {
            $relativePath = Get-RelativePath $sourceFile.FullName -RelativeTo $Source
            $targetPath = Join-Path -Path $Destination -ChildPath $relativePath

            $sourceHash = Get-FileHash -Path $sourceFile.FullName
            $destHash = Get-FileHash -Path $targetPath

            if ($sourceHash -ne $destHash)
            {
                $targetParent = Split-Path -Path $targetPath -Parent

                if (-not (Test-Path -Path $targetParent -PathType Container))
                {
                    $null = New-Item -Path $targetParent -ItemType Directory -ErrorAction Stop
                }

                Write-Verbose -Message "Updating file $relativePath to new version."
                Copy-Item -Path $sourceFile.FullName -Destination $targetPath -Force -ErrorAction Stop
            }
        }

        $targetFiles = Get-ChildItem -Path $Destination -Recurse |
                       Where-Object -FilterScript { -not $_.PSIsContainer }

        foreach ($targetFile in $targetFiles)
        {
            $relativePath = Get-RelativePath $targetFile.FullName -RelativeTo $Destination
            $sourcePath = Join-Path -Path $Source -ChildPath $relativePath

            if (-not (Test-Path $sourcePath -PathType Leaf))
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message "Removing unknown file $relativePath from module folder."
                Remove-Item -LiteralPath $targetFile.FullName -Force -ErrorAction Stop
            }
        }

    }

    function Get-RelativePath
    {
        param ( [string] $Path, [string] $RelativeTo )
        return $Path -replace "^$([regex]::Escape($RelativeTo))\\?"
    }

    function Get-FileHash
    {
        param ([string] $Path)

        if (-not (Test-Path -LiteralPath $Path -PathType Leaf))
        {
            return $null
        }

        $item = Get-Item -LiteralPath $Path
        if ($item -isnot [System.IO.FileSystemInfo])
        {
            return $null
        }

        $stream = $null

        try
        {
            $sha = New-Object -TypeName System.Security.Cryptography.SHA256CryptoServiceProvider
            $stream = $item.OpenRead()
            $bytes = $sha.ComputeHash($stream)
            return [convert]::ToBase64String($bytes)
        }
        finally
        {
            if ($null -ne $stream) { $stream.Close() }
            if ($null -ne $sha)    { $sha.Clear() }
        }
    }
}
tools\bin\pester.bat
@echo off
SET DIR=%~dp0%
SET ARGS=%*
if NOT '%1'=='' SET ARGS=%ARGS:"=\"%
if '%1'=='/?' goto usage
if '%1'=='-?' goto usage
if '%1'=='?' goto usage
if '%1'=='/help' goto usage
if '%1'=='help' goto usage

@PowerShell -NonInteractive -NoProfile -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Command ^
 "& Import-Module '%DIR%..\Pester.psm1';  & { Invoke-Pester -EnableExit %ARGS%}"

goto finish
:usage
if NOT '%2'=='' goto help

echo To run pester for tests, just call pester or runtests with no arguments
echo.
echo Example: pester
echo.
echo For Detailed help information, call pester help with a help topic. See
echo help topic about_Pester for a list of all topics at the end
echo.
echo Example: pester help about_Pester
echo.
goto finish

:help
@PowerShell -NonInteractive -NoProfile -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Command ^
  "& Import-Module '%DIR%..\Pester.psm1'; & { Get-Help %2}"

:finish
exit /B %errorlevel%
tools\en-US\about_BeforeEach_AfterEach.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_BeforeEach_AfterEach

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Describes the BeforeEach and AfterEach commands, which run a set of commands that you specify
    before or after every It block.

LONG DESCRIPTION
    The the BeforeEach and AfterEach commands in the Pester module let you define setup and teardown
    tasks that are performed at the beginning and end of every It block. This can eliminate duplication of code
    in test scripts, ensure that each test is performed on a pristine state regardless of their
    order, and perform any necessary clean-up tasks after each test.

    BeforeEach and AfterEach blocks may be defined inside of any Describe or Context. If they
    are present in both a Context and its parent Describe, BeforeEach blocks in the Describe scope
    are executed first, followed by BeforeEach blocks in the Context scope. AfterEach blocks are
    the reverse of this, with the Context  AfterEach blocks executing before Describe.

    The script blocks assigned to BeforeEach and AfterEach are dot-sourced in the Context or Describe
    which contains the current It statement, so you don't have to worry about the scope of variable
    assignments. Any variables that are assigned values within a BeforeEach block can be used inside
    the body of the It block.

    BeforeAll and AfterAll are used the same way as BeforeEach and AfterEach, except that they are
    executed at the beginning and end of their containing Describe or Context block.  This is
    essentially syntactic sugar for the following arrangement of code:

      Describe 'Something' {
        try
        {
            <BeforeAll Code Here>

            <Describe Body>
        }
        finally
        {
            <AfterAll Code Here>
        }
      }

    
  SYNTAX AND PLACEMENT
    Unlike most of the commands in a Pester script, BeforeEach, AfterEach, BeforeAll and AfterAll blocks
    apply to the entire Describe or Context scope in which they are defined, regardless of the order of
    commands inside the Describe or Context. In other words, even if an It block appears before BeforeEach
    or AfterEach in the tests file, the BeforeEach and AfterEach will still be executed.  Likewise, BeforeAll
    code will be executed at the beginning of a Context or Describe block regardless of where it is found,
    and AfterAll code will execute at the end of the Context or Describe.


  EXAMPLES
    Describe 'Testing BeforeEach and AfterEach' {
        $afterEachVariable = 'AfterEach has not been executed yet'

        It 'Demonstrates that BeforeEach may be defined after the It command' {
            $beforeEachVariable | Should Be 'Set in a describe-scoped BeforeEach'
            $afterEachVariable  | Should Be 'AfterEach has not been executed yet'
            $beforeAllVariable  | Should Be 'BeforeAll has been executed'
        }

        It 'Demonstrates that AfterEach has executed after the end of the first test' {
            $afterEachVariable | Should Be 'AfterEach has been executed'
        }

        BeforeEach {
            $beforeEachVariable = 'Set in a describe-scoped BeforeEach'
        }

        AfterEach {
            $afterEachVariable = 'AfterEach has been executed'
        }

        BeforeAll {
            $beforeAllVariable = 'BeforeAll has been executed'
        }
      }

SEE ALSO
    about_Pester
    about_Should
    about_Mocking
    about_TestDrive
    about_about_Try_Catch_Finally
    Describe
    Context
    Should
    It
    Invoke-Pester
tools\en-US\about_Mocking.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Mocking

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Pester provides a set of Mocking functions making it easy to fake dependencies 
    and also to verify behavior. Using these mocking functions can allow you to 
    "shim" a data layer or mock other complex functions that already have their 
    own tests.

LONG DESCRIPTION
    With the set of Mocking functions that Pester exposes, one can:

        - Mock the behavior of ANY PowerShell command.
        - Verify that specific commands were (or were not) called.
        - Verify the number of times a command was called with a set of specified 
	  parameters.

  MOCKING FUNCTIONS
  For detailed information about the functions in the Pester module, use Get-Help.

	Mock
		Mocks the behavior of an existing command with an alternate 
		implementation.

	Assert-VerifiableMocks
		Checks if any Verifiable Mock has not been invoked. If so, this will 
		throw an exception.

	Assert-MockCalled
		Checks if a Mocked command has been called a certain number of times 
		and throws an exception if it has not.

  EXAMPLE
    function Build ($version) {
        Write-Host "a build was run for version: $version"
    }

    function BuildIfChanged {
        $thisVersion = Get-Version
        $nextVersion = Get-NextVersion
        if ($thisVersion -ne $nextVersion) { Build $nextVersion }
        return $nextVersion
    }

    $here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
    $sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path).Replace(".Tests.", ".")
    . "$here\$sut"

    Describe "BuildIfChanged" {
      Context "When there are Changes" {
        Mock Get-Version {return 1.1}
        Mock Get-NextVersion {return 1.2}
        Mock Build {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {$version -eq 1.2}

        $result = BuildIfChanged

        It "Builds the next version" {
          Assert-VerifiableMocks
        }
        It "returns the next version number" {
          $result | Should Be 1.2
        }
      }
      Context "When there are no Changes" {
        Mock Get-Version { return 1.1 }
        Mock Get-NextVersion { return 1.1 }
        Mock Build {}

        $result = BuildIfChanged

        It "Should not build the next version" {
          Assert-MockCalled Build -Times 0 -ParameterFilter {$version -eq 1.1}
        }
      }
    }


  MOCKING CALLS TO COMMANDS MADE FROM INSIDE SCRIPT MODULES

  Let's say you have code like this inside a script module (.psm1 file):

    function BuildIfChanged {
      $thisVersion = Get-Version
      $nextVersion = Get-NextVersion
      if ($thisVersion -ne $nextVersion) { Build $nextVersion }
      return $nextVersion
    }

    function Build ($version) {
      Write-Host "a build was run for version: $version"
    }

    # Actual definitions of Get-Version and Get-NextVersion are not shown here,
    # since we'll just be mocking them anyway. However, the commands do need to
    # exist in order to be mocked, so we'll stick dummy functions here

    function Get-Version { return 0 }
    function Get-NextVersion { return 0 }

    Export-ModuleMember -Function BuildIfChanged

  Beginning in Pester 3.0, there are two ways to write a unit test for a module that 
  mocks the calls to Get-Version and Get-NextVersion from the module's BuildIfChanged 
  command. The first is to inject mocks into a module:

  In these examples, the PSM1 file, MyModule.psm1 is installed in $env:PSModulePath on
  the local computer.

    Import-Module MyModule

    Describe "BuildIfChanged" {
      Context "When there are Changes" {
        Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-Version { return 1.1 }
        Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-NextVersion { return 1.2 }

        # To demonstrate that you can mock calls to commands other than functions 
        # defined in the same module, we'll mock a call to Write-Host.
      
        Mock -ModuleName MyModule Write-Host {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {
            $Object -eq 'a build was run for version: 1.2'
        }

        $result = BuildIfChanged

        It "Builds the next version and calls Write-Host" {
          Assert-VerifiableMocks
        }

        It "returns the next version number" {
          $result | Should Be 1.2
        }
      }

      Context "When there are no Changes" {
        Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-Version { return 1.1 }
        Mock -ModuleName MyModule Get-NextVersion { return 1.1 }
        Mock -ModuleName MyModule Build { }

        $result = BuildIfChanged

        It "Should not build the next version" {
          Assert-MockCalled Build -ModuleName MyModule -Times 0 -ParameterFilter {
            $version -eq 1.1
          }
        }
      }
    }


  In this sample test script, all calls to Mock and Assert-MockCalled have the
  -ModuleName MyModule parameter added. This tells Pester to inject the mock into the module scope,
  which causes any calls to those commands from inside the module to execute the mock instead.

  When you write your test script this way, you can mock commands that are called by the module's
  internal functions. However, your test script is still limited to accessing the public, exported
  members of the module. For example, you could not call the Build function directly.

  The InModuleScope command causes entire sections of your test script to execute inside the targeted
  script module. This gives you access to unexported members of the module. For example:

    Import-Module MyModule
 
    Describe "Unit testing the module's internal Build function:" {
      InModuleScope MyModule {
        $testVersion = 5.0
        Mock Write-Host { }

        Build $testVersion

        It 'Outputs the correct message' {
          Assert-MockCalled Write-Host -ParameterFilter {
            $Object -eq "a build was run for version: $testVersion"
          }
        }
      }
    }

  When using InModuleScope, you no longer need to specify a ModuleName parameter when calling
  Mock or Assert-MockCalled for commands in the module. You can also directly call the Build
  function that the module does not export.

SEE ALSO
  Mock
  Assert-VerifiableMocks
  Assert-MockCalled
  InModuleScope
  Describe
  Context
  It
  
  The following articles are useful for further understanding of Pester Mocks.
    Pester Mock and Test Drive, by Jakub Jareš:
      http://www.powershellmagazine.com/2014/09/30/pester-mock-and-testdrive/
    Pester and Mocking, by Mickey Gousset:
      http://www.systemcentercentral.com/day-53-pester-mocking/
    Mocking Missing Cmdlets with Pester, by Iain Brighton:
      http://virtualengine.co.uk/2015/mocking-missing-cmdlets-with-pester/
    Testing Mocked Output with Pester, by Steven Murawski:
      http://stevenmurawski.com/powershell/2014/02/testing-returned-objects-with-pester/
      
  The following articles are useful for deeper understanding of Mocking in general.
    Answer to the Question "What is the Purpose of Mock Objects" by Bert F:
      http://stackoverflow.com/a/3623574/5514075
    Mocks Aren't Stubs, by Martin Fowler:
      http://martinfowler.com/articles/mocksArentStubs.html
    The Art of Mocking, by Gil Zilberfeld:
      http://www.methodsandtools.com/archive/archive.php?id=122
tools\en-US\about_Pester.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Pester

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Pester is a test framework for Windows PowerShell. Use the Pester language 
    and its commands to write and run tests that verify that your scripts and 
    modules work as designed.

    Pester 3.4.0 supports Windows PowerShell 2.0 and greater.

LONG DESCRIPTION
    Pester introduces a professional test framework for Windows PowerShell 
    commands. You can use Pester to test commands of any supported type, 
    including scripts, cmdlets, functions, CIM commands, workflows, and DSC 
    resources, and test these commands in modules of all types.

    Each Pester test compares actual to expected output using a collection of 
    comparison operators that mirror the familiar operators in Windows 
    PowerShell. In this way, Pester supports "dynamic testing", that is, it 
    tests the code while it's running, instead of just evaluating code syntax 
    ("static testing"). 

    Once your Pester tests are written are verified to work correctly, you can 
    run them automatically or on demand to verify that the output didn't change 
    and that any code changes did not introduce errors. You can also add your 
    tests to the build scripts of a continuous integration system, and add new 
    tests at any time.


 WHAT CAN PESTER TEST?
    Pester is designed to support "test-driven development" (TDD), in which you 
    write and run tests before writing your code, thereby using the test as a 
    code specification. 

    It also supports "behavior-driven development" (BDD), in which the tests 
    verify the behavior and output of the code, and the user experience, 
    independent of its implementation. This lets you change the implementation 
    and use the test to verify that the behavior is unchanged.

    You can use Pester to write "unit tests" that test individual functions in 
    isolation and "integration tests" that verify that functions can be used 
    together to generate expected results. 

    Pester creates and manages a temporary drive (PSDrive named TestDrive:) that
    you can use to simulate a file system. For more information, see 
    about_TestDrive.

    Pester also has "mocking" commands that replace the actual output of 
    commands with output that you specify. Mocking lets you test your commands 
    with varied input without creating and maintaining fake entries in a file 
    or database, or commenting-out and inserting code just for testing. For more
    information, see about_Mocking.


 THE PESTER LANGUAGE
    To make it easier to write tests, Pester uses a language especially designed 
    for testing. This "domain-specific language" (DSL) hides the standard 
    verb-noun syntax of PowerShell commands. 

    To make the language more fluent, the command parameters are positional, so 
    you don't typically use parameter names.	

    For example, this "gets all widgets" test uses the Pester language, 
    including its "It", "Should", and "Be" commands. The test verifies that the 
    actual output of the Get-Widget cmdlet is the same as the expected value in 
    the $allWidgets variables.
    
        It "gets all widgets" {
	    Get-Widget | Should Be $allWidgets
        }


    To learn the Pester language, start by reading the following About and 
    cmdlet help topics:

    -- Describe:     Creates a required test container.
    -- Context:      Creates an optional scoped test sub-container.
    -- It:           Creates a test.
    -- about_Should  Compares actual to expected values. This topic also
                     lists all valid values of Be, which specify the
                     comparison operator used in the test.



 HOW TO CREATE TEST FILES
    To start using Pester, create a script and a test file that tests the 
    script. If you already have a script, you can create a test file for it.

    Pester test files are Windows PowerShell scripts with a .Tests.ps1 file name
    extension. The distinctive file name extension enables Pester to identify 
    tests and distinguish them from other scripts. 

    Typically, the test file and file it tests have the same base file name, 
    such as:

        New-Log.ps1
        New-Log.Tests.ps1
  
    For a quick start, use the New-Fixture cmdlet in the Pester module. It 
    creates a script with an empty function and a matching test file with a 
    valid test. 

    For example, this command creates a New-Log.ps1 script and a 
    New-Log.Tests.ps1 test script in the C:\Scripts\LogScripts directory.
        
	New-Fixture -Path C:\Scripts\LogScripts -Name New-Log

	    Directory: C:\Scripts\LogScripts


        Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
        ----                -------------     ------ ----
        -a----        4/18/2016   9:51 AM         30 New-Log.ps1
        -a----        4/18/2016   9:51 AM        262 New-Log.Tests.ps1


    The similar names do not automatically associate the test file and script 
    file. The test file must include code to import ("dot-source") the 
    functions, aliases, and variables in the script being tested into the scope 
    of the test script.

    For example:
       . .\New-Log.ps1
    -or-
       . C:\Scripts\LogScripts\New-Log.ps1
 
    
    Many Pester test files, including the files that New-Fixture creates, begin with these
    statements.
    
        $here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
        $sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path) -replace '\.Tests\.', '.'
        . "$here\$sut"

    This code finds the current path of the test file at run time and saves it 
    in the $here variable. Then, it finds the script based on the path in $here. 
    This code assumes that the script has the same base name and is located in 
    the same directory as the test file.

    You can use any code in the test file that finds the script, but be sure 
    that the test file has the required *.Tests.ps1 file name extension.



 HOW TO RUN PESTER TESTS
    Pester tests are Windows PowerShell scripts (.ps1 files), so you can run 
    them at the command line, or in any editor.

    Pester also has an Invoke-Pester cmdlet with useful parameters. By default,
    Invoke-Pester runs all the tests in a directory and all of its subdirectories
    recursively, but you can run selected tests by specifying a script name or 
    name pattern, a test name, or a test tag. 

    Invoke-Pester parameters also let you save the test output in NUnitXml or 
    LegacyNUnitXml formats that are commonly used by reporting tools.

    For example, the following command runs all tests in the current directory 
    and all subdirectories recursively. It writes output to the host, but does 
    not generate any objects. 

	Invoke-Pester 

    In contrast, this command runs only the tests in the New-Log.Tests.ps1 file 
    that have the 'EventVwr' tag. It writes the test results as custom objects 
    and saves them in NUnitXml format in the NewLogTests.xml file. It also runs
    an optional code coverage test to verify that all lines in the script ran
    at least once during the tests.

	Invoke-Pester -Script C:\Tests\New-Log.Tests.ps1 ` 
          -Tag EventVwr -OutputFile .\NewLogTests.xml -OutputFormat NUnitXml `
          -CodeCoverage


    To run the New-Log.Tests.ps1 file that New-Fixture created, change to its 
    local directory or a parent directory, and run Invoke-Pester. You can also 
    use the Script parameter of Invoke-Pester to run only the New-Log.Tests.ps1 
    test.           

        PS C:\Scripts> Invoke-Pester -Script .\New-Log.Tests.ps1
 
    For more information about Invoke-Pester, type: Get-Help Invoke-Pester


 EXAMPLE
    For your first Pester test, use the New-Fixture cmdlet to create a script 
    file and matching test file.    

    For example:

        New-Fixture -Path C:\TestPester -Name Get-Hello

	    Directory: C:\TestPester


        Mode                LastWriteTime         Length Name
        ----                -------------         ------ ----
        -a----        4/18/2016   9:51 AM             30 Get-Hello.ps1
        -a----        4/18/2016   9:51 AM            262 Get-Hello.Tests.ps1


    The Get-Hello.ps1 script contains an empty Get-Hello.ps1 function.

        function Get-Hello {}

    The Get-Hello.Tests.ps1 file contains an empty Pester test that is named
    for the Get-Hello function.

        Describe "Get-Hello" {
            It "does something useful" {
                $true | Should Be $false
            }
        }

    To run the test, use Invoke-Pester. For example,

       Invoke-Pester C:\TestPester

    When you run the test, it fails by design, because Should compares $True to 
    $False using the equal operator ("Be") and $True doesn't equal $False.  

 
    To start testing the Get-Hello function, change $True to Get-Hello and 
    $False to "Hello". Now, the test compares the output of Get-Hello output to 
    'hello'.

    It should still fail, because Get-Hello doesn't return anything.

        Describe "New-Log" {
            It "does something useful" {
                Get-Hello | Should Be 'Hello'
            }
        }


    To make the test pass, change the Get-Hello function so it returns 'hello'. 
    Then, in steps, change $False to more interesting values, then change the 
    Get-Hello function output to make the test pass.

    You can also experiment with other comparison operators, such as the BeLike 
    (supports wildcards) and BeExactly (case sensitive), and BeLikeExactly 
    operators. For more, information about comparison operators in Pester, see 
    about_Should.


 PESTER TEST OUTPUT
    When you run a test, Pester use a variation of Write-Host to write 
    color-coded text to the console. You'll quickly learn to recognize the 
    purple test names and green (passing) and red (failing) test results with 
    the elapsed time of the test.
    
         Describing Get-Profile
          [+] Gets all profiles 156ms
          [+] Gets only profiles 24ms

    The output ends with a summary of the test results.

         Tests completed in 3.47s
         Passed: 20 Failed: 1 Skipped: 0 Pending: 0 Inconclusive: 0
    
    However, because Pester uses Write-Host, it does not write to the output 
    stream (stdout), so there are no output objects to save in a variable or 
    redirect to a file. 

    To direct Pester to create custom objects, use its PassThru parameter. The 
    result is a single PSCustomObject with a TestResult property that one 
    TestResult custom object for each test in the test file.

    To save the custom objects to a file, use the OutputFile and OutputFormat 
    parameters of Invoke-Pester, which save the output in NUnitXml and 
    LegacyNUnitXml formats that are easy to parse and commonly used by reporting
    tools.



  REAL-WORLD EXAMPLES
    For help in writing Pester tests, examine the extensive collection of tests 
    that Pester uses to verify its Windows PowerShell code.

    To find the Pester tests in the Pester module directory, type:

        dir <Pester_module_path>\*Tests.ps1 -Recurse

       -or-

	dir (Get-Module Pester -ListAvailable).ModuleBase -Include *Tests.ps1 -Recurse


SEE ALSO
    Pester wiki: https://github.com/pester/pester/wiki
    Describe
    Context
    It
    New-Fixture
    Invoke-Pester
    about_Mocking
    about_Should
    about_TestDrive
tools\en-US\about_Should.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Should

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Provides assertion convenience methods for comparing objects and throwing
    test failures when test expectations fail.

LONG DESCRIPTION
    Should is an Extension of System.Object and can be used as a native type
    inside Describe blocks. The various Should member methods can be invoked
    directly from an object being compared. It is typically used in individual
    It blocks to verify the results of an expectation. The Should method is
    typically called from the "actual" object being compared and takes the
    expected" object as a parameter. Should includes several members that
    perform various comparisons of objects and will throw a PesterFailure when
    the objects do not evaluate to be comparable.

  SHOULD MEMBERS
    Be
        Compares one object with another for equality and throws if the two
        objects are not the same.

        $actual="Actual value"
        $actual | Should Be "actual value" # Test will pass
        $actual | Should Be "not actual value"  # Test will fail

    BeExactly
        Compares one object with another for equality and throws if the two objects are not the same.  This comparison is case sensitive.

        $actual="Actual value"
        $actual | Should BeExactly "Actual value" # Test will pass
        $actual | Should BeExactly "actual value" # Test will fail

    BeGreaterThan
        Asserts that a number is greater than an expected value. Uses PowerShell's -gt operator to compare the two values.

        $Error.Count | Should BeGreaterThan 0

    BeIn
        Asserts that a collection of values contain a specific value. Uses PowerShell's -contains operator to confirm.

        1 | Should BeIn @(1,2,3,'a','b','c')

    BeLessThan
        Asserts that a number is less than an expected value. Uses PowerShell's -gt operator to compare the two values.

        $Error.Count | Should BeLessThan 1

    BeLike
        Asserts that the actual value matches a wildcard pattern using PowerShell's -like operator.  This comparison is not case-sensitive.

        $actual="Actual value"
        $actual | Should BeLike "actual *" # Test will pass
        $actual | Should BeLike "not actual *" # Test will fail

    BeLikeExactly

        Asserts that the actual value matches a wildcard pattern using PowerShell's -like operator.  This comparison is case-sensitive.

        $actual="Actual value"
        $actual | Should BeLikeExactly "Actual *" # Test will pass
        $actual | Should BeLikeExactly "actual *" # Test will fail

    BeOfType
        Asserts that the actual value should be an object of a specified type (or a subclass of the specified type) using PowerShell's -is operator:

        $actual = Get-Item $env:SystemRoot
        $actual | Should BeOfType System.IO.DirectoryInfo   # Test will pass; object is a DirectoryInfo
        $actual | Should BeOfType System.IO.FileSystemInfo  # Test will pass; DirectoryInfo base class is FileSystemInfo

        $actual | Should BeOfType System.IO.FileInfo        # Test will fail; FileInfo is not a base class of DirectoryInfo

    BeNullOrEmpty
        Checks values for null or empty (strings). The static [String]::IsNullOrEmpty() method is used to do the comparison.

        $null | Should BeNullOrEmpty # Test will pass
        $null | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty # Test will fail
        @()   | Should BeNullOrEmpty # Test will pass
        ""    | Should BeNullOrEmpty # Test will pass
    Exist
        Does not perform any comparison but checks if the object calling Exist
        is present in a PS Provider. The object must have valid path syntax. It
        essentially must pass a Test-Path call.

        $actual=(Dir . )[0].FullName
        Remove-Item $actual
        $actual | Should Exist # Test will fail

    Contain
        Checks to see if a file contains the specified text.  This search is not case sensitive and uses regular expressions.

        Set-Content -Path TestDrive:\file.txt -Value 'I am a file.'
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I Am' # Test will pass
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain '^I.*file$' # Test will pass

        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I Am Not' # Test will fail

        Tip: Use [regex]::Escape("pattern") to match the exact text.

        Set-Content -Path TestDrive:\file.txt -Value 'I am a file.'
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I.am.a.file' # Test will pass
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain ([regex]::Escape('I.am.a.file')) # Test will fail

    ContainExactly
        Checks to see if a file contains the specified text.  This search is case sensitive and uses regular expressions to match the text.

        Set-Content -Path TestDrive:\file.txt -Value 'I am a file.'
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I am' # Test will pass
        'TestDrive:\file.txt' | Should Contain 'I Am' # Test will fail

    Match
        Uses a regular expression to compare two objects. This comparison is not case sensitive.

        "I am a value" | Should Match "I Am" # Test will pass
        "I am a value" | Should Match "I am a bad person" # Test will fail

        Tip: Use [regex]::Escape("pattern") to match the exact text.

        "Greg" | Should Match ".reg" # Test will pass
        "Greg" | Should Match ([regex]::Escape(".reg")) # Test will fail

    MatchExactly
        Uses a regular expression to compare two objects.  This comparison is case sensitive.

        "I am a value" | Should MatchExactly "I am" # Test will pass
        "I am a value" | Should MatchExactly "I Am" # Test will fail

    Throw
        Checks if an exception was thrown. Enclose input in a script block.

        { foo } | Should Throw # Test will pass
        { $foo = 1 } | Should Throw # Test will fail
        { foo } | Should Not Throw # Test will fail
        { $foo = 1 } | Should Not Throw # Test will pass

        Warning: The input object must be a ScriptBlock, otherwise it is processed outside of the assertion.

        Get-Process -Name "process" -ErrorAction Stop | Should Throw # Should pass, but the exception thrown by Get-Process causes the test to fail.

  NEGATIVE ASSERTIONS
    Any of the Should operators described above can be negated by using the word "Not" before the operator.  For example:

    'one' | Should Not Be 'Two'
    { Get-Item $env:SystemRoot } | Should Not Throw

  USING SHOULD IN A TEST

    function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
        return $a + $b
    }

    Describe "Add-Numbers" {

        It "adds positive numbers" {
            $sum = Add-Numbers 2 3
            $sum | Should Be 3
        }
    }

    This test will fail since 3 will not be equal to the sum of 2 and 3.

SEE ALSO
  Describe
  Context
  It
tools\en-US\about_TestDrive.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_TestDrive

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    A PSDrive for file activity limited to the scope of a singe Describe or 
    Context block.

LONG DESCRIPTION	
    A test may need to work with file operations and validate certain types of 
    file activities. It is usually desirable not to perform file activity tests 
    that will produce side effects outside of an individual test. Pester 
    creates a PSDrive inside the user's temporary drive that is accessible via a 
    names PSDrive TestDrive:. Pester will remove this drive after the test 
    completes. You may use this drive to isolate the file operations of your 
    test to a temporary store.

EXAMPLE
	function Add-Footer($path, $footer) {
	    Add-Content $path -Value $footer
	}

	Describe "Add-Footer" {
	    $testPath="TestDrive:\test.txt"
	    Set-Content $testPath -value "my test text."
	    Add-Footer $testPath "-Footer"
	    $result = Get-Content $testPath

	    It "adds a footer" {
	        (-join $result).Should.Be("my test text.-Footer")
	    }
	}
	
	When this test completes, the contents of the TestDrive PSDrive will 
	be removed.

SEE ALSO
    Context
    Describe
    It
    about_Should
tools\Examples\Calculator\Add-Numbers.ps1
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}
tools\Examples\Calculator\Add-Numbers.Tests.ps1
$here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
. "$here\Add-Numbers.ps1"

Describe -Tags "Example" "Add-Numbers" {

    It "adds positive numbers" {
        Add-Numbers 2 3 | Should Be 5
    }

    It "adds negative numbers" {
        Add-Numbers (-2) (-2) | Should Be (-4)
    }

    It "adds one negative number to positive number" {
        Add-Numbers (-2) 2 | Should Be 0
    }

    It "concatenates strings if given strings" {
        Add-Numbers two three | Should Be "twothree"
    }

    It "should not be 0" {
        Add-Numbers 2 3 | Should Not Be 0
    }
}

tools\Examples\Validator\Validator.Tests.ps1

function MyValidator($thing_to_validate) {
    return $thing_to_validate.StartsWith("s")
}

function Invoke-SomethingThatUsesMyValidator {
    param(
        [ValidateScript({MyValidator $_})]
        $some_param
    )
}

Describe "Testing a validator" {

    It "calls MyValidator" {
        Mock MyValidator -MockWith { return $true }
        Invoke-SomethingThatUsesMyValidator "test"
        $was_called_once = 1
        Assert-MockCalled MyValidator $was_called_once
    }

}

Describe "MyValidator" {

    It "passes things that start with the letter S" {
        $result = MyValidator "summer"
        $result | Should Be $true
    }

    It "does not pass a param that does not start with S" {
        $result = MyValidator "bummer"
        $result | Should Be $false
    }
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Be.ps1
#Be
function PesterBe($value, $expected) {
    return ($expected -eq $value)
}

function PesterBeFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if (-not (($expected -is [string]) -and ($value -is [string])))
    {
        return "Expected: {$expected}`nBut was:  {$value}"
    }
    <#joining the output strings to a single string here, otherwise I get
       Cannot find an overload for "Exception" and the argument count: "4".
       at line: 63 in C:\Users\nohwnd\github\pester\Functions\Assertions\Should.ps1

    This is a quickwin solution, doing the join in the Should directly might be better
    way of doing this. But I don't want to mix two problems.
    #>
    ( Get-CompareStringMessage -Expected $expected -Actual $value ) -join "`n"
}

function NotPesterBeFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    return "Expected: value was {$value}, but should not have been the same"
}

#BeExactly
function PesterBeExactly($value, $expected) {
    return ($expected -ceq $value)
}

function PesterBeExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if (-not (($expected -is [string]) -and ($value -is [string])))
    {
        return "Expected exactly: {$expected}`nBut was: {$value}"
    }
    <#joining the output strings to a single string here, otherwise I get
       Cannot find an overload for "Exception" and the argument count: "4".
       at line: 63 in C:\Users\nohwnd\github\pester\Functions\Assertions\Should.ps1

    This is a quickwin solution, doing the join in the Should directly might be better
    way of doing this. But I don't want to mix two problems.
    #>
    ( Get-CompareStringMessage -Expected $expected -Actual $value -CaseSensitive ) -join "`n"
}

function NotPesterBeExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    return "Expected: value was {$value}, but should not have been exactly the same"
}

#common functions
function Get-CompareStringMessage {
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [String]$Expected,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [String]$Actual,
        [switch]$CaseSensitive
    )

    $expectedLength = $expected.Length
    $actualLength = $actual.Length
    $maxLength = $expectedLength,$actualLength | & $SafeCommands['Sort-Object'] -Descending | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -First 1

    $differenceIndex = $null
    for ($i = 0; $i -lt $maxLength -and ($null -eq $differenceIndex); ++$i){
        $differenceIndex = if ($CaseSensitive -and ($expected[$i] -cne $actual[$i]))
        {
            $i
        }
        elseif ($expected[$i] -ne $actual[$i])
        {
            $i
        }
    }

    [string]$output = $null
    if ($null -ne $differenceIndex)
    {
        if ($expected.Length -ne $actual.Length) {
           "Expected string length $expectedLength but was $actualLength. Strings differ at index $differenceIndex."
        }
        else
        {
           "String lengths are both $expectedLength. Strings differ at index $differenceIndex."
        }


        "Expected: {{{0}}}" -f ( $expected | Expand-SpecialCharacters )
        "But was:  {{{0}}}" -f ( $actual | Expand-SpecialCharacters )

        $specialCharacterOffset = $null
        if ($differenceIndex -ne 0)
        {
            #count all the special characters before the difference
            $specialCharacterOffset = ($actual[0..($differenceIndex-1)] |
                & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] {"`n","`r","`t","`b","`0" -contains $_} |
                & $SafeCommands['Measure-Object'] |
                & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty Count)
        }

        '-'*($differenceIndex+$specialCharacterOffset+11)+'^'
    }
}

function Expand-SpecialCharacters {
    param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
    [AllowEmptyString()]
    [string[]]$InputObject)
    process {
        $InputObject -replace "`n","\n" -replace "`r","\r" -replace "`t","\t" -replace "`0", "\0" -replace "`b","\b"
    }
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Be.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBe" {
        It "returns true if the 2 arguments are equal" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBe 1 1)
        }
        It "returns true if the 2 arguments are equal and have different case" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBe "A" "a")
        }

        It "returns false if the 2 arguments are not equal" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBe 1 2)
        }
    }
    Describe "PesterBeFailureMessage" {
        #the correctness of difference index value and the arrow pointing to the correct place
        #are not tested here thoroughly, but the behaviour was visually checked and is
        #implicitly tested by using the whole output in the following tests


        It "Returns nothing for two identical strings" {
            #this situation should actually never happen, as the code is called
            #only when the objects are not equal

            $string = "string"
            PesterBeFailureMessage $string $string | Should BeNullOrEmpty
        }

        It "Outputs less verbose message for two different objects that are not strings" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage 2 1 | Should Be "Expected: {1}`nBut was:  {2}"
        }

        It "Outputs verbose message for two strings of different length" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "actual" "expected" | Should Be "Expected string length 8 but was 6. Strings differ at index 0.`nExpected: {expected}`nBut was:  {actual}`n-----------^"
        }

        It "Outputs verbose message for two different strings of the same length" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "x" "y" | Should Be "String lengths are both 1. Strings differ at index 0.`nExpected: {y}`nBut was:  {x}`n-----------^"
        }

        It "Replaces non-printable characters correctly" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "`n`r`b`0`tx" "`n`r`b`0`ty" | Should Be "String lengths are both 6. Strings differ at index 5.`nExpected: {\n\r\b\0\ty}`nBut was:  {\n\r\b\0\tx}`n---------------------^"
        }

        It "The arrow points to the correct position when non-printable characters are replaced before the difference" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "123`n456" "123`n789" | Should Be "String lengths are both 7. Strings differ at index 4.`nExpected: {123\n789}`nBut was:  {123\n456}`n----------------^"
        }

        It "The arrow points to the correct position when non-printable characters are replaced after the difference" {
            PesterBeFailureMessage "abcd`n123" "abc!`n123" | Should Be "String lengths are both 8. Strings differ at index 3.`nExpected: {abc!\n123}`nBut was:  {abcd\n123}`n--------------^"
        }
    }
}

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "BeExactly" {
        It "passes if letter case matches" {
            'a' | Should BeExactly 'a'
        }
        It "fails if letter case doesn't match" {
            'A' | Should Not BeExactly 'a'
        }
        It "passes for numbers" {
            1 | Should BeExactly 1
            2.15 | Should BeExactly 2.15
        }
    }

    Describe "PesterBeExactlyFailureMessage" {
        It "Writes verbose message for strings that differ by case" {
            PesterBeExactlyFailureMessage "a" "A" | Should Be "String lengths are both 1. Strings differ at index 0.`nExpected: {A}`nBut was:  {a}`n-----------^"
        }
    }
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\BeGreaterThan.ps1
function PesterBeGreaterThan($value, $expected)
{
    return [bool]($value -gt $expected)
}

function PesterBeGreaterThanFailureMessage($value,$expected)
{
    return "Expected {$value} to be greater than {$expected}"
}

function NotPesterBeGreaterThanFailureMessage($value,$expected)
{
    return "Expected {$value} to be less than or equal to {$expected}"
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeGreaterThan.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBeGreaterThan" {
        It "passes if value greater than expected" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeGreaterThan 2 1)
            2 | Should BeGreaterThan 1
        }
        It "fails if values equal" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeGreaterThan 3 3)
        }

        It "fails if value less than expected" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeGreaterThan 4 5)
        }
    }

}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeIn.ps1

function PesterBeIn($value, $expectedArrayOfValues) {
    return [bool]($expectedArrayOfValues -contains $value)
}

function PesterBeInFailureMessage($value, $expectedArrayOfValues) {
    if(-not ([bool]($expectedArrayOfValues -contains $value))) {
        return "Expected: ${value} to be in collection [$($expectedArrayOfValues -join ',')] but was not found."
    }
}

function NotPesterBeInFailureMessage($value, $expectedArrayOfValues) {
    if([bool]($expectedArrayOfValues -contains $value)) {
        return "Expected: ${value} to not be in collection [$($expectedArrayOfValues -join ',')] but was found."
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeIn.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBeIn" {
        It "passes if value is in the collection" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeIn 1 (@(1,2,3)))
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeIn 'a' (@(1,'a',3)))
            1 | Should BeIn @(1,2,3)
            'a' | Should BeIn @(1,'a',3)
        }
        It "fails if value is not in the collection" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeIn 4 (@(1,2,3)))
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeIn 'b' (@(1,'a',3)))
            4 | Should Not BeIn @(1,2,3)
            'b' | Should Not BeIn @(1,'a',3)
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeLessThan.ps1
function PesterBeLessThan($value, $expected)
{
    return [bool]($value -lt $expected)
}

function PesterBeLessThanFailureMessage($value,$expected)
{
    return "Expected {$value} to be less than {$expected}"
}

function NotPesterBeLessThanFailureMessage($value,$expected)
{
    return "Expected {$value} to be greater than or equal to {$expected}"
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeLessThan.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBeLessThan" {
        It "passes if value Less than expected" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeLessThan 1 2)
            1 | Should BeLessThan 2
        }
        It "fails if values equal" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeLessThan 3 3)
        }

        It "fails if value greater than expected" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeLessThan 5 4)
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeLike.ps1

function PesterBeLike($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return ($value -like $expectedMatch)
}

function PesterBeLikeFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to be like the wildcard {$expectedMatch}"
}

function NotPesterBeLikeFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not be like the wildcard ${expectedMatch}"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\BeLike.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "BeLike" {
        It "returns true for things that are like wildcard" {
            PesterBeLike "foobar" "*ob*" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "returns false for things that do not match" {
            PesterBeLike "foobar" "oob" | Should Be $false
        }

        It "passes for strings with different case" {
            PesterBeLike "foobar" "FOOBAR" | Should Be $true
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeLikeExactly.ps1

function PesterBeLikeExactly($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return ($value -clike $expectedMatch)
}

function PesterBeLikeExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to be exactly like the wildcard {$expectedMatch}"
}

function NotPesterBeLikeExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not be exactly like the wildcard ${expectedMatch}"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\BeLikeExactly.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "BeLike" {
        It "returns true for things that are like wildcard" {
            PesterBeLikeExactly "FOOBAR" "*OB*" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "returns false for things that do not match" {
            PesterBeLikeExactly "foobar" "oob" | Should Be $false
        }

        It "fails for strings with different case" {
            PesterBeLikeExactly "foobar" "*OB*" | Should Be $false
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeNullOrEmpty.ps1

function PesterBeNullOrEmpty($value) {
    if ($null -eq $value) {
        return $true
    }
    if ([String] -eq $value.GetType()) {
        return [String]::IsNullOrEmpty($value)
    }
    if ($null -ne $value.PSObject.Properties['Count'] -and
        $null -ne $value.Count) {
        return $value.Count -lt 1
    }
    return $false
}

function PesterBeNullOrEmptyFailureMessage($value) {
    return "Expected: value to be empty but it was {$value}"
}

function NotPesterBeNullOrEmptyFailureMessage {
    return "Expected: value to not be empty"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\BeNullOrEmpty.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBeNullOrEmpty" {
        It "should return true if null" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeNullOrEmpty $null)
        }

        It "should return true if empty string" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeNullOrEmpty "")
        }

        It "should return true if empty array" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeNullOrEmpty @())
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeOfType.ps1

function PesterBeOfType($value, $expectedType) {
    trap [System.Management.Automation.PSInvalidCastException] { return $false }
    if($expectedType -is [string] -and !($expectedType -as [Type])) {
        $expectedType = $expectedType -replace '^\[(.*)\]$','$1'
    }
    return [bool]($value -is $expectedType)
}

function PesterBeOfTypeFailureMessage($value, $expectedType) {
    if($expectedType -is [string] -and !($expectedType -as [Type])) {
        $expectedType = $expectedType -replace '^\[(.*)\]$','$1'
    }
    if($Type = $expectedType -as [type]) {
        return "Expected: ${value} to be of type [$Type]"
    } else {
        return "Expected: ${value} to be of type [$expectedType], but unable to find type [$expectedType]. Make sure that the assembly that contains that type is loaded."
    }
}

function NotPesterBeOfTypeFailureMessage($value, $expectedType) {
    if($expectedType -is [string] -and -not $expectedType -as [Type]) {
        $expectedType = $expectedType -replace '^\[(.*)\]$','$1'
    }
    if($Type = $expectedType -as [type]) {
        return "Expected: {$value} to be of any type except [${Type}], but it's a [${Type}]"
    } else {
        return "Expected: ${value} to be of any type except [$expectedType], but unable to find type [$expectedType]. Make sure that the assembly that contains that type is loaded."
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\BeOfType.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterBeOfType" {
        It "passes if value is of the expected type" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeOfType 1 ([int]))
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterBeOfType 1 "Int")
            1 | Should BeOfType Int
            2.0 | Should BeOfType ([double])
        }
        It "fails if value is of a different types" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeOfType 2 double)
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeOfType 2.0 ([string]))
        }

        It "fails if type isn't a type" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterBeOfType 5 NotAType)
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Contain.ps1

function PesterContain($file, $contentExpectation) {
    return ((& $SafeCommands['Get-Content'] -Encoding UTF8 $file) -match $contentExpectation)
}

function PesterContainFailureMessage($file, $contentExpectation) {
    return "Expected: file ${file} to contain {$contentExpectation}"
}

function NotPesterContainFailureMessage($file, $contentExpectation) {
    return "Expected: file {$file} to not contain ${contentExpectation} but it did"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Contain.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterContain" {
        Context "when testing file contents" {
            Setup -File "test.txt" "this is line 1`nrush is awesome`nAnd this is Unicode: ☺"

            It "returns true if the file contains the specified content" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContain "$TestDrive\test.txt" "rush")
            }

            It "returns true if the file contains the specified content with different case" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContain "$TestDrive\test.txt" "RUSH")
            }

            It "returns false if the file does not contain the specified content" {
                Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterContain "$TestDrive\test.txt" "slime")
            }

            It "returns true if the file contains the specified UTF8 content" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContain "$TestDrive\test.txt" "☺")
            }
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\ContainExactly.ps1
function PesterContainExactly($file, $contentExpectation) {
    return ((& $SafeCommands['Get-Content'] -Encoding UTF8 $file) -cmatch $contentExpectation)
}

function PesterContainExactlyFailureMessage($file, $contentExpectation) {
    return "Expected: file ${file} to contain exactly {$contentExpectation}"
}

function NotPesterContainExactlyFailureMessage($file, $contentExpectation) {
    return "Expected: file {$file} to not contain exactly ${contentExpectation} but it did"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\ContainExactly.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterContainExactly" {
        Context "when testing file contents" {
            Setup -File "test.txt" "this is line 1`nPester is awesome`nAnd this is Unicode: ☺"
            It "returns true if the file contains the specified content exactly" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContainExactly "$TestDrive\test.txt" "Pester")
            }

            It "returns false if the file does not contain the specified content exactly" {
                Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterContainExactly "$TestDrive\test.txt" "pESTER")
            }

            It "returns true if the file contains the specified Unicode content exactly" {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterContainExactly "$TestDrive\test.txt" "☺")
            }
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Exist.ps1

function PesterExist($value) {
    & $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] $value
}

function PesterExistFailureMessage($value) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to exist"
}

function NotPesterExistFailureMessage($value) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not exist, but it was found"
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Exist.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterExist" {
        It "returns true for paths that exist" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterExist $TestDrive)
        }

        It "returns false for paths do not exist" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterExist "$TestDrive\nonexistent")
        }

        It 'works for path with escaped [ ] characters' {
            New-Item -Path "TestDrive:\[test].txt" -ItemType File | Out-Null
            "TestDrive:\``[test``].txt"  | Should Exist
        }

        It 'returns correct result for function drive' {
            function f1 {}

            'function:f1' | Should Exist
        }

        It 'returns correct result for env drive' {
            $env:test = 'somevalue'

            'env:test' | Should Exist
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Match.ps1

function PesterMatch($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return ($value -match $expectedMatch)
}

function PesterMatchFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to match the expression {$expectedMatch}"
}

function NotPesterMatchFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not match the expression ${expectedMatch}"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\Match.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "Match" {
        It "returns true for things that match" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "ob" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "returns false for things that do not match" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "slime" | Should Be $false
        }

        It "passes for strings with different case" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "FOOBAR" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "uses regular expressions" {
            PesterMatch "foobar" "\S{6}" | Should Be $true
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\MatchExactly.ps1

function PesterMatchExactly($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return ($value -cmatch $expectedMatch)
}

function PesterMatchExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: {$value} to exactly match the expression {$expectedMatch}"
}

function NotPesterMatchExactlyFailureMessage($value, $expectedMatch) {
    return "Expected: ${value} to not match the expression ${expectedMatch} exactly"
}

tools\Functions\Assertions\MatchExactly.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "MatchExactly" {
        It "returns true for things that match exactly" {
            PesterMatchExactly "foobar" "ob" | Should Be $true
        }

        It "returns false for things that do not match exactly" {
            PesterMatchExactly "foobar" "FOOBAR" | Should Be $false
        }

        It "uses regular expressions" {
            PesterMatchExactly "foobar" "\S{6}" | Should Be $true
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\PesterThrow.ps1

$ActualExceptionMessage = ""
$ActualExceptionWasThrown = $false

# because this is a script block, the user will have to
# wrap the code they want to assert on in { }
function PesterThrow([scriptblock] $script, $expectedErrorMessage) {

    if ($null -eq $script) {
        throw (New-Object -TypeName ArgumentNullException -ArgumentList "script","Scriptblock not found. Input to 'Throw' and 'Not Throw' must be enclosed in curly braces.")
    }

    $Script:ActualExceptionMessage = ""
    $Script:ActualExceptionWasThrown = $false

    try {
        # Redirect to $null so script output does not enter the pipeline
        & $script > $null
    } catch {
        $Script:ActualExceptionWasThrown = $true
        $Script:ActualExceptionMessage = $_.Exception.Message
        $Script:ActualExceptionLine = Get-ExceptionLineInfo $_.InvocationInfo
    }

    if ($ActualExceptionWasThrown) {
        return Get-DoMessagesMatch $ActualExceptionMessage $expectedErrorMessage
    }
    return $false
}

function Get-DoMessagesMatch($value, $expected) {
    if ($expected -eq "") { return $false }
    return $value.Contains($expected)
}

function Get-ExceptionLineInfo($info) {
    # $info.PositionMessage has a leading blank line that we need to account for in PowerShell 2.0
    $positionMessage = $info.PositionMessage -split '\r?\n' -match '\S' -join "`r`n"
    return ($positionMessage -replace "^At ","from ")
}

function PesterThrowFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if ($expected) {
        return "Expected: the expression to throw an exception with message {{{0}}}, an exception was {2}raised, message was {{{1}}}`n    {3}" -f
               $expected, $ActualExceptionMessage,(@{$true="";$false="not "}[$ActualExceptionWasThrown]),($ActualExceptionLine  -replace "`n","`n    ")
    } else {
      return "Expected: the expression to throw an exception"
    }
}

function NotPesterThrowFailureMessage($value, $expected) {
    if ($expected) {
        return "Expected: the expression not to throw an exception with message {{{0}}}, an exception was {2}raised, message was {{{1}}}`n    {3}" -f
               $expected, $ActualExceptionMessage,(@{$true="";$false="not "}[$ActualExceptionWasThrown]),($ActualExceptionLine  -replace "`n","`n    ")
    } else {
        return "Expected: the expression not to throw an exception. Message was {{{0}}}`n    {1}" -f $ActualExceptionMessage,($ActualExceptionLine  -replace "`n","`n    ")
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\PesterThrow.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "PesterThrow" {
        It "returns true if the statement throws an exception" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterThrow { throw })
        }

        It "returns false if the statement does not throw an exception" {
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterThrow { 1 + 1 })
        }

        It "returns true if the statement throws an exception and the actual error text matches the expected error text" {
            $expectedErrorMessage = "expected error message"
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterThrow { throw $expectedErrorMessage } $expectedErrorMessage)
        }

        It "returns false if the statement throws an exception and the actual error does not match the expected error text" {
            $unexpectedErrorMessage = "unexpected error message"
            $expectedErrorMessage = "some expected error message"
            Test-NegativeAssertion (PesterThrow { throw $unexpectedErrorMessage} $expectedErrorMessage)
        }

        It "returns true if the statement throws an exception and the actual error text matches the expected error pattern" {
            Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterThrow { throw "expected error"} "error")
        }

        It "throws ArgumentException if null ScriptBlock is provided" {
            try {
                Test-PositiveAssertion (PesterThrow $null)
                throw "Should throw exception, but no exception was thrown."
            }
            catch [ArgumentException] {
                #do nothing. we expect argument exception to happen
            }
        }
    }

    Describe "Get-DoMessagesMatch" {
        It "returns true if the actual message is the same as the expected message" {
            $expectedErrorMessage = "expected"
            $actualErrorMessage = "expected"
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch $actualErrorMessage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Be $True
        }

        It "returns false if the actual message is not the same as the expected message" {
            $expectedErrorMessage = "some expected message"
            $actualErrorMessage = "unexpected"
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch $actualErrorMessage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Be $False
        }

        It "returns false is there's no expectation" {
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch "" ""
            $result | Should Be $False
        }

        It "returns true if the expected error is contained in the actual message" {
            $actualErrorMessage = "this is a long error message"
            $expectedText = "long error"
            $result = Get-DoMessagesMatch $actualErrorMessage $expectedText
            $result | Should Be $True
        }
    }

    Describe 'PesterThrowFailureMessage' {
        $testScriptPath = Join-Path $TestDrive.FullName test.ps1

        It 'returns false if the actual message is not the same as the expected message' {
            $unexpectedErrorMessage = 'unexpected'
            $expectedErrorMessage = 'some expected message'
            Set-Content -Path $testScriptPath -Value "throw '$unexpectedErrorMessage'"

            PesterThrow { & $testScriptPath } $expectedErrorMessage > $null
            $result = PesterThrowFailureMessage $unexpectedErrorMessage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Match "^Expected: the expression to throw an exception with message {$expectedErrorMessage}, an exception was raised, message was {$unexpectedErrorMessage}`n    from $([RegEx]::Escape($testScriptPath)):\d+ char:\d+"
        }

        It 'returns true if the actual message is the same as the expected message' {
            PesterThrow { } > $null
            $result = PesterThrowFailureMessage 'error message'
            $result | Should Be 'Expected: the expression to throw an exception'
        }
    }

    Describe 'NotPesterThrowFailureMessage' {
        $testScriptPath = Join-Path $TestDrive.FullName test.ps1

        It 'returns false if the actual message is not the same as the expected message' {
            $unexpectedErrorMessage = 'unexpected'
            $expectedErrorMessage = 'some expected message'
            Set-Content -Path $testScriptPath -Value "throw '$unexpectedErrorMessage'"

            PesterThrow { & $testScriptPath } $expectedErrorMessage > $null
            $result = NotPesterThrowFailureMessage $unexpectedErrorMessage $expectedErrorMessage
            $result | Should Match "^Expected: the expression not to throw an exception with message {$expectedErrorMessage}, an exception was raised, message was {$unexpectedErrorMessage}`n    from $([RegEx]::Escape($testScriptPath)):\d+ char:\d+"
        }

        It 'returns true if the actual message is the same as the expected message' {
            Set-Content -Path $testScriptPath -Value "throw 'error message'"
            PesterThrow { & $testScriptPath } > $null
            $result = NotPesterThrowFailureMessage 'error message'
            $result | Should Match "^Expected: the expression not to throw an exception. Message was {error message}`n    from $([RegEx]::Escape($testScriptPath)):\d+ char:\d+"
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Set-TestInconclusive.ps1
function New-InconclusiveErrorRecord ([string] $Message, [string] $File, [string] $Line, [string] $LineText) {
    $exception = New-Object Exception $Message
    $errorID = 'PesterTestInconclusive'
    $errorCategory = [Management.Automation.ErrorCategory]::InvalidResult
    # we use ErrorRecord.TargetObject to pass structured information about the error to a reporting system.
    $targetObject = @{Message = $Message; File = $File; Line = $Line; LineText = $LineText}
    $errorRecord = New-Object Management.Automation.ErrorRecord $exception, $errorID, $errorCategory, $targetObject
    return $errorRecord
}

function Set-TestInconclusive {
    param (
        [string] $Message
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Set-TestInconclusive
    $lineText = $MyInvocation.Line.TrimEnd("`n")
    $line = $MyInvocation.ScriptLineNumber
    $file = $MyInvocation.ScriptName

    throw ( New-InconclusiveErrorRecord -Message $Message -File $file -Line $line -LineText $lineText)
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Should.ps1
function Parse-ShouldArgs([array] $shouldArgs) {
    if ($null -eq $shouldArgs) { $shouldArgs = @() }

    $parsedArgs = @{
        PositiveAssertion = $true
        ExpectedValue = $null
    }

    $assertionMethodIndex = 0
    $expectedValueIndex   = 1

    if ($shouldArgs.Count -gt 0 -and $shouldArgs[0].ToLower() -eq "not") {
        $parsedArgs.PositiveAssertion = $false
        $assertionMethodIndex += 1
        $expectedValueIndex   += 1
    }

    if ($assertionMethodIndex -lt $shouldArgs.Count)
    {
        $parsedArgs.AssertionMethod = "Pester$($shouldArgs[$assertionMethodIndex])"
    }
    else
    {
        throw 'You cannot call Should without specifying an assertion method.'
    }

    if ($expectedValueIndex -lt $shouldArgs.Count)
    {
        $parsedArgs.ExpectedValue = $shouldArgs[$expectedValueIndex]
    }

    return $parsedArgs
}

function Get-TestResult($shouldArgs, $value) {
    $assertionMethod = $shouldArgs.AssertionMethod
    $command = & $SafeCommands['Get-Command'] $assertionMethod -CommandType Function -ErrorAction $script:IgnoreErrorPreference

    if ($null -eq $command)
    {
        $assertionMethod = $assertionMethod -replace '^Pester'
        throw "'$assertionMethod' is not a valid Should operator."
    }

    $testResult = (& $assertionMethod $value $shouldArgs.ExpectedValue)

    if ($shouldArgs.PositiveAssertion) {
        return -not $testResult
    }

    return $testResult
}

function Get-FailureMessage($shouldArgs, $value) {
    $failureMessageFunction = "$($shouldArgs.AssertionMethod)FailureMessage"
    if (-not $shouldArgs.PositiveAssertion) {
        $failureMessageFunction = "Not$failureMessageFunction"
    }

    return (& $failureMessageFunction $value $shouldArgs.ExpectedValue)
}
function New-ShouldErrorRecord ([string] $Message, [string] $File, [string] $Line, [string] $LineText) {
    $exception = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] Exception $Message
    $errorID = 'PesterAssertionFailed'
    $errorCategory = [Management.Automation.ErrorCategory]::InvalidResult
    # we use ErrorRecord.TargetObject to pass structured information about the error to a reporting system.
    $targetObject = @{Message = $Message; File = $File; Line = $Line; LineText = $LineText}
    $errorRecord = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] Management.Automation.ErrorRecord $exception, $errorID, $errorCategory, $targetObject
    return $errorRecord
}

function Should {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Should is a command that provides assertion convenience methods for comparing objects and throwing test
        failures when test expectations fail. Should is used inside It blocks of a Pester test script.
    .DESCRIPTION
        For a detailed description see about_Should or https://github.com/pester/Pester/wiki/Should.
    #>
    begin {
        Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Should
        $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs $args
    }

    end {
        $input.MoveNext()
        do {
            $value = $input.Current

            $testFailed = Get-TestResult $parsedArgs $value

            if ($testFailed) {
                $lineText = $MyInvocation.Line.TrimEnd("`n")
                $line = $MyInvocation.ScriptLineNumber
                $file = $MyInvocation.ScriptName

                $failureMessage = Get-FailureMessage $parsedArgs $value

                throw ( New-ShouldErrorRecord -Message $failureMessage -File $file -Line $line -LineText $lineText)
            }
        } until ($input.MoveNext() -eq $false)
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Should.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "Parse-ShouldArgs" {
        It "sanitizes assertions functions" {
            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs TestFunction
            $parsedArgs.AssertionMethod | Should Be PesterTestFunction
        }

        It "works with strict mode when using 'switch' style tests" {
            Set-StrictMode -Version Latest
            { throw 'Test' } | Should Throw
        }

        Context "for positive assertions" {

            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs testMethod, 1

            It "gets the expected value from the 2nd argument" {
                $ParsedArgs.ExpectedValue | Should Be 1
            }

            It "marks the args as a positive assertion" {
                $ParsedArgs.PositiveAssertion | Should Be $true
            }
        }

        Context "for negative assertions" {

            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Not, testMethod, 1

            It "gets the expected value from the third argument" {
                $ParsedArgs.ExpectedValue | Should Be 1
            }

            It "marks the args as a negative assertion" {
                $ParsedArgs.PositiveAssertion | Should Be $false
            }
        }

        Context "for the throw assertion" {

            $parsedArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Throw

            It "translates the Throw assertion to PesterThrow" {
                $ParsedArgs.AssertionMethod | Should Be PesterThrow
            }

        }
    }

    Describe "Get-TestResult" {
        Context "for positive assertions" {
            function PesterTest { return $true }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Test

            It "returns false if the test returns true" {
                Get-TestResult $shouldArgs | Should Be $false
            }
        }

        Context "for negative assertions" {
            function PesterTest { return $false }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Not, Test

            It "returns false if the test returns false" {
                Get-TestResult $shouldArgs | Should Be $false
            }
        }
    }

    Describe "Get-FailureMessage" {
        Context "for positive assertions" {
            function PesterTestFailureMessage($v, $e) { return "slime $e $v" }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Test, 1

            It "should return the positive assertion failure message" {
                Get-FailureMessage $shouldArgs 2 | Should Be "slime 1 2"
            }
        }

        Context "for negative assertions" {
            function NotPesterTestFailureMessage($v, $e) { return "not slime $e $v" }
            $shouldArgs = Parse-ShouldArgs Not, Test, 1

            It "should return the negative assertion failure message" {
              Get-FailureMessage $shouldArgs 2 | Should Be "not slime 1 2"
            }
        }

    }

    Describe -Tag "Acceptance" "Should" {
        It "can use the Be assertion" {
            1 | Should Be 1
        }

        It "can use the Not Be assertion" {
            1 | Should Not Be 2
        }

        It "can use the BeNullOrEmpty assertion" {
            $null | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            @()   | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            ""    | Should BeNullOrEmpty
        }

        It "can use the Not BeNullOrEmpty assertion" {
            @("foo") | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            "foo"    | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            "   "    | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            @(1,2,3) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            12345    | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            $item1 = New-Object PSObject -Property @{Id=1; Name="foo"}
            $item2 = New-Object PSObject -Property @{Id=2; Name="bar"}
            @($item1, $item2) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
        }

        It "can handle exception thrown assertions" {
            { foo } | Should Throw
        }

        It "can handle exception should not be thrown assertions" {
            { $foo = 1 } | Should Not Throw
        }

        It "can handle Exist assertion" {
            $TestDrive | Should Exist
        }

        It "can handle the Match assertion" {
            "abcd1234" | Should Match "d1"
        }

        It "can test for file contents" {
            Setup -File "test.foo" "expected text"
            "$TestDrive\test.foo" | Should Contain "expected text"
        }

        It "ensures all assertion functions provide failure messages" {
            $assertionFunctions = @("PesterBe", "PesterThrow", "PesterBeNullOrEmpty", "PesterExist",
                "PesterMatch", "PesterContain")
            $assertionFunctions | % {
                "function:$($_)FailureMessage" | Should Exist
                "function:Not$($_)FailureMessage" | Should Exist
            }
        }

        # TODO understand the purpose of this test, perhaps some better wording
        It "can process functions with empty output as input" {
            function ReturnNothing {}

            # TODO figure out why this is the case
            if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion -eq "2.0") {
                { $(ReturnNothing) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty } | Should Not Throw
            } else {
                { $(ReturnNothing) | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty } | Should Throw
            }
        }

        It 'All failure message functions are present' {
            $assertionFunctions = Get-Command -CommandType Function -Module Pester |
                                  Select-Object -ExpandProperty Name |
                                  Where-Object { $_ -like 'Pester*' -and $_ -notlike '*FailureMessage' }

            $missingFunctions = @(
                foreach ($assertionFunction in $assertionFunctions)
                {
                    $positiveFailureMessage = "${assertionFunction}FailureMessage"
                    $negativeFailureMessage = "Not${assertionFunction}FailureMessage"

                    if (-not (Test-Path function:$positiveFailureMessage)) { $positiveFailureMessage }
                    if (-not (Test-Path function:$negativeFailureMessage)) { $negativeFailureMessage }
                }
            )

            [string]$missingFunctions | Should BeNullOrEmpty
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Assertions\Test-Assertion.ps1

function Test-PositiveAssertion($result) {
    if (-not $result) {
        throw "Expecting expression to pass, but it failed"
    }
}

function Test-NegativeAssertion($result) {
    if ($result) {
        throw "Expecting expression to pass, but it failed"
    }
}

tools\Functions\BreakAndContinue.Tests.ps1
Describe 'Clean handling of break and continue' {
    # If this test 'fails', it'll just cause most of the rest of the tests to never execute (and we won't see any actual failures.)
    # The CI job monitors metrics, though, and will fail the build if the number of tests drops too much.

    Context 'Break' {
        break
    }

    Context 'Continue' {
        continue
    }

    It 'Did not abort the whole test run' { $null = $null }
}
tools\Functions\Context.ps1
function Context {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Provides logical grouping of It blocks within a single Describe block. Any Mocks defined
inside a Context are removed at the end of the Context scope, as are any files or folders
added to the TestDrive during the Context block's execution. Any BeforeEach or AfterEach
blocks defined inside a Context also only apply to tests within that Context .

.PARAMETER Name
The name of the Context. This is a phrase describing a set of tests within a describe.

.PARAMETER Fixture
Script that is executed. This may include setup specific to the context and one or more It
blocks that validate the expected outcomes.

.EXAMPLE
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}

Describe "Add-Numbers" {

    Context "when root does not exist" {
         It "..." { ... }
    }

    Context "when root does exist" {
        It "..." { ... }
        It "..." { ... }
        It "..." { ... }
    }
}

.LINK
Describe
It
BeforeEach
AfterEach
about_Should
about_Mocking
about_TestDrive

#>
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string] $Name,

        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [ScriptBlock] $Fixture  = $(Throw "No test script block is provided. (Have you put the open curly brace on the next line?)")
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Context

    $Pester.EnterContext($Name )
    $TestDriveContent = Get-TestDriveChildItem

    $Pester.CurrentContext | Write-Context

    try
    {
        Add-SetupAndTeardown -ScriptBlock $Fixture
        Invoke-TestGroupSetupBlocks -Scope $pester.Scope

        do
        {
            $null = & $Fixture
        } until ($true)
    }
    catch
    {
        $firstStackTraceLine = $_.InvocationInfo.PositionMessage.Trim() -split '\r?\n' | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -First 1
        $Pester.AddTestResult('Error occurred in Context block', "Failed", $null, $_.Exception.Message, $firstStackTraceLine, $null, $null, $_)
        $Pester.TestResult[-1] | Write-PesterResult
    }
    finally
    {
        Invoke-TestGroupTeardownBlocks -Scope $pester.Scope
        Clear-SetupAndTeardown
        Clear-TestDrive -Exclude ($TestDriveContent | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty FullName)
        Exit-MockScope
        $Pester.LeaveContext()
    }
}

tools\Functions\Context.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe 'Testing Context' {
    It 'Has a non-mandatory fixture parameter which throws the proper error message if missing' {
        $command = Get-Command Context -Module Pester
        $command | Should Not Be $null

        $parameter = $command.Parameters['Fixture']
        $parameter | Should Not Be $null

        # Some environments (Nano/CoreClr) don't have all the type extensions
        $attribute = $parameter.Attributes | Where-Object { $_ -is [System.Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute] }
        $isMandatory = $null -ne $attribute -and $attribute.Mandatory

        $isMandatory | Should Be $false

        { Context Bogus } | Should Throw 'No test script block is provided'
    }
}
tools\Functions\Coverage.ps1
if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -le 2)
{
    function Exit-CoverageAnalysis { }
    function Get-CoverageReport { }
    function Show-CoverageReport { }
    function Enter-CoverageAnalysis {
        param ( $CodeCoverage )

        if ($CodeCoverage) { & $SafeCommands['Write-Error'] 'Code coverage analysis requires PowerShell 3.0 or later.' }
    }

    return
}

function Enter-CoverageAnalysis
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [object[]] $CodeCoverage,
        [object] $PesterState
    )

    $coverageInfo =
    foreach ($object in $CodeCoverage)
    {
        Get-CoverageInfoFromUserInput -InputObject $object
    }

    $PesterState.CommandCoverage = @(Get-CoverageBreakpoints -CoverageInfo $coverageInfo)
}

function Exit-CoverageAnalysis
{
    param ([object] $PesterState)

    & $SafeCommands['Set-StrictMode'] -Off

    $breakpoints = @($PesterState.CommandCoverage.Breakpoint) -ne $null
    if ($breakpoints.Count -gt 0)
    {
        & $SafeCommands['Remove-PSBreakpoint'] -Breakpoint $breakpoints
    }
}

function Get-CoverageInfoFromUserInput
{
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [object]
        $InputObject
    )

    if ($InputObject -is [System.Collections.IDictionary])
    {
        $unresolvedCoverageInfo = Get-CoverageInfoFromDictionary -Dictionary $InputObject
    }
    else
    {
        $unresolvedCoverageInfo = New-CoverageInfo -Path ([string]$InputObject)
    }

    Resolve-CoverageInfo -UnresolvedCoverageInfo $unresolvedCoverageInfo
}

function New-CoverageInfo
{
    param ([string] $Path, [string] $Function = $null, [int] $StartLine = 0, [int] $EndLine = 0)

    return [pscustomobject]@{
        Path = $Path
        Function = $Function
        StartLine = $StartLine
        EndLine = $EndLine
    }
}

function Get-CoverageInfoFromDictionary
{
    param ([System.Collections.IDictionary] $Dictionary)

    [string] $path = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'Path', 'p'
    if ([string]::IsNullOrEmpty($path))
    {
        throw "Coverage value '$Dictionary' is missing required Path key."
    }

    $startLine = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'StartLine', 'Start', 's'
    $endLine = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'EndLine', 'End', 'e'
    [string] $function = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $Dictionary -Key 'Function', 'f'

    $startLine = Convert-UnknownValueToInt -Value $startLine -DefaultValue 0
    $endLine = Convert-UnknownValueToInt -Value $endLine -DefaultValue 0

    return New-CoverageInfo -Path $path -StartLine $startLine -EndLine $endLine -Function $function
}

function Convert-UnknownValueToInt
{
    param ([object] $Value, [int] $DefaultValue = 0)

    try
    {
        return [int] $Value
    }
    catch
    {
        return $DefaultValue
    }
}

function Resolve-CoverageInfo
{
    param ([psobject] $UnresolvedCoverageInfo)

    $path = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.Path

    try
    {
        $resolvedPaths = & $SafeCommands['Resolve-Path'] -Path $path -ErrorAction Stop
    }
    catch
    {
        & $SafeCommands['Write-Error'] "Could not resolve coverage path '$path': $($_.Exception.Message)"
        return
    }

    $filePaths =
    foreach ($resolvedPath in $resolvedPaths)
    {
        $item = & $SafeCommands['Get-Item'] -LiteralPath $resolvedPath
        if ($item -is [System.IO.FileInfo] -and ('.ps1','.psm1') -contains $item.Extension)
        {
            $item.FullName
        }
        elseif (-not $item.PsIsContainer)
        {
            & $SafeCommands['Write-Warning'] "CodeCoverage path '$path' resolved to a non-PowerShell file '$($item.FullName)'; this path will not be part of the coverage report."
        }
    }

    $params = @{
        StartLine = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.StartLine
        EndLine = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.EndLine
        Function = $UnresolvedCoverageInfo.Function
    }

    foreach ($filePath in $filePaths)
    {
        $params['Path'] = $filePath
        New-CoverageInfo @params
    }
}

function Get-CoverageBreakpoints
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [object[]] $CoverageInfo
    )

    $fileGroups = @($CoverageInfo | & $SafeCommands['Group-Object'] -Property Path)
    foreach ($fileGroup in $fileGroups)
    {
        & $SafeCommands['Write-Verbose'] "Initializing code coverage analysis for file '$($fileGroup.Name)'"
        $totalCommands = 0
        $analyzedCommands = 0

        :commandLoop
        foreach ($command in Get-CommandsInFile -Path $fileGroup.Name)
        {
            $totalCommands++

            foreach ($coverageInfoObject in $fileGroup.Group)
            {
                if (Test-CoverageOverlapsCommand -CoverageInfo $coverageInfoObject -Command $command)
                {
                    $analyzedCommands++
                    New-CoverageBreakpoint -Command $command
                    continue commandLoop
                }
            }
        }

        & $SafeCommands['Write-Verbose'] "Analyzing $analyzedCommands of $totalCommands commands in file '$($fileGroup.Name)' for code coverage"
    }
}

function Get-CommandsInFile
{
    param ([string] $Path)

    $errors = $null
    $tokens = $null
    $ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseFile($Path, [ref] $tokens, [ref] $errors)

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 5)
    {
        # In PowerShell 5.0, dynamic keywords for DSC configurations are represented by the DynamicKeywordStatementAst
        # class.  They still trigger breakpoints, but are not a child class of CommandBaseAst anymore.

        $predicate = {
            $args[0] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.DynamicKeywordStatementAst] -or
            $args[0] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandBaseAst]
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $predicate = { $args[0] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandBaseAst] }
    }

    $searchNestedScriptBlocks = $true
    $ast.FindAll($predicate, $searchNestedScriptBlocks)
}

function Test-CoverageOverlapsCommand
{
    param ([object] $CoverageInfo, [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    if ($CoverageInfo.Function)
    {
        Test-CommandInsideFunction -Command $Command -Function $CoverageInfo.Function
    }
    else
    {
        Test-CoverageOverlapsCommandByLineNumber @PSBoundParameters
    }

}

function Test-CommandInsideFunction
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command, [string] $Function)

    for ($ast = $Command; $null -ne $ast; $ast = $ast.Parent)
    {
        $functionAst = $ast -as [System.Management.Automation.Language.FunctionDefinitionAst]
        if ($null -ne $functionAst -and $functionAst.Name -like $Function)
        {
            return $true
        }
    }

    return $false
}

function Test-CoverageOverlapsCommandByLineNumber
{
    param ([object] $CoverageInfo, [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    $commandStart = $Command.Extent.StartLineNumber
    $commandEnd = $Command.Extent.EndLineNumber
    $coverStart = $CoverageInfo.StartLine
    $coverEnd = $CoverageInfo.EndLine

    # An EndLine value of 0 means to cover the entire rest of the file from StartLine
    # (which may also be 0)
    if ($coverEnd -le 0) { $coverEnd = [int]::MaxValue }

    return (Test-RangeContainsValue -Value $commandStart -Min $coverStart -Max $coverEnd) -or
           (Test-RangeContainsValue -Value $commandEnd -Min $coverStart -Max $coverEnd)
}

function Test-RangeContainsValue
{
    param ([int] $Value, [int] $Min, [int] $Max)
    return $Value -ge $Min -and $Value -le $Max
}

function New-CoverageBreakpoint
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    if (IsIgnoredCommand -Command $Command) { return }

    $params = @{
        Script = $Command.Extent.File
        Line   = $Command.Extent.StartLineNumber
        Column = $Command.Extent.StartColumnNumber
        Action = { }
    }

    $breakpoint = & $SafeCommands['Set-PSBreakpoint'] @params

    [pscustomobject] @{
        File       = $Command.Extent.File
        Function   = Get-ParentFunctionName -Ast $Command
        Line       = $Command.Extent.StartLineNumber
        Command    = Get-CoverageCommandText -Ast $Command
        Breakpoint = $breakpoint
    }
}

function IsIgnoredCommand
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    if (-not $Command.Extent.File)
    {
        # This can happen if the script contains "configuration" or any similarly implemented
        # dynamic keyword.  PowerShell modifies the script code and reparses it in memory, leading
        # to AST elements with no File in their Extent.
        return $true
    }

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 4)
    {
        if ($Command.Extent.Text -eq 'Configuration')
        {
            # More DSC voodoo.  Calls to "configuration" generate breakpoints, but their HitCount
            # stays zero (even though they are executed.)  For now, ignore them, unless we can come
            # up with a better solution.
            return $true
        }

        if (IsChildOfHashtableDynamicKeyword -Command $Command)
        {
            # The lines inside DSC resource declarations don't trigger their breakpoints when executed,
            # just like the "configuration" keyword itself.  I don't know why, at this point, but just like
            # configuration, we'll ignore it so it doesn't clutter up the coverage analysis with useless junk.
            return $true
        }
    }

    if (IsClosingLoopCondition -Command $Command)
    {
        # For some reason, the closing expressions of do/while and do/until loops don't trigger their breakpoints.
        # To avoid useless clutter, we'll ignore those lines as well.
        return $true
    }

    return $false
}

function IsChildOfHashtableDynamicKeyword
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    for ($ast = $Command.Parent; $null -ne $ast; $ast = $ast.Parent)
    {
        if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 5)
        {
            # The ast behaves differently for DSC resources with version 5+.  There's a new DynamicKeywordStatementAst class,
            # and they no longer are represented by CommandAst objects.

            if ($ast -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.DynamicKeywordStatementAst] -and
                $ast.CommandElements[-1] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.HashtableAst])
            {
                return $true
            }
        }
        else
        {
            if ($ast -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandAst] -and
                $null -ne $ast.DefiningKeyword -and
                $ast.DefiningKeyword.BodyMode -eq [System.Management.Automation.Language.DynamicKeywordBodyMode]::Hashtable)
            {
                return $true
            }
        }
    }

    return $false
}

function IsClosingLoopCondition
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Command)

    $ast = $Command

    while ($null -ne $ast.Parent)
    {
        if (($ast.Parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.DoWhileStatementAst] -or
            $ast.Parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.DoUntilStatementAst]) -and
            $ast.Parent.Condition -eq $ast)
        {
            return $true
        }

        $ast = $ast.Parent
    }

    return $false
}

function Get-ParentFunctionName
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Ast)

    $parent = $Ast.Parent

    while ($null -ne $parent -and $parent -isnot [System.Management.Automation.Language.FunctionDefinitionAst])
    {
        $parent = $parent.Parent
    }

    if ($null -eq $parent)
    {
        return ''
    }
    else
    {
        return $parent.Name
    }
}

function Get-CoverageCommandText
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Ast)

    $reportParentExtentTypes = @(
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.ReturnStatementAst]
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.ThrowStatementAst]
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.AssignmentStatementAst]
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.IfStatementAst]
    )

    $parent = Get-ParentNonPipelineAst -Ast $Ast

    if ($null -ne $parent)
    {
        if ($parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.HashtableAst])
        {
            return Get-KeyValuePairText -HashtableAst $parent -ChildAst $Ast
        }
        elseif ($reportParentExtentTypes -contains $parent.GetType())
        {
            return $parent.Extent.Text
        }
    }

    return $Ast.Extent.Text
}

function Get-ParentNonPipelineAst
{
    param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Ast)

    $parent = $null
    if ($null -ne $Ast) { $parent = $Ast.Parent }

    while ($parent -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.PipelineAst])
    {
        $parent = $parent.Parent
    }

    return $parent
}

function Get-KeyValuePairText
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.HashtableAst] $HashtableAst,
        [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $ChildAst
    )

    & $SafeCommands['Set-StrictMode'] -Off

    foreach ($keyValuePair in $HashtableAst.KeyValuePairs)
    {
        if ($keyValuePair.Item2.PipelineElements -contains $ChildAst)
        {
            return '{0} = {1}' -f $keyValuePair.Item1.Extent.Text, $keyValuePair.Item2.Extent.Text
        }
    }

    # This shouldn't happen, but just in case, default to the old output of just the expression.
    return $ChildAst.Extent.Text
}

function Get-CoverageMissedCommands
{
    param ([object[]] $CommandCoverage)
    $CommandCoverage | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Breakpoint.HitCount -eq 0 }
}

function Get-CoverageHitCommands
{
    param ([object[]] $CommandCoverage)
    $CommandCoverage | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Breakpoint.HitCount -gt 0 }
}

function Get-CoverageReport
{
    param ([object] $PesterState)

    $totalCommandCount = $PesterState.CommandCoverage.Count

    $missedCommands = @(Get-CoverageMissedCommands -CommandCoverage $PesterState.CommandCoverage | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] File, Line, Function, Command)
    $hitCommands = @(Get-CoverageHitCommands -CommandCoverage $PesterState.CommandCoverage | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] File, Line, Function, Command)
    $analyzedFiles = @($PesterState.CommandCoverage | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty File -Unique)
    $fileCount = $analyzedFiles.Count

    $executedCommandCount = $totalCommandCount - $missedCommands.Count

    [pscustomobject] @{
        NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed = $totalCommandCount
        NumberOfFilesAnalyzed    = $fileCount
        NumberOfCommandsExecuted = $executedCommandCount
        NumberOfCommandsMissed   = $missedCommands.Count
        MissedCommands           = $missedCommands
        HitCommands              = $hitCommands
        AnalyzedFiles            = $analyzedFiles
    }
}

function Show-CoverageReport
{
    param ([object] $CoverageReport)

    if ($null -eq $CoverageReport -or $CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed -eq 0)
    {
        return
    }

    $totalCommandCount = $CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed
    $fileCount = $CoverageReport.NumberOfFilesAnalyzed
    $executedPercent = ($CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted / $CoverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed).ToString("P2")

    $commandPlural = $filePlural = ''
    if ($totalCommandCount -gt 1) { $commandPlural = 's' }
    if ($fileCount -gt 1) { $filePlural = 's' }

    $commonParent = Get-CommonParentPath -Path $CoverageReport.AnalyzedFiles
    $report = $CoverageReport.MissedCommands | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -Property @(
        @{ Name = 'File'; Expression = { Get-RelativePath -Path $_.File -RelativeTo $commonParent } }
        'Function'
        'Line'
        'Command'
    )

    Write-Screen ''
    Write-Screen 'Code coverage report:'
    Write-Screen "Covered $executedPercent of $totalCommandCount analyzed command$commandPlural in $fileCount file$filePlural."

    if ($CoverageReport.MissedCommands.Count -gt 0)
    {
        Write-Screen ''
        Write-Screen 'Missed commands:'
        $report | & $SafeCommands['Format-Table'] -AutoSize | & $SafeCommands['Out-String'] | Write-Screen
    }
}

function Get-CommonParentPath
{
    param ([string[]] $Path)

    $pathsToTest = @(
        $Path |
        Normalize-Path |
        & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -Unique
    )

    if ($pathsToTest.Count -gt 0)
    {
        $parentPath = & $SafeCommands['Split-Path'] -Path $pathsToTest[0] -Parent

        while ($parentPath.Length -gt 0)
        {
            $nonMatches = $pathsToTest -notmatch "^$([regex]::Escape($parentPath))"

            if ($nonMatches.Count -eq 0)
            {
                return $parentPath
            }
            else
            {
                $parentPath = & $SafeCommands['Split-Path'] -Path $parentPath -Parent
            }
        }
    }

    return [string]::Empty
}

function Get-RelativePath
{
    param ( [string] $Path, [string] $RelativeTo )
    return $Path -replace "^$([regex]::Escape("$RelativeTo$([System.IO.Path]::DirectorySeparatorChar)"))?"
}

function Normalize-Path
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
        [Alias('PSPath', 'FullName')]
        [string[]] $Path
    )

    # Split-Path and Join-Path will replace any AltDirectorySeparatorChar instances with the DirectorySeparatorChar
    # (Even if it's not the one that the split / join happens on.)  So splitting / rejoining a path will give us
    # consistent separators for later string comparison.

    process
    {
        if ($null -ne $Path)
        {
            foreach ($p in $Path)
            {
                $normalizedPath = & $SafeCommands['Split-Path'] $p -Leaf

                if ($normalizedPath -ne $p)
                {
                    $parent = & $SafeCommands['Split-Path'] $p -Parent
                    $normalizedPath = & $SafeCommands['Join-Path'] $parent $normalizedPath
                }

                $normalizedPath
            }
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Coverage.Tests.ps1
if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -le 2) { return }

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe 'Code Coverage Analysis' {
        $root = (Get-PSDrive TestDrive).Root

        $null = New-Item -Path $root\TestScript.ps1 -ItemType File -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

        Set-Content -Path $root\TestScript.ps1 -Value @'
            function FunctionOne
            {
                function NestedFunction
                {
                    'I am the nested function.'
                    'I get fully executed.'
                }

                if ($true)
                {
                    'I am functionOne'
                    NestedFunction
                }
            }

            function FunctionTwo
            {
                'I am function two.  I never get called.'
            }

            FunctionOne

'@

        Context 'Entire file' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            # Path deliberately duplicated to make sure the code doesn't produce multiple breakpoints for the same commands
            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage "$root\TestScript.ps1", "$root\TestScript.ps1" -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 7
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 6
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 7
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed files' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfFilesAnalyzed | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the correct missed command' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am function two.  I never get called.'"
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of hit commands' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands.Count | Should Be 6
            }

            It 'Reports the correct hit command' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am the nested function.'"
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Single function with missed commands' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\TestScript.ps1"; Function = 'FunctionTwo'} -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 0
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the correct missed command' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am function two.  I never get called.'"
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of hit commands' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands.Count | Should Be 0
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Single function with no missed commands' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\TestScript.ps1"; Function = 'FunctionOne'} -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 5
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 0
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of hit commands' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands.Count | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the correct hit command' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am the nested function.'"
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Range of lines' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\TestScript.ps1"; StartLine = 11; EndLine = 12 } -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 2
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 2
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 2
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 0
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of hit commands' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands.Count | Should Be 2
            }

            It 'Reports the correct hit command' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am functionOne'"
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }

        Context 'Wildcard resolution' {
            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage @{Path = "$root\*.ps1"; Function = '*' } -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 6
            }

            $null = & "$root\TestScript.ps1"
            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState

            It 'Reports the proper number of executed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsExecuted | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed commands' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfCommandsAnalyzed | Should Be 6
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of analyzed files' {
                $coverageReport.NumberOfFilesAnalyzed | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 1
            }

            It 'Reports the correct missed command' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am function two.  I never get called.'"
            }

            It 'Reports the proper number of hit commands' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands.Count | Should Be 5
            }

            It 'Reports the correct hit command' {
                $coverageReport.HitCommands[0].Command | Should Be "'I am the nested function.'"
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }
    }

    Describe 'Stripping common parent paths' {
        $paths = @(
            Normalize-Path 'C:\Common\Folder\UniqueSubfolder1/File.ps1'
            Normalize-Path 'C:\Common\Folder\UniqueSubfolder2/File2.ps1'
            Normalize-Path 'C:\Common\Folder\UniqueSubfolder3/File3.ps1'
        )

        $commonPath = Get-CommonParentPath -Path $paths
        $expectedCommonPath = Normalize-Path 'C:\Common/Folder'

        It 'Identifies the correct parent path' {
            $commonPath | Should Be $expectedCommonPath
        }

        $expectedRelativePath = Normalize-Path 'UniqueSubfolder1/File.ps1'
        $relativePath = Get-RelativePath -Path $paths[0] -RelativeTo $commonPath

        It 'Strips the common path correctly' {
            $relativePath | Should Be $expectedRelativePath
        }
    }

    if ((Get-Module -ListAvailable PSDesiredStateConfiguration) -and $PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 4)
    {
        Describe 'Analyzing coverage of a DSC configuration' {
            $root = (Get-PSDrive TestDrive).Root

            $null = New-Item -Path $root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1 -ItemType File -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

            Set-Content -Path $root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1 -Value @'
                $line1 = $true   # Triggers breakpoint
                $line2 = $true   # Triggers breakpoint

                configuration MyTestConfig   # does NOT trigger breakpoint
                {
                    Node localhost    # Triggers breakpoint
                    {
                        WindowsFeature XPSViewer   # Triggers breakpoint
                        {
                            Name = 'XPS-Viewer'  # does NOT trigger breakpoint
                            Ensure = 'Present'   # does NOT trigger breakpoint
                        }
                    }

                    return # does NOT trigger breakpoint

                    $doesNotExecute = $true   # Triggers breakpoint
                }

                $line3 = $true   # Triggers breakpoint

                return   # does NOT trigger breakpoint

                $doesnotexecute = $true   # Triggers breakpoint
'@

            $testState = New-PesterState -Path $root

            Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage "$root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1" -PesterState $testState

            It 'Has the proper number of breakpoints defined' {
                $testState.CommandCoverage.Count | Should Be 7
            }

            $null = . "$root\TestScriptWithConfiguration.ps1"

            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState
            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands before running the configuration' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 4
            }

            MyTestConfig -OutputPath $root

            $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $testState
            It 'Reports the proper number of missed commands after running the configuration' {
                $coverageReport.MissedCommands.Count | Should Be 2
            }

            Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $testState
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Describe.ps1
function Describe {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Creates a logical group of tests.  All Mocks and TestDrive contents
defined within a Describe block are scoped to that Describe; they
will no longer be present when the Describe block exits.  A Describe
block may contain any number of Context and It blocks.

.PARAMETER Name
The name of the test group. This is often an expressive phrase describing the scenario being tested.

.PARAMETER Fixture
The actual test script. If you are following the AAA pattern (Arrange-Act-Assert), this
typically holds the arrange and act sections. The Asserts will also lie in this block but are
typically nested each in its own It block. Assertions are typically performed by the Should
command within the It blocks.

.PARAMETER Tag
Optional parameter containing an array of strings.  When calling Invoke-Pester, it is possible to
specify a -Tag parameter which will only execute Describe blocks containing the same Tag.

.EXAMPLE
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}

Describe "Add-Numbers" {
    It "adds positive numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers 2 3
        $sum | Should Be 5
    }

    It "adds negative numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) (-2)
        $sum | Should Be (-4)
    }

    It "adds one negative number to positive number" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) 2
        $sum | Should Be 0
    }

    It "concatenates strings if given strings" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers two three
        $sum | Should Be "twothree"
    }
}

.LINK
It
Context
Invoke-Pester
about_Should
about_Mocking
about_TestDrive

#>

    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 0)]
        [string] $Name,

        [Alias('Tags')]
        [string[]] [email protected](),

        [Parameter(Position = 1)]
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [ScriptBlock] $Fixture = $(Throw "No test script block is provided. (Have you put the open curly brace on the next line?)")
    )

    if ($null -eq (& $SafeCommands['Get-Variable'] -Name Pester -ValueOnly -ErrorAction $script:IgnoreErrorPreference))
    {
        # User has executed a test script directly instead of calling Invoke-Pester
        $Pester = New-PesterState -Path (& $SafeCommands['Resolve-Path'] .) -TestNameFilter $null -TagFilter @() -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState
        $script:mockTable = @{}
    }

    if($Pester.TestNameFilter-and -not ($Pester.TestNameFilter | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $Name -like $_ }))
    {
        #skip this test
        return
    }

    #TODO add test to test tags functionality
    if($Pester.TagFilter -and @(& $SafeCommands['Compare-Object'] $Tag $Pester.TagFilter -IncludeEqual -ExcludeDifferent).count -eq 0) {return}
    if($Pester.ExcludeTagFilter -and @(& $SafeCommands['Compare-Object'] $Tag $Pester.ExcludeTagFilter -IncludeEqual -ExcludeDifferent).count -gt 0) {return}

    $Pester.EnterDescribe($Name)

    $Pester.CurrentDescribe | Write-Describe
    $testDriveAdded = $false

    try
    {
        New-TestDrive
        $testDriveAdded = $true

        Add-SetupAndTeardown -ScriptBlock $Fixture
        Invoke-TestGroupSetupBlocks -Scope $pester.Scope

        do
        {
            $null = & $Fixture
        } until ($true)
    }
    catch
    {
        $firstStackTraceLine = $_.InvocationInfo.PositionMessage.Trim() -split '\r?\n' | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -First 1
        $Pester.AddTestResult('Error occurred in Describe block', "Failed", $null, $_.Exception.Message, $firstStackTraceLine, $null, $null, $_)
        $Pester.TestResult[-1] | Write-PesterResult
    }
    finally
    {
        Invoke-TestGroupTeardownBlocks -Scope $pester.Scope
        if ($testDriveAdded) { Remove-TestDrive }
        Clear-SetupAndTeardown
        Exit-MockScope
        $Pester.LeaveDescribe()
    }
}

function Assert-DescribeInProgress
{
    param ($CommandName)
    if ($null -eq $Pester -or [string]::IsNullOrEmpty($Pester.CurrentDescribe))
    {
        throw "The $CommandName command may only be used inside a Describe block."
    }
}
tools\Functions\Describe.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe 'Testing Describe' {
    It 'Has a non-mandatory fixture parameter which throws the proper error message if missing' {
        $command = Get-Command Describe -Module Pester
        $command | Should Not Be $null

        $parameter = $command.Parameters['Fixture']
        $parameter | Should Not Be $null

        # Some environments (Nano/CoreClr) don't have all the type extensions
        $attribute = $parameter.Attributes | Where-Object { $_ -is [System.Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute] }
        $isMandatory = $null -ne $attribute -and $attribute.Mandatory

        $isMandatory | Should Be $false

        { Describe Bogus } | Should Throw 'No test script block is provided'
    }
}
tools\Functions\GlobalMock-A.Tests.ps1
# This script exists to create and mock a global function, then exit.  The actual behavior
# that we need to test is covered in GlobalMock-B.Tests.ps1, where we make sure that the
# global function was properly restored in its scope.

$functionName = '01c1a57716fe4005ac1a7bf216f38ad0'

if (Test-Path Function:\$functionName)
{
    Remove-Item Function:\$functionName -Force -ErrorAction Stop
}

function global:01c1a57716fe4005ac1a7bf216f38ad0
{
    return 'Original Function'
}

function script:Testing
{
    return 'Script scope'
}

Describe 'Mocking Global Functions - Part One' {
    Mock $functionName {
        return 'Mocked'
    }

    It 'Mocks the global function' {
        & $functionName | Should Be 'Mocked'
    }
}
tools\Functions\GlobalMock-B.Tests.ps1
# This test depends on some state set up in GlobalMock-A.Tests.ps1.  The behavior we're verifying
# is that global functions that have been mocked are still properly set up even after the test
# script exits its scope.

$functionName = '01c1a57716fe4005ac1a7bf216f38ad0'

try
{
    Describe 'Mocking Global Functions - Part Two' {
        It 'Restored the global function properly' {
            $globalFunctionExists = Test-Path Function:\global:$functionName
            $globalFunctionExists | Should Be $true
            & $functionName | Should Be 'Original Function'
        }
    }
}
finally
{
    if (Test-Path Function:\$functionName)
    {
        Remove-Item Function:\$functionName -Force
    }
}
tools\Functions\In.ps1
function In {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
A convenience function that executes a script from a specified path.

.DESCRIPTION
Before the script block passed to the execute parameter is invoked,
the current location is set to the path specified. Once the script
block has been executed, the location will be reset to the location
the script was in prior to calling In.

.PARAMETER Path
The path that the execute block will be executed in.

.PARAMETER execute
The script to be executed in the path provided.

#>

param(
    $path,
    [ScriptBlock] $execute
)
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName In

    $old_pwd = $pwd
    & $SafeCommands['Push-Location'] $path
    $pwd = $path
    try {
        & $execute
    } finally {
        & $SafeCommands['Pop-Location']
        $pwd = $old_pwd
    }
}
tools\Functions\In.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "the In statement" {
        Setup -Dir "test_path"

        It "executes a command in that directory" {
            In "$TestDrive" -Execute { "" | Out-File "test_file" }
            "$TestDrive\test_file" | Should Exist
        }

        It "updates the `$pwd variable when executed" {
            In "$TestDrive\test_path" -Execute { $env:Pester_Test=$pwd }
            $env:Pester_Test | Should Match "test_path"
            $env:Pester_Test=""
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\InModuleScope.ps1
function InModuleScope
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
   Allows you to execute parts of a test script within the
   scope of a PowerShell script module.
.DESCRIPTION
   By injecting some test code into the scope of a PowerShell
   script module, you can use non-exported functions, aliases
   and variables inside that module, to perform unit tests on
   its internal implementation.

   InModuleScope may be used anywhere inside a Pester script,
   either inside or outside a Describe block.
.PARAMETER ModuleName
   The name of the module into which the test code should be
   injected. This module must already be loaded into the current
   PowerShell session.
.PARAMETER ScriptBlock
   The code to be executed within the script module.
.EXAMPLE
    # The script module:
    function PublicFunction
    {
        # Does something
    }

    function PrivateFunction
    {
        return $true
    }

    Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction

    # The test script:

    Import-Module MyModule

    InModuleScope MyModule {
        Describe 'Testing MyModule' {
            It 'Tests the Private function' {
                PrivateFunction | Should Be $true
            }
        }
    }

    Normally you would not be able to access "PrivateFunction" from
    the PowerShell session, because the module only exported
    "PublicFunction".  Using InModuleScope allowed this call to
    "PrivateFunction" to work successfully.
#>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $ModuleName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    if ($null -eq (& $SafeCommands['Get-Variable'] -Name Pester -ValueOnly -ErrorAction $script:IgnoreErrorPreference))
    {
        # User has executed a test script directly instead of calling Invoke-Pester
        $Pester = New-PesterState -Path (& $SafeCommands['Resolve-Path'] .) -TestNameFilter $null -TagFilter @() -ExcludeTagFilter @() -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState
        $script:mockTable = @{}
    }

    $module = Get-ScriptModule -ModuleName $ModuleName -ErrorAction Stop

    $originalState = $Pester.SessionState
    $originalScriptBlockScope = Get-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock

    try
    {
        $Pester.SessionState = $module.SessionState

        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock -SessionState $module.SessionState

        do
        {
            & $ScriptBlock
        } until ($true)
    }
    finally
    {
        $Pester.SessionState = $originalState
        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock -SessionStateInternal $originalScriptBlockScope
    }
}

function Get-ScriptModule
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string] $ModuleName
    )

    try
    {
        $modules = @(& $SafeCommands['Get-Module'] -Name $ModuleName -All -ErrorAction Stop)
    }
    catch
    {
        throw "No module named '$ModuleName' is currently loaded."
    }

    $scriptModules = @($modules | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.ModuleType -eq 'Script' })

    if ($scriptModules.Count -gt 1)
    {
        throw "Multiple Script modules named '$ModuleName' are currently loaded.  Make sure to remove any extra copies of the module from your session before testing."
    }

    if ($scriptModules.Count -eq 0)
    {
        $actualTypes = @(
            $modules |
            & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.ModuleType -ne 'Script' } |
            & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ModuleType -Unique
        )

        $actualTypes = $actualTypes -join ', '

        throw "Module '$ModuleName' is not a Script module.  Detected modules of the following types: '$actualTypes'"
    }

    return $scriptModules[0]
}
tools\Functions\InModuleScope.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe "Module scope separation" {
    Context "When users define variables with the same name as Pester parameters" {
        $test = "This is a test."

        It "does not hide user variables" {
            $test | Should Be 'This is a test.'
        }
    }

    It "Does not expose Pester implementation details to the SUT" {
        # Changing the Get-PesterResult function's name would cause this test to pass artificially.
        # TODO : come up with a better way of verifying that only the desired commands from the Pester
        # module are visible to the SUT.

        (Get-Item function:\Get-PesterResult -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) | Should Be $null
    }
}

Describe "Executing test code inside a module" {
    New-Module -Name TestModule {
        function InternalFunction { 'I am the internal function' }
        function PublicFunction   { InternalFunction }
        Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction
    } | Import-Module -Force

    It "Cannot call module internal functions, by default" {
        { InternalFunction } | Should Throw
    }

    InModuleScope TestModule {
        It "Can call module internal functions using InModuleScope" {
            InternalFunction | Should Be 'I am the internal function'
        }

        It "Can mock functions inside the module without using Mock -ModuleName" {
            Mock InternalFunction { 'I am the mock function.' }
            InternalFunction | Should Be 'I am the mock function.'
        }
    }

    Remove-Module TestModule -Force
}
tools\Functions\It.ps1
function It {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Validates the results of a test inside of a Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
The It command is intended to be used inside of a Describe or Context Block.
If you are familiar with the AAA pattern (Arrange-Act-Assert), the body of
the It block is the appropriate location for an assert. The convention is to
assert a single expectation for each It block. The code inside of the It block
should throw a terminating error if the expectation of the test is not met and
thus cause the test to fail. The name of the It block should expressively state
the expectation of the test.

In addition to using your own logic to test expectations and throw exceptions,
you may also use Pester's Should command to perform assertions in plain language.

.PARAMETER Name
An expressive phrase describing the expected test outcome.

.PARAMETER Test
The script block that should throw an exception if the
expectation of the test is not met.If you are following the
AAA pattern (Arrange-Act-Assert), this typically holds the
Assert.

.PARAMETER Pending
Use this parameter to explicitly mark the test as work-in-progress/not implemented/pending when you
need to distinguish a test that fails because it is not finished yet from a tests
that fail as a result of changes being made in the code base. An empty test, that is a
test that contains nothing except whitespace or comments is marked as Pending by default.

.PARAMETER Skip
Use this parameter to explicitly mark the test to be skipped. This is preferable to temporarily
commenting out a test, because the test remains listed in the output. Use the Strict parameter
of Invoke-Pester to force all skipped tests to fail.

.PARAMETER TestCases
Optional array of hashtable (or any IDictionary) objects.  If this parameter is used,
Pester will call the test script block once for each table in the TestCases array,
splatting the dictionary to the test script block as input.  If you want the name of
the test to appear differently for each test case, you can embed tokens into the Name
parameter with the syntax 'Adds numbers <A> and <B>' (assuming you have keys named A and B
in your TestCases hashtables.)

.EXAMPLE
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}

Describe "Add-Numbers" {
    It "adds positive numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers 2 3
        $sum | Should Be 5
    }

    It "adds negative numbers" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) (-2)
        $sum | Should Be (-4)
    }

    It "adds one negative number to positive number" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers (-2) 2
        $sum | Should Be 0
    }

    It "concatenates strings if given strings" {
        $sum = Add-Numbers two three
        $sum | Should Be "twothree"
    }
}

.EXAMPLE
function Add-Numbers($a, $b) {
    return $a + $b
}

Describe "Add-Numbers" {
    $testCases = @(
        @{ a = 2;     b = 3;       expectedResult = 5 }
        @{ a = -2;    b = -2;      expectedResult = -4 }
        @{ a = -2;    b = 2;       expectedResult = 0 }
        @{ a = 'two'; b = 'three'; expectedResult = 'twothree' }
    )

    It 'Correctly adds <a> and <b> to get <expectedResult>' -TestCases $testCases {
        param ($a, $b, $expectedResult)

        $sum = Add-Numbers $a $b
        $sum | Should Be $expectedResult
    }
}

.LINK
Describe
Context
about_should
#>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = 'Normal')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 0)]
        [string]$name,

        [Parameter(Position = 1)]
        [ScriptBlock] $test = {},

        [System.Collections.IDictionary[]] $TestCases,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Pending')]
        [Switch] $Pending,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Skip')]
        [Alias('Ignore')]
        [Switch] $Skip
    )

    ItImpl -Pester $pester -OutputScriptBlock ${function:Write-PesterResult} @PSBoundParameters
}

function ItImpl
{
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = 'Normal')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position=0)]
        [string]$name,
        [Parameter(Position = 1)]
        [ScriptBlock] $test,
        [System.Collections.IDictionary[]] $TestCases,
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Pending')]
        [Switch] $Pending,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Skip')]
        [Alias('Ignore')]
        [Switch] $Skip,

        $Pester,
        [scriptblock] $OutputScriptBlock
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName It

    # Jumping through hoops to make strict mode happy.
    if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -ne 'Skip') { $Skip = $false }
    if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -ne 'Pending') { $Pending = $false }

    #unless Skip or Pending is specified you must specify a ScriptBlock to the Test parameter
    if (-not ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('test') -or $Skip -or $Pending))
    {
        throw 'No test script block is provided. (Have you put the open curly brace on the next line?)'
    }

    #the function is called with Pending or Skipped set the script block if needed
    if ($null -eq $test) { $test = {} }

    #mark empty Its as Pending
    #[String]::IsNullOrWhitespace is not available in .NET version used with PowerShell 2
    if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Normal' -and
       [String]::IsNullOrEmpty((Remove-Comments $test.ToString()) -replace "\s"))
    {
        $Pending = $true
    }

    $pendingSkip = @{}

    if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Skip')
    {
        $pendingSkip['Skip'] = $Skip
    }
    else
    {
        $pendingSkip['Pending'] = $Pending
    }

    if ($null -ne $TestCases -and $TestCases.Count -gt 0)
    {
        foreach ($testCase in $TestCases)
        {
            $expandedName = [regex]::Replace($name, '<([^>]+)>', {
                $capture = $args[0].Groups[1].Value
                if ($testCase.Contains($capture))
                {
                    $testCase[$capture]
                }
                else
                {
                    "<$capture>"
                }
            })

            $splat = @{
                Name = $expandedName
                Scriptblock = $test
                Parameters = $testCase
                ParameterizedSuiteName = $name
                OutputScriptBlock = $OutputScriptBlock
            }

            Invoke-Test @splat @pendingSkip
        }
    }
    else
    {
        Invoke-Test -Name $name -ScriptBlock $test @pendingSkip -OutputScriptBlock $OutputScriptBlock
    }
}

function Invoke-Test
{
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = 'Normal')]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string] $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ScriptBlock] $ScriptBlock,

        [scriptblock] $OutputScriptBlock,

        [System.Collections.IDictionary] $Parameters,
        [string] $ParameterizedSuiteName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Pending')]
        [Switch] $Pending,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Skip')]
        [Alias('Ignore')]
        [Switch] $Skip
    )

    if ($null -eq $Parameters) { $Parameters = @{} }

    $Pester.EnterTest($Name)

    try
    {
        if ($Skip)
        {
            $Pester.AddTestResult($Name, "Skipped", $null)
        }
        elseif ($Pending)
        {
            $Pester.AddTestResult($Name, "Pending", $null)
        }
        else
        {
            & $SafeCommands['Write-Progress'] -Activity "Running test '$Name'" -Status Processing

            $errorRecord = $null
            try
            {
                Invoke-TestCaseSetupBlocks

                do
                {
                    $null = & $ScriptBlock @Parameters
                } until ($true)
            }
            catch
            {
                $errorRecord = $_
            }
            finally
            {
                #guarantee that the teardown action will run and prevent it from failing the whole suite
                try
                {
                    if (-not ($Skip -or $Pending))
                    {
                        Invoke-TestCaseTeardownBlocks
                    }
                }
                catch
                {
                    $errorRecord = $_
                }
            }

            $result = Get-PesterResult -ErrorRecord $errorRecord
            $orderedParameters = Get-OrderedParameterDictionary -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock -Dictionary $Parameters
            $Pester.AddTestResult( $result.name, $result.Result, $null, $result.FailureMessage, $result.StackTrace, $ParameterizedSuiteName, $orderedParameters, $result.ErrorRecord )
            & $SafeCommands['Write-Progress'] -Activity "Running test '$Name'" -Completed -Status Processing
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        Exit-MockScope
        $Pester.LeaveTest()
    }

    if ($null -ne $OutputScriptBlock)
    {
        $Pester.testresult[-1] | & $OutputScriptBlock
    }
}

function Get-PesterResult {
    param(
        [Nullable[TimeSpan]] $Time,
        [System.Management.Automation.ErrorRecord] $ErrorRecord
    )

    $testResult = @{
        name = $name
        time = $time
        failureMessage = ""
        stackTrace = ""
        ErrorRecord = $null
        success = $false
        result = "Failed"
    };

    if(-not $ErrorRecord)
    {
        $testResult.Result = "Passed"
        $testResult.success = $true
        return $testResult
    }

    if ($ErrorRecord.FullyQualifiedErrorID -eq 'PesterAssertionFailed')
    {
        # we use TargetObject to pass structured information about the error.
        $details = $ErrorRecord.TargetObject

        $failureMessage = $details.Message
        $file = $details.File
        $line = $details.Line
        $lineText = "`n$line`: $($details.LineText)"
    }
    elseif ($ErrorRecord.FullyQualifiedErrorId -eq 'PesterTestInconclusive')
    {
        # we use TargetObject to pass structured information about the error.
        $details = $ErrorRecord.TargetObject

        $failureMessage = $details.Message
        $file = $details.File
        $line = $details.Line
        $lineText = "`n$line`: $($details.LineText)"

        $testResult.Result = 'Inconclusive'
    }
    else
    {
        $failureMessage = $ErrorRecord.ToString()
        $file = $ErrorRecord.InvocationInfo.ScriptName
        $line = $ErrorRecord.InvocationInfo.ScriptLineNumber
        $lineText = ''
    }

    $testResult.failureMessage = $failureMessage
    $testResult.stackTrace = "at line: $line in ${file}${lineText}"
    $testResult.ErrorRecord = $ErrorRecord

    return $testResult
}

function Remove-Comments ($Text)
{
    $text -replace "(?s)(<#.*#>)" -replace "\#.*"
}

function Get-OrderedParameterDictionary
{
    [OutputType([System.Collections.IDictionary])]
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock,
        [System.Collections.IDictionary] $Dictionary
    )

    $parameters = Get-ParameterDictionary -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock

    $orderedDictionary = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] System.Collections.Specialized.OrderedDictionary

    foreach ($parameterName in $parameters.Keys)
    {
        $value = $null
        if ($Dictionary.ContainsKey($parameterName))
        {
            $value = $Dictionary[$parameterName]
        }

        $orderedDictionary[$parameterName] = $value
    }

    return $orderedDictionary
}

function Get-ParameterDictionary
{
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    $guid = [guid]::NewGuid().Guid

    try
    {
        & $SafeCommands['Set-Content'] function:\$guid $ScriptBlock
        $metadata = [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata](& $SafeCommands['Get-Command'] -Name $guid -CommandType Function)

        return $metadata.Parameters
    }
    finally
    {
        if (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] function:\$guid) { & $SafeCommands['Remove-Item'] function:\$guid }
    }
}
tools\Functions\It.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe 'Get-PesterResult' {
    }

    Describe 'It - Implementation' {
        $testState = New-PesterState -Path $TestDrive

        It 'Throws an error if It is called outside of Describe' {
            $scriptBlock = { ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Tries to enter a test without entering a Describe first' { } }
            $scriptBlock | Should Throw 'The It command may only be used inside a Describe block.'
        }

        $testState.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')

        # We call EnterTest() directly here because if we actually nest calls to ItImpl, the outer call will catch the error we're trying to
        # verify with Should Throw.  (Another option would be to nest the ItImpl calls, and look for a failed test result in $testState.)
        $testState.EnterTest('Outer Test')

        It 'Throws an error if you try to enter It from inside another It' {
            $scriptBlock = {
                ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Enters the second It' { }
            }

            $scriptBlock | Should Throw 'You already are in It, you cannot enter It twice'
        }

        $testState.LeaveTest()

        It 'Throws an error if you fail to pass in a test block' {
            $scriptBlock = { ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Some Name' }
            $scriptBlock | Should Throw 'No test script block is provided. (Have you put the open curly brace on the next line?)'
        }

        It 'Does not throw an error if It is called inside a Describe, and adds a successful test result.' {
            $scriptBlock = { ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Enters an It block inside a Describe' { } }
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw

            $testState.TestResult[-1].Passed | Should Be $true
            $testState.TestResult[-1].ParameterizedSuiteName | Should BeNullOrEmpty
        }

        It 'Does not throw an error if the -Pending switch is used, and no script block is passed' {
            $scriptBlock = { ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Some Name' -Pending }
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
        }

        It 'Does not throw an error if the -Skip switch is used, and no script block is passed' {
            $scriptBlock = { ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Some Name' -Skip }
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
        }

        It 'Does not throw an error if the -Ignore switch is used, and no script block is passed' {
            $scriptBlock = { ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Some Name' -Ignore }
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
        }

        It 'Creates a pending test for an empty (whitespace and comments only) script block' {
            $scriptBlock = {
                # Single-Line comment
                <#
                    Multi-
                    Line-
                    Comment
                #>
            }

            { ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Some Name' $scriptBlock } | Should Not Throw
            $testState.TestResult[-1].Result | Should Be 'Pending'
        }

        It 'Adds a failed test if the script block throws an exception' {
            $scriptBlock = {
                ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Enters an It block inside a Describe' {
                    throw 'I am a failed test'
                }
            }

            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
            $testState.TestResult[-1].Passed | Should Be $false
            $testState.TestResult[-1].ParameterizedSuiteName | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            $testState.TestResult[-1].FailureMessage | Should Be 'I am a failed test'
        }

        $script:counterNameThatIsReallyUnlikelyToConflictWithAnything = 0

        It 'Calls the output script block for each test' {
            $outputBlock = { $script:counterNameThatIsReallyUnlikelyToConflictWithAnything++ }

            ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Does something' -OutputScriptBlock $outputBlock { }
            ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Does something' -OutputScriptBlock $outputBlock { }
            ItImpl -Pester $testState 'Does something' -OutputScriptBlock $outputBlock { }

            $script:counterNameThatIsReallyUnlikelyToConflictWithAnything | Should Be 3
        }

        Remove-Variable -Scope Script -Name counterNameThatIsReallyUnlikelyToConflictWithAnything

        Context 'Parameterized Tests' {
            # be careful about variable naming here; with InModuleScope Pester, we can create the same types of bugs that the v3
            # scope isolation fixed for everyone else.  (Naming this variable $testCases gets hidden later by parameters of the
            # same name in It.)

            $cases = @(
                @{ a = 1; b = 1; expectedResult = 2}
                @{ a = 1; b = 2; expectedResult = 3}
                @{ a = 5; b = 4; expectedResult = 9}
                @{ a = 1; b = 1; expectedResult = 'Intentionally failed' }
            )

            $suiteName = 'Adds <a> and <b> to get <expectedResult>.  <Bogus> is not a parameter.'

            ItImpl -Pester $testState -Name $suiteName -TestCases $cases {
                param ($a, $b, $expectedResult)

                ($a + $b) | Should Be $expectedResult
            }

            It 'Creates test result records with the ParameterizedSuiteName property set' {
                for ($i = -1; $i -ge -4; $i--)
                {
                    $testState.TestResult[$i].ParameterizedSuiteName | Should Be $suiteName
                }
            }

            It 'Expands parameters in parameterized test suite names' {
                for ($i = -1; $i -ge -4; $i--)
                {
                    $expectedName = "Adds $($cases[$i]['a']) and $($cases[$i]['b']) to get $($cases[$i]['expectedResult']).  <Bogus> is not a parameter."
                    $testState.TestResult[$i].Name | Should Be $expectedName
                }
            }

            It 'Logs the proper successes and failures' {
                $testState.TestResult[-1].Passed | Should Be $false
                for ($i = -2; $i -ge -4; $i--)
                {
                    $testState.TestResult[$i].Passed | Should Be $true
                }
            }
        }
    }

    Describe 'Get-OrderedParameterDictionary' {
        $_testScriptBlock = {
            param (
                $1, $c, $0, $z, $a, ${Something.Really/Weird }
            )
        }

        $hashtable = @{
            '1' = 'One'
            '0' = 'Zero'
            z = 'Z'
            a = 'A'
            c = 'C'
            'Something.Really/Weird ' = 'Weird'
        }

        $dictionary = Get-OrderedParameterDictionary -ScriptBlock $_testScriptBlock -Dictionary $hashtable

        It 'Reports keys and values in the same order as the param block' {
            ($dictionary.Keys -join ',') |
            Should Be '1,c,0,z,a,Something.Really/Weird '

            ($dictionary.Values -join ',') |
            Should Be 'One,C,Zero,Z,A,Weird'
        }
    }

    Describe 'Remove-Comments' {
        It 'Removes single line comments' {
            Remove-Comments -Text 'code #comment' | Should Be 'code '
        }
        It 'Removes multi line comments' {
            Remove-Comments -Text 'code <#comment
            comment#> code' | Should Be 'code  code'
        }
    }
}

$thisScriptRegex = [regex]::Escape($MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path)

Describe 'Get-PesterResult' {
    $getPesterResult = InModuleScope Pester { ${function:Get-PesterResult} }

    Context 'failed tests in Tests file' {
        #the $script scriptblock below is used as a position marker to determine
        #on which line the test failed.
        $errorRecord = $null
        try{'something' | should be 'nothing'}catch{ $errorRecord=$_} ; $script={}
        $result = & $getPesterResult 0 $errorRecord
        It 'records the correct stack line number' {
            $result.Stacktrace | should match "at line: $($script.startPosition.StartLine) in $thisScriptRegex"
        }
        It 'records the correct error record' {
            $result.ErrorRecord -is [System.Management.Automation.ErrorRecord] | Should be $true
            $result.ErrorRecord.Exception.Message | Should match 'Expected: {nothing}'
        }
    }
    It 'Does not modify the error message from the original exception' {
        $object = New-Object psobject
        $message = 'I am an error.'
        Add-Member -InputObject $object -MemberType ScriptMethod -Name ThrowSomething -Value { throw $message }

        $errorRecord = $null
        try { $object.ThrowSomething() } catch { $errorRecord = $_ }

        $pesterResult = & $getPesterResult 0 $errorRecord

        $pesterResult.FailureMessage | Should Be $errorRecord.Exception.Message
    }
    Context 'failed tests in another file' {
        $errorRecord = $null

        $testPath = Join-Path $TestDrive test.ps1
        $escapedTestPath = [regex]::Escape($testPath)

        Set-Content -Path $testPath -Value "`r`n'One' | Should Be 'Two'"

        try
        {
            & $testPath
        }
        catch
        {
            $errorRecord = $_
        }

        $result = & $getPesterResult 0 $errorRecord


        It 'records the correct stack line number' {
            $result.Stacktrace | should match "at line: 2 in $escapedTestPath"
        }
        It 'records the correct error record' {
            $result.ErrorRecord -is [System.Management.Automation.ErrorRecord] | Should be $true
            $result.ErrorRecord.Exception.Message | Should match 'Expected: {Two}'
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\Mock.ps1
function Mock {

<#
.SYNOPSIS
Mocks the behavior of an existing command with an alternate
implementation.

.DESCRIPTION
This creates new behavior for any existing command within the scope of a
Describe or Context block. The function allows you to specify a script block
that will become the command's new behavior.

Optionally, you may create a Parameter Filter which will examine the
parameters passed to the mocked command and will invoke the mocked
behavior only if the values of the parameter values pass the filter. If
they do not, the original command implementation will be invoked instead
of a mock.

You may create multiple mocks for the same command, each using a different
ParameterFilter. ParameterFilters will be evaluated in reverse order of
their creation. The last one created will be the first to be evaluated.
The mock of the first filter to pass will be used. The exception to this
rule are Mocks with no filters. They will always be evaluated last since
they will act as a "catch all" mock.

Mocks can be marked Verifiable. If so, the Assert-VerifiableMocks command
can be used to check if all Verifiable mocks were actually called. If any
verifiable mock is not called, Assert-VerifiableMocks will throw an
exception and indicate all mocks not called.

If you wish to mock commands that are called from inside a script module,
you can do so by using the -ModuleName parameter to the Mock command. This
injects the mock into the specified module. If you do not specify a
module name, the mock will be created in the same scope as the test script.
You may mock the same command multiple times, in different scopes, as needed.
Each module's mock maintains a separate call history and verified status.

.PARAMETER CommandName
The name of the command to be mocked.

.PARAMETER MockWith
A ScriptBlock specifying the behavior that will be used to mock CommandName.
The default is an empty ScriptBlock.
NOTE: Do not specify param or dynamicparam blocks in this script block.
These will be injected automatically based on the signature of the command
being mocked, and the MockWith script block can contain references to the
mocked commands parameter variables.

.PARAMETER Verifiable
When this is set, the mock will be checked when Assert-VerifiableMocks is
called.

.PARAMETER ParameterFilter
An optional filter to limit mocking behavior only to usages of
CommandName where the values of the parameters passed to the command
pass the filter.

This ScriptBlock must return a boolean value. See examples for usage.

.PARAMETER ModuleName
Optional string specifying the name of the module where this command
is to be mocked.  This should be a module that _calls_ the mocked
command; it doesn't necessarily have to be the same module which
originally implemented the command.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} }

Using this Mock, all calls to Get-ChildItem will return a hashtable with a
FullName property returning "A_File.TXT"

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -and $Path.StartsWith($env:temp) }

This Mock will only be applied to Get-ChildItem calls within the user's temp directory.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Set-Content {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "some_path" -and $Value -eq "Expected Value" }

When this mock is used, if the Mock is never invoked and Assert-VerifiableMocks is called, an exception will be thrown. The command behavior will do nothing since the ScriptBlock is empty.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -and $Path.StartsWith($env:temp\1) }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -and $Path.StartsWith($env:temp\2) }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "C_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -and $Path.StartsWith($env:temp\3) }

Multiple mocks of the same command may be used. The parameter filter determines which is invoked. Here, if Get-ChildItem is called on the "2" directory of the temp folder, then B_File.txt will be returned.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName="B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "$env:temp\me" }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName="A_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -and $Path.StartsWith($env:temp) }

Get-ChildItem $env:temp\me

Here, both mocks could apply since both filters will pass. A_File.TXT will be returned because it was the most recent Mock created.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "$env:temp\me" }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} }

Get-ChildItem c:\windows

Here, A_File.TXT will be returned. Since no filter was specified, it will apply to any call to Get-ChildItem that does not pass another filter.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "B_File.TXT"} } -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq "$env:temp\me" }
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} }

Get-ChildItem $env:temp\me

Here, B_File.TXT will be returned. Even though the filterless mock was created more recently. This illustrates that filterless Mocks are always evaluated last regardless of their creation order.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Get-ChildItem { return @{FullName = "A_File.TXT"} } -ModuleName MyTestModule

Using this Mock, all calls to Get-ChildItem from within the MyTestModule module
will return a hashtable with a FullName property returning "A_File.TXT"

.EXAMPLE
Get-Module -Name ModuleMockExample | Remove-Module
New-Module -Name ModuleMockExample  -ScriptBlock {
    function Hidden { "Internal Module Function" }
    function Exported { Hidden }

    Export-ModuleMember -Function Exported
} | Import-Module -Force

Describe "ModuleMockExample" {

    It "Hidden function is not directly accessible outside the module" {
        { Hidden } | Should Throw
    }

    It "Original Hidden function is called" {
        Exported | Should Be "Internal Module Function"
    }

    It "Hidden is replaced with our implementation" {
        Mock Hidden { "Mocked" } -ModuleName ModuleMockExample
        Exported | Should Be "Mocked"
    }
}

This example shows how calls to commands made from inside a module can be
mocked by using the -ModuleName parameter.


.LINK
Assert-MockCalled
Assert-VerifiableMocks
Describe
Context
It
about_Should
about_Mocking
#>

    param(
        [string]$CommandName,
        [ScriptBlock]$MockWith={},
        [switch]$Verifiable,
        [ScriptBlock]$ParameterFilter = {$True},
        [string]$ModuleName
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Mock

    $contextInfo = Validate-Command $CommandName $ModuleName
    $CommandName = $contextInfo.Command.Name

    if ($contextInfo.Session.Module -and $contextInfo.Session.Module.Name)
    {
        $ModuleName = $contextInfo.Session.Module.Name
    }
    else
    {
        $ModuleName = ''
    }

    if (Test-IsClosure -ScriptBlock $MockWith)
    {
        # If the user went out of their way to call GetNewClosure(), go ahead and leave the block bound to that
        # dynamic module's scope.
        $mockWithCopy = $MockWith
    }
    else
    {
        $mockWithCopy = [scriptblock]::Create($MockWith.ToString())
        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $mockWithCopy -SessionState $contextInfo.Session
    }

    $block = @{
        Mock       = $mockWithCopy
        Filter     = $ParameterFilter
        Verifiable = $Verifiable
        Scope      = Get-ScopeForMock -PesterState $pester
    }

    $mock = $mockTable["$ModuleName||$CommandName"]

    if (-not $mock)
    {
        $metadata                = $null
        $cmdletBinding           = ''
        $paramBlock              = ''
        $dynamicParamBlock       = ''
        $dynamicParamScriptBlock = $null

        if ($contextInfo.Command.psobject.Properties['ScriptBlock'] -or $contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Cmdlet')
        {
            $metadata = [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetaData]$contextInfo.Command
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('Verbose')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('Debug')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('ErrorAction')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('WarningAction')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('ErrorVariable')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('WarningVariable')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('OutVariable')
            $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove('OutBuffer')

            # Some versions of PowerShell may include dynamic parameters here
            # We will filter them out and add them at the end to be
            # compatible with both earlier and later versions
            $dynamicParams = $metadata.Parameters.Values | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] {$_.IsDynamic}
            if($dynamicParams -ne $null) {
                $dynamicparams | & $SafeCommands['ForEach-Object'] { $null = $metadata.Parameters.Remove($_.name) }
            }

            $cmdletBinding = [Management.Automation.ProxyCommand]::GetCmdletBindingAttribute($metadata)
            if ($global:PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3 -and $contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Cmdlet') {
                if ($cmdletBinding -ne '[CmdletBinding()]') {
                    $cmdletBinding = $cmdletBinding.Insert($cmdletBinding.Length-2, ',')
                }
                $cmdletBinding = $cmdletBinding.Insert($cmdletBinding.Length-2, 'PositionalBinding=$false')
            }

            $paramBlock    = [Management.Automation.ProxyCommand]::GetParamBlock($metadata)

            if ($contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Cmdlet')
            {
                $dynamicParamBlock = "dynamicparam { Get-MockDynamicParameters -CmdletName '$($contextInfo.Command.Name)' -Parameters `$PSBoundParameters }"
            }
            else
            {
                $dynamicParamStatements = Get-DynamicParamBlock -ScriptBlock $contextInfo.Command.ScriptBlock

                if ($dynamicParamStatements -match '\S')
                {
                    $metadataSafeForDynamicParams = [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetaData]$contextInfo.Command
                    foreach ($param in $metadataSafeForDynamicParams.Parameters.Values)
                    {
                        $param.ParameterSets.Clear()
                    }

                    $paramBlockSafeForDynamicParams = [System.Management.Automation.ProxyCommand]::GetParamBlock($metadataSafeForDynamicParams)
                    $comma = if ($metadataSafeForDynamicParams.Parameters.Count -gt 0) { ',' } else { '' }
                    $dynamicParamBlock = "dynamicparam { Get-MockDynamicParameters -ModuleName '$ModuleName' -FunctionName '$CommandName' -Parameters `$PSBoundParameters -Cmdlet `$PSCmdlet }"

                    $code = @"
                        $cmdletBinding
                        param(
                            [object] `${P S Cmdlet}$comma
                            $paramBlockSafeForDynamicParams
                        )

                        `$PSCmdlet = `${P S Cmdlet}

                        $dynamicParamStatements
"@

                    $dynamicParamScriptBlock = [scriptblock]::Create($code)

                    $sessionStateInternal = Get-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $contextInfo.Command.ScriptBlock

                    if ($null -ne $sessionStateInternal)
                    {
                        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $dynamicParamScriptBlock -SessionStateInternal $sessionStateInternal
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        $EscapeSingleQuotedStringContent =
            if ($global:PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 5) {
                { [System.Management.Automation.Language.CodeGeneration]::EscapeSingleQuotedStringContent($args[0]) }
            } else {
                { $args[0] -replace "['‘’‚‛]", '$&$&' }
            }

        $newContent = & $SafeCommands['Get-Content'] function:\MockPrototype
        $newContent = $newContent -replace '#FUNCTIONNAME#', (& $EscapeSingleQuotedStringContent $CommandName)
        $newContent = $newContent -replace '#MODULENAME#', (& $EscapeSingleQuotedStringContent $ModuleName)

        $canCaptureArgs = 'true'
        if ($contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Cmdlet' -or
            ($contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Function' -and $contextInfo.Command.CmdletBinding)) {
            $canCaptureArgs = 'false'
        }
        $newContent = $newContent -replace '#CANCAPTUREARGS#', $canCaptureArgs

        $code = @"
            $cmdletBinding
            param ( $paramBlock )
            $dynamicParamBlock
            begin
            {
                `${mock call state} = @{}
                $($newContent -replace '#BLOCK#', 'Begin' -replace '#INPUT#')
            }

            process
            {
                $($newContent -replace '#BLOCK#', 'Process' -replace '#INPUT#', '-InputObject @($input)')
            }

            end
            {
                $($newContent -replace '#BLOCK#', 'End' -replace '#INPUT#')
            }
"@

        $mockScript = [scriptblock]::Create($code)

        $mock = @{
            OriginalCommand         = $contextInfo.Command
            Blocks                  = @()
            CommandName             = $CommandName
            SessionState            = $contextInfo.Session
            Scope                   = $pester.Scope
            Metadata                = $metadata
            CallHistory             = @()
            DynamicParamScriptBlock = $dynamicParamScriptBlock
            FunctionScope           = ''
            Alias                   = $null
        }

        $mockTable["$ModuleName||$CommandName"] = $mock

        if ($contextInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Function')
        {
            $mock['FunctionScope'] = $contextInfo.Scope

            $scriptBlock =
            {
                param ( [string] $CommandName )

                if ($ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Exists("Function:\$CommandName", $true, $true))
                {
                    $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Rename([System.Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::Escape("Function:\$CommandName"), "script:PesterIsMocking_$CommandName", $true)
                }
            }

            $null = Invoke-InMockScope -SessionState $mock.SessionState -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $CommandName
        }

        $scriptBlock = { $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Set("Function:\script:$($args[0])", $args[1], $true, $true) }
        $null = Invoke-InMockScope -SessionState $mock.SessionState -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $CommandName, $mockScript

        if ($mock.OriginalCommand.ModuleName)
        {
            $mock.Alias = "$($mock.OriginalCommand.ModuleName)\$($CommandName)"

            $scriptBlock = {
                $setAlias = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) -Name Set-Alias -CommandType Cmdlet -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility
                & $setAlias -Name $args[0] -Value $args[1] -Scope Script
            }

            $null = Invoke-InMockScope -SessionState $mock.SessionState -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $mock.Alias, $CommandName
        }
    }

    $mock.Blocks = @(
        $mock.Blocks | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Filter.ToString() -eq '$True' }
        if ($block.Filter.ToString() -eq '$True') { $block }

        $mock.Blocks | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Filter.ToString() -ne '$True' }
        if ($block.Filter.ToString() -ne '$True') { $block }
    )
}


function Assert-VerifiableMocks {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Checks if any Verifiable Mock has not been invoked. If so, this will throw an exception.

.DESCRIPTION
This can be used in tandem with the -Verifiable switch of the Mock
function. Mock can be used to mock the behavior of an existing command
and optionally take a -Verifiable switch. When Assert-VerifiableMocks
is called, it checks to see if any Mock marked Verifiable has not been
invoked. If any mocks have been found that specified -Verifiable and
have not been invoked, an exception will be thrown.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Set-Content {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {$Path -eq "some_path" -and $Value -eq "Expected Value"}

{ ...some code that never calls Set-Content some_path -Value "Expected Value"... }

Assert-VerifiableMocks

This will throw an exception and cause the test to fail.

.EXAMPLE
Mock Set-Content {} -Verifiable -ParameterFilter {$Path -eq "some_path" -and $Value -eq "Expected Value"}

Set-Content some_path -Value "Expected Value"

Assert-VerifiableMocks

This will not throw an exception because the mock was invoked.

#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Assert-VerifiableMocks

    [email protected]{}
    $mockTable.Keys | & $SafeCommands['ForEach-Object'] {
        $m=$_;

        $mockTable[$m].blocks |
        & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Verifiable } |
        & $SafeCommands['ForEach-Object'] { $unVerified[$m]=$_ }
    }
    if($unVerified.Count -gt 0) {
        foreach($mock in $unVerified.Keys){
            $array = $mock -split '\|\|'
            $function = $array[1]
            $module = $array[0]

            $message = "`r`n Expected $function "
            if ($module) { $message += "in module $module " }
            $message += "to be called with $($unVerified[$mock].Filter)"
        }
        throw $message
    }
}

function Assert-MockCalled {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Checks if a Mocked command has been called a certain number of times
and throws an exception if it has not.

.DESCRIPTION
This command verifies that a mocked command has been called a certain number
of times.  If the call history of the mocked command does not match the parameters
passed to Assert-MockCalled, Assert-MockCalled will throw an exception.

.PARAMETER CommandName
The mocked command whose call history should be checked.

.PARAMETER ModuleName
The module where the mock being checked was injected.  This is optional,
and must match the ModuleName that was used when setting up the Mock.

.PARAMETER Times
The number of times that the mock must be called to avoid an exception
from throwing.

.PARAMETER Exactly
If this switch is present, the number specified in Times must match
exactly the number of times the mock has been called. Otherwise it
must match "at least" the number of times specified.  If the value
passed to the Times parameter is zero, the Exactly switch is implied.

.PARAMETER ParameterFilter
An optional filter to qualify wich calls should be counted. Only those
calls to the mock whose parameters cause this filter to return true
will be counted.

.PARAMETER ExclusiveFilter
Like ParameterFilter, except when you use ExclusiveFilter, and there
were any calls to the mocked command which do not match the filter,
an exception will be thrown.  This is a convenient way to avoid needing
to have two calls to Assert-MockCalled like this:

Assert-MockCalled SomeCommand -Times 1 -ParameterFilter { $something -eq $true }
Assert-MockCalled SomeCommand -Times 0 -ParameterFilter { $something -ne $true }

.PARAMETER Scope
An optional parameter specifying the Pester scope in which to check for
calls to the mocked command.  By default, Assert-MockCalled will find
all calls to the mocked command in the current Context block (if present),
or the current Describe block (if there is no active Context.)  Valid
values are Describe, Context and It. If you use a scope of Describe or
Context, the command will identify all calls to the mocked command in the
current Describe / Context block, as well as all child scopes of that block.

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content {}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content

This will throw an exception and cause the test to fail if Set-Content is not called in Some Code.

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content -parameterFilter {$path.StartsWith("$env:temp\")}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content 2 { $path -eq "$env:temp\test.txt" }

This will throw an exception if some code calls Set-Content on $path=$env:temp\test.txt less than 2 times

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content {}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content 0

This will throw an exception if some code calls Set-Content at all

.EXAMPLE
C:\PS>Mock Set-Content {}

{... Some Code ...}

C:\PS>Assert-MockCalled Set-Content -Exactly 2

This will throw an exception if some code does not call Set-Content Exactly two times.

.EXAMPLE
Describe 'Assert-MockCalled Scope behavior' {
    Mock Set-Content { }

    It 'Calls Set-Content at least once in the It block' {
        {... Some Code ...}

        Assert-MockCalled Set-Content -Exactly 0 -Scope It
    }
}

Checks for calls only within the current It block.

.EXAMPLE
Describe 'Describe' {
    Mock -ModuleName SomeModule Set-Content { }

    {... Some Code ...}

    It 'Calls Set-Content at least once in the Describe block' {
        Assert-MockCalled -ModuleName SomeModule Set-Content
    }
}

Checks for calls to the mock within the SomeModule module.  Note that both the Mock
and Assert-MockCalled commands use the same module name.

.EXAMPLE
Assert-MockCalled Get-ChildItem -ExclusiveFilter { $Path -eq 'C:\' }

Checks to make sure that Get-ChildItem was called at least one time with
the -Path parameter set to 'C:\', and that it was not called at all with
the -Path parameter set to any other value.

.NOTES
The parameter filter passed to Assert-MockCalled does not necessarily have to match the parameter filter
(if any) which was used to create the Mock.  Assert-MockCalled will find any entry in the command history
which matches its parameter filter, regardless of how the Mock was created.  However, if any calls to the
mocked command are made which did not match any mock's parameter filter (resulting in the original command
being executed instead of a mock), these calls to the original command are not tracked in the call history.
In other words, Assert-MockCalled can only be used to check for calls to the mocked implementation, not
to the original.

#>

[CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = 'ParameterFilter')]
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position = 0)]
    [string]$CommandName,

    [Parameter(Position = 1)]
    [int]$Times=1,

    [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'ParameterFilter', Position = 2)]
    [ScriptBlock]$ParameterFilter = {$True},

    [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'ExclusiveFilter', Mandatory = $true)]
    [scriptblock] $ExclusiveFilter,

    [Parameter(Position = 3)]
    [string] $ModuleName,

    [Parameter(Position = 4)]
    [ValidateSet('Describe','Context','It')]
    [string] $Scope,

    [switch]$Exactly
)

    if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ParameterFilter')
    {
        $filter = $ParameterFilter
        $filterIsExclusive = $false
    }
    else
    {
        $filter = $ExclusiveFilter
        $filterIsExclusive = $true
    }

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Assert-MockCalled

    if (-not $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('ModuleName') -and $null -ne $pester.SessionState.Module)
    {
        $ModuleName = $pester.SessionState.Module.Name
    }

    $contextInfo = Validate-Command $CommandName $ModuleName
    $CommandName = $contextInfo.Command.Name

    $mock = $script:mockTable["$ModuleName||$CommandName"]

    $moduleMessage = ''
    if ($ModuleName)
    {
        $moduleMessage = " in module $ModuleName"
    }

    if (-not $mock)
    {
        throw "You did not declare a mock of the $commandName Command${moduleMessage}."
    }

    if (-not $Scope)
    {
        if ($pester.CurrentContext)
        {
            $Scope = 'Context'
        }
        else
        {
            $Scope = 'Describe'
        }
    }

    $matchingCalls = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] System.Collections.ArrayList
    $nonMatchingCalls = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] System.Collections.ArrayList

    foreach ($historyEntry in $mock.CallHistory)
    {
        if (-not (Test-MockCallScope -CallScope $historyEntry.Scope -DesiredScope $Scope)) { continue }

        $params = @{
            ScriptBlock     = $filter
            BoundParameters = $historyEntry.BoundParams
            ArgumentList    = $historyEntry.Args
            Metadata        = $mock.Metadata
        }


        if (Test-ParameterFilter @params)
        {
            $null = $matchingCalls.Add($historyEntry)
        }
        else
        {
            $null = $nonMatchingCalls.Add($historyEntry)
        }
    }

    $lineText = $MyInvocation.Line.TrimEnd("`n")
    $line = $MyInvocation.ScriptLineNumber

    if($matchingCalls.Count -ne $times -and ($Exactly -or ($times -eq 0)))
    {
        $failureMessage = "Expected ${commandName}${moduleMessage} to be called $times times exactly but was called $($matchingCalls.Count) times"
        throw ( New-ShouldErrorRecord -Message $failureMessage -Line $line -LineText $lineText)
    }
    elseif($matchingCalls.Count -lt $times)
    {
        $failureMessage = "Expected ${commandName}${moduleMessage} to be called at least $times times but was called $($matchingCalls.Count) times"
        throw ( New-ShouldErrorRecord -Message $failureMessage -Line $line -LineText $lineText)
    }
    elseif ($filterIsExclusive -and $nonMatchingCalls.Count -gt 0)
    {
        $failureMessage = "Expected ${commandName}${moduleMessage} to only be called with with parameters matching the specified filter, but $($nonMatchingCalls.Count) non-matching calls were made"
        throw ( New-ShouldErrorRecord -Message $failureMessage -Line $line -LineText $lineText)
    }
}

function Test-MockCallScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [string] $CallScope,
        [string] $DesiredScope
    )

    # It would probably be cleaner to replace all of these scope strings with an enumerated type at some point.
    $scopes = 'Describe', 'Context', 'It'

    return ([array]::IndexOf($scopes, $CallScope) -ge [array]::IndexOf($scopes, $DesiredScope))
}

function Exit-MockScope {
    if ($null -eq $mockTable) { return }

    $currentScope = $pester.Scope
    $parentScope = $pester.ParentScope

    $scriptBlock =
    {
        param (
            [string] $CommandName,
            [string] $Scope,
            [string] $Alias
        )

        $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Remove("Function:\$CommandName", $false, $true, $true)
        if ($ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Exists("Function:\PesterIsMocking_$CommandName", $true, $true))
        {
            $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Rename([System.Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::Escape("Function:\PesterIsMocking_$CommandName"), "$Scope$CommandName", $true)
        }

        if ($Alias -and $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Exists("Alias:$Alias", $true, $true))
        {
            $ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Remove("Alias:$Alias", $false, $true, $true)
        }
    }

    $mockKeys = [string[]]$mockTable.Keys

    foreach ($mockKey in $mockKeys)
    {
        $mock = $mockTable[$mockKey]
        $mock.Blocks = @($mock.Blocks | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] {$_.Scope -ne $currentScope})

        if ($null -eq $parentScope)
        {
            $null = Invoke-InMockScope -SessionState $mock.SessionState -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $mock.CommandName, $mock.FunctionScope, $mock.Alias
            $mockTable.Remove($mockKey)
        }
        else
        {
            foreach ($historyEntry in $mock.CallHistory)
            {
                if ($historyEntry.Scope -eq $currentScope) { $historyEntry.Scope = $parentScope }
            }
        }
    }
}

function Validate-Command([string]$CommandName, [string]$ModuleName) {
    $module = $null
    $origCommand = $null

    $commandInfo = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property @{ Command = $null; Scope = '' }

    $scriptBlock = {
        $getContentCommand = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) Get-Content -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management -CommandType Cmdlet
        $newObjectCommand  = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) New-Object  -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    -CommandType Cmdlet

        $command = $ExecutionContext.InvokeCommand.GetCommand($args[0], 'All')
        while ($null -ne $command -and $command.CommandType -eq [System.Management.Automation.CommandTypes]::Alias)
        {
            $command = $command.ResolvedCommand
        }

        $properties = @{
            Command = $command
        }

        if ($null -ne $command -and $command.CommandType -eq 'Function')
        {
            if ($ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Exists("function:\global:$($command.Name)", $true, $true) -and
                (& $getContentCommand -LiteralPath "function:\global:$($command.Name)" -ErrorAction Stop) -eq $command.ScriptBlock)
            {
                $properties['Scope'] = 'global:'
            }
            elseif ($ExecutionContext.InvokeProvider.Item.Exists("function:\script:$($command.Name)", $true, $true) -and
                    (& $getContentCommand -LiteralPath "function:\script:$($command.Name)" -ErrorAction Stop) -eq $command.ScriptBlock)
            {
                $properties['Scope'] = 'script:'
            }
            else
            {
                $properties['Scope'] = ''
            }
        }

        return & $newObjectCommand psobject -Property $properties
    }

    if ($ModuleName) {
        $module = Get-ScriptModule -ModuleName $ModuleName -ErrorAction Stop
        $commandInfo = & $module $scriptBlock $CommandName
    }

    $session = $pester.SessionState

    if (-not $commandInfo.Command) {
        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -SessionState $session
        $commandInfo = & $scriptBlock $commandName
    }

    if (-not $commandInfo.Command) {
        throw ([System.Management.Automation.CommandNotFoundException] "Could not find Command $commandName")
    }

    if ($module) {
        $session = & $module { $ExecutionContext.SessionState }
    }

    $hash = @{Command = $commandInfo.Command; Session = $session}
    if ($commandInfo.Command.CommandType -eq 'Function')
    {
        $hash['Scope'] = $commandInfo.Scope
    }

    return $hash
}

function MockPrototype {
    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3)
    {
        [string] ${ignore preference} = 'Ignore'
    }
    else
    {
        [string] ${ignore preference} = 'SilentlyContinue'
    }

    ${get Variable Command} = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) -Name Get-Variable -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility -CommandType Cmdlet

    [object] ${a r g s} = $null
    if (${#CANCAPTUREARGS#}) {
        ${a r g s} = & ${get Variable Command} -Name args -ValueOnly -Scope Local -ErrorAction ${ignore preference}
    }
    if ($null -eq ${a r g s}) { ${a r g s} = @() }

    ${p s cmdlet} = & ${get Variable Command} -Name PSCmdlet -ValueOnly -Scope Local -ErrorAction ${ignore preference}

    ${session state} = if (${p s cmdlet}) { ${p s cmdlet}.SessionState }

    # @{mock call state} initialization is injected only into the begin block by the code that uses this prototype.
    Invoke-Mock -CommandName '#FUNCTIONNAME#' -ModuleName '#MODULENAME#' -BoundParameters $PSBoundParameters -ArgumentList ${a r g s} -CallerSessionState ${session state} -FromBlock '#BLOCK#' -MockCallState ${mock call state} #INPUT#
}

function Invoke-Mock {
    <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        This command is used by Pester's Mocking framework.  You do not need to call it directly.
    #>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $CommandName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [hashtable] $MockCallState,

        [string]
        $ModuleName,

        [hashtable]
        $BoundParameters = @{},

        [object[]]
        $ArgumentList = @(),

        [object] $CallerSessionState,

        [ValidateSet('Begin', 'Process', 'End')]
        [string] $FromBlock,

        [object] $InputObject
    )

    $detectedModule = $ModuleName
    $mock = FindMock -CommandName $CommandName -ModuleName ([ref]$detectedModule)

    if ($null -eq $mock)
    {
        # If this ever happens, it's a bug in Pester.  The scriptBlock that calls Invoke-Mock should be removed at the same time as the entry in the mock table.
        throw "Internal error detected:  Mock for '$CommandName' in module '$ModuleName' was called, but does not exist in the mock table."
    }

    switch ($FromBlock)
    {
        Begin
        {
            $MockCallState['InputObjects'] = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] System.Collections.ArrayList
            $MockCallState['ShouldExecuteOriginalCommand'] = $false
            $MockCallState['BeginBoundParameters'] = $BoundParameters.Clone()
            $MockCallState['BeginArgumentList'] = $ArgumentList

            return
        }

        Process
        {
            $block = $null
            if ($detectedModule -eq $ModuleName)
            {
                $block = FindMatchingBlock -Mock $mock -BoundParameters $BoundParameters -ArgumentList $ArgumentList
            }

            if ($null -ne $block)
            {
                ExecuteBlock -Block $block `
                             -CommandName $CommandName `
                             -ModuleName $ModuleName `
                             -BoundParameters $BoundParameters `
                             -ArgumentList $ArgumentList `
                             -Mock $mock

                return
            }
            else
            {
                $MockCallState['ShouldExecuteOriginalCommand'] = $true
                if ($null -ne $InputObject)
                {
                    $null = $MockCallState['InputObjects'].AddRange(@($InputObject))
                }

                return
            }
        }

        End
        {
            if ($MockCallState['ShouldExecuteOriginalCommand'])
            {
                if ($MockCallState['InputObjects'].Count -gt 0)
                {
                    $scriptBlock = {
                        param ($Command, $ArgumentList, $BoundParameters, $InputObjects)
                        $InputObjects | & $Command @ArgumentList @BoundParameters
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    $scriptBlock = {
                        param ($Command, $ArgumentList, $BoundParameters, $InputObjects)
                        & $Command @ArgumentList @BoundParameters
                    }
                }

                $state = if ($CallerSessionState) { $CallerSessionState } else { $mock.SessionState }

                Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -SessionState $state

                & $scriptBlock -Command $mock.OriginalCommand `
                               -ArgumentList $MockCallState['BeginArgumentList'] `
                               -BoundParameters $MockCallState['BeginBoundParameters'] `
                               -InputObjects $MockCallState['InputObjects']
            }
        }
    }
}

function FindMock
{
    param (
        [string] $CommandName,
        [ref] $ModuleName
    )

    $mock = $mockTable["$($ModuleName.Value)||$CommandName"]

    if ($null -eq $mock)
    {
        $mock = $mockTable["||$CommandName"]
        if ($null -ne $mock)
        {
            $ModuleName.Value = ''
        }
    }

    return $mock
}

function FindMatchingBlock
{
    param (
        [object] $Mock,
        [hashtable] $BoundParameters = @{},
        [object[]] $ArgumentList = @()
    )

    for ($idx = $mock.Blocks.Length; $idx -gt 0; $idx--)
    {
        $block = $mock.Blocks[$idx - 1]

        $params = @{
            ScriptBlock     = $block.Filter
            BoundParameters = $BoundParameters
            ArgumentList    = $ArgumentList
            Metadata        = $mock.Metadata
        }

        if (Test-ParameterFilter @params)
        {
            return $block
        }
    }

    return $null
}

function ExecuteBlock
{
    param (
        [object] $Block,
        [object] $Mock,
        [string] $CommandName,
        [string] $ModuleName,
        [hashtable] $BoundParameters = @{},
        [object[]] $ArgumentList = @()
    )

    $Block.Verifiable = $false
    $Mock.CallHistory += @{CommandName = "$ModuleName||$CommandName"; BoundParams = $BoundParameters; Args = $ArgumentList; Scope = $pester.Scope }

    $scriptBlock = {
        param (
            [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
            [scriptblock]
            ${Script Block},

            [hashtable]
            $___BoundParameters___ = @{},

            [object[]]
            $___ArgumentList___ = @(),

            [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata]
            ${Meta data},

            [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]
            ${Session State}
        )

        # This script block exists to hold variables without polluting the test script's current scope.
        # Dynamic parameters in functions, for some reason, only exist in $PSBoundParameters instead
        # of being assigned a local variable the way static parameters do.  By calling Set-DynamicParameterVariables,
        # we create these variables for the caller's use in a Parameter Filter or within the mock itself, and
        # by doing it inside this temporary script block, those variables don't stick around longer than they
        # should.

        Set-DynamicParameterVariables -SessionState ${Session State} -Parameters $___BoundParameters___ -Metadata ${Meta data}
        & ${Script Block} @___BoundParameters___ @___ArgumentList___
    }

    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -SessionState $mock.SessionState
    $splat = @{
        'Script Block' = $block.Mock
        '___ArgumentList___' = $ArgumentList
        '___BoundParameters___' = $BoundParameters
        'Meta data' = $mock.Metadata
        'Session State' = $mock.SessionState
    }

    & $scriptBlock @splat
}

function Invoke-InMockScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]
        $SessionState,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock,

        [Parameter(ValueFromRemainingArguments = $true)]
        [object[]]
        $ArgumentList = @()
    )

    if ($SessionState.Module)
    {
        $SessionState.Module.Invoke($ScriptBlock, $ArgumentList)
    }
    else
    {
        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock -SessionState $SessionState
        & $ScriptBlock @ArgumentList
    }
}

function Test-ParameterFilter
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock,

        [System.Collections.IDictionary]
        $BoundParameters,

        [object[]]
        $ArgumentList,

        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata]
        $Metadata
    )

    if ($null -eq $BoundParameters)   { $BoundParameters = @{} }
    if ($null -eq $ArgumentList)      { $ArgumentList = @() }

    $paramBlock = Get-ParamBlockFromBoundParameters -BoundParameters $BoundParameters -Metadata $Metadata

    $scriptBlockString = "
        $paramBlock

        Set-StrictMode -Off
        $ScriptBlock
    "

    $cmd = [scriptblock]::Create($scriptBlockString)
    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $cmd -SessionState $pester.SessionState

    & $cmd @BoundParameters @ArgumentList
}

function Get-ParamBlockFromBoundParameters
{
    param (
        [System.Collections.IDictionary] $BoundParameters,
        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata] $Metadata
    )

    $params = foreach ($paramName in $BoundParameters.Keys)
    {
        if (IsCommonParameter -Name $paramName -Metadata $Metadata)
        {
            continue
        }

        "`${$paramName}"
    }

    $params = $params -join ','

    if ($null -ne $Metadata)
    {
        $cmdletBinding = [System.Management.Automation.ProxyCommand]::GetCmdletBindingAttribute($Metadata)
    }
    else
    {
        $cmdletBinding = ''
    }

    return "$cmdletBinding param ($params)"
}

function IsCommonParameter
{
    param (
        [string] $Name,
        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata] $Metadata
    )

    if ($null -ne $Metadata)
    {
        if ([System.Management.Automation.Internal.CommonParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
        if ($Metadata.SupportsShouldProcess -and [System.Management.Automation.Internal.ShouldProcessParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
        if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3 -and $Metadata.SupportsPaging -and [System.Management.Automation.PagingParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
        if ($Metadata.SupportsTransactions -and [System.Management.Automation.Internal.TransactionParameters].GetProperty($Name)) { return $true }
    }

    return $false
}

function Get-ScopeForMock
{
    param ($PesterState)

    $scope = $PesterState.Scope
    if ($scope -eq 'It') { $scope = $PesterState.ParentScope }

    return $scope
}

function Set-DynamicParameterVariables
{
    <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        This command is used by Pester's Mocking framework.  You do not need to call it directly.
    #>

    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]
        $SessionState,

        [hashtable]
        $Parameters,

        [System.Management.Automation.CommandMetadata]
        $Metadata
    )

    if ($null -eq $Parameters) { $Parameters = @{} }

    foreach ($keyValuePair in $Parameters.GetEnumerator())
    {
        $variableName = $keyValuePair.Key

        if (-not (IsCommonParameter -Name $variableName -Metadata $Metadata))
        {
            if ($ExecutionContext.SessionState -eq $SessionState)
            {
                & $SafeCommands['Set-Variable'] -Scope 1 -Name $variableName -Value $keyValuePair.Value -Force -Confirm:$false -WhatIf:$false
            }
            else
            {
                $SessionState.PSVariable.Set($variableName, $keyValuePair.Value)
            }
        }
    }
}

function Get-DynamicParamBlock
{
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -le 2)
    {
        $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance, NonPublic'
        $dynamicParams = [scriptblock].GetField('_dynamicParams', $flags).GetValue($ScriptBlock)

        if ($null -ne $dynamicParams)
        {
            return $dynamicParams.ToString()

        }
    }
    else
    {
        if ($null -ne $ScriptBlock.Ast.Body.DynamicParamBlock)
        {
            $statements = $ScriptBlock.Ast.Body.DynamicParamBlock.Statements |
                          & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty Extent |
                          & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty Text

            return $statements -join "`r`n"
        }
    }
}

function Get-MockDynamicParameters
{
    <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        This command is used by Pester's Mocking framework.  You do not need to call it directly.
    #>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'Cmdlet')]
        [string] $CmdletName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'Function')]
        [string] $FunctionName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Function')]
        [string] $ModuleName,

        [System.Collections.IDictionary] $Parameters,

        [object] $Cmdlet
    )

    switch ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName)
    {
        'Cmdlet'
        {
            Get-DynamicParametersForCmdlet -CmdletName $CmdletName -Parameters $Parameters
        }

        'Function'
        {
            Get-DynamicParametersForMockedFunction -FunctionName $FunctionName -ModuleName $ModuleName -Parameters $Parameters -Cmdlet $Cmdlet
        }
    }
}

function Get-DynamicParametersForCmdlet
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string] $CmdletName,

        [ValidateScript({
            if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3 -and
                $null -ne $_ -and
                $_.GetType().FullName -ne 'System.Management.Automation.PSBoundParametersDictionary')
            {
                throw 'The -Parameters argument must be a PSBoundParametersDictionary object ($PSBoundParameters).'
            }

            return $true
        })]
        [System.Collections.IDictionary] $Parameters
    )

    try
    {
        $command = & $SafeCommands['Get-Command'] -Name $CmdletName -CommandType Cmdlet -ErrorAction Stop

        if (@($command).Count -gt 1)
        {
            throw "Name '$CmdletName' resolved to multiple Cmdlets"
        }
    }
    catch
    {
        $PSCmdlet.ThrowTerminatingError($_)
    }

    if ($null -eq $command.ImplementingType.GetInterface('IDynamicParameters', $true))
    {
        return
    }

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion -ge '5.0.10586.122')
    {
        # Older version of PS required Reflection to do this.  It has run into problems on occasion with certain cmdlets,
        # such as ActiveDirectory and AzureRM, so we'll take advantage of the newer PSv5 engine features if at all possible.

        if ($null -eq $Parameters) { $paramsArg = @() } else { $paramsArg = @($Parameters) }

        $command = $ExecutionContext.InvokeCommand.GetCommand($CmdletName, [System.Management.Automation.CommandTypes]::Cmdlet, $paramsArg)
        $paramDictionary = [System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary]::new()

        foreach ($param in $command.Parameters.Values)
        {
            if (-not $param.IsDynamic) { continue }
            if ($Parameters.ContainsKey($param.Name)) { continue }

            $dynParam = [System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter]::new($param.Name, $param.ParameterType, $param.Attributes)
            $paramDictionary.Add($param.Name, $dynParam)
        }

        return $paramDictionary
    }
    else
    {
        if ($null -eq $Parameters) { $Parameters = @{} }

        $cmdlet = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] $command.ImplementingType.FullName

        $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance, Nonpublic'
        $context = $ExecutionContext.GetType().GetField('_context', $flags).GetValue($ExecutionContext)
        [System.Management.Automation.Cmdlet].GetProperty('Context', $flags).SetValue($cmdlet, $context, $null)

        foreach ($keyValuePair in $Parameters.GetEnumerator())
        {
            $property = $cmdlet.GetType().GetProperty($keyValuePair.Key)
            if ($null -eq $property -or -not $property.CanWrite) { continue }

            $isParameter = [bool]($property.GetCustomAttributes([System.Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute], $true))
            if (-not $isParameter) { continue }

            $property.SetValue($cmdlet, $keyValuePair.Value, $null)
        }

        try
        {
            # This unary comma is important in some cases.  On Windows 7 systems, the ActiveDirectory module cmdlets
            # return objects from this method which implement IEnumerable for some reason, and even cause PowerShell
            # to throw an exception when it tries to cast the object to that interface.

            # We avoid that problem by wrapping the result of GetDynamicParameters() in a one-element array with the
            # unary comma.  PowerShell enumerates that array instead of trying to enumerate the goofy object, and
            # everyone's happy.

            # Love the comma.  Don't delete it.  We don't have a test for this yet, unless we can get the AD module
            # on a Server 2008 R2 build server, or until we write some C# code to reproduce its goofy behavior.

            ,$cmdlet.GetDynamicParameters()
        }
        catch [System.NotImplementedException]
        {
            # Some cmdlets implement IDynamicParameters but then throw a NotImplementedException.  I have no idea why.  Ignore them.
        }
    }
}

function Get-DynamicParametersForMockedFunction
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $FunctionName,

        [string]
        $ModuleName,

        [System.Collections.IDictionary]
        $Parameters,

        [object]
        $Cmdlet
    )

    $mock = $mockTable["$ModuleName||$FunctionName"]

    if (-not $mock)
    {
        throw "Internal error detected:  Mock for '$FunctionName' in module '$ModuleName' was called, but does not exist in the mock table."
    }

    if ($mock.DynamicParamScriptBlock)
    {
        $splat = @{ 'P S Cmdlet' = $Cmdlet }
        return & $mock.DynamicParamScriptBlock @Parameters @splat
    }
}

function Test-IsClosure
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $sessionStateInternal = Get-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock

    $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance,NonPublic'
    $module = $sessionStateInternal.GetType().GetProperty('Module', $flags).GetValue($sessionStateInternal, $null)

    return (
        $null -ne $module -and
        $module.Name -match '^__DynamicModule_([a-f\d-]+)$' -and
        $null -ne ($matches[1] -as [guid])
    )
}
tools\Functions\Mock.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

function FunctionUnderTest
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)]
        [string]
        $param1
    )

    return "I am a real world test"
}

function FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams([string]$param1) {
    return "I am a real world test with no params"
}

filter FilterUnderTest { $_ }

function CommonParamFunction (
    [string] ${Uncommon},
    [switch]
    ${Verbose},
    [switch]
    ${Debug},
    [System.Management.Automation.ActionPreference]
    ${ErrorAction},
    [System.Management.Automation.ActionPreference]
    ${WarningAction},
    [System.String]
    ${ErrorVariable},
    [System.String]
    ${WarningVariable},
    [System.String]
    ${OutVariable},
    [System.Int32]
    ${OutBuffer} ){
    return "Please strip me of my common parameters. They are far too common."
}

function PipelineInputFunction {
    param(
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$True)]
        [int]$PipeInt1,
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$True)]
        [int[]]$PipeInt2,
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$True)]
        [string]$PipeStr,
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$True)]
        [int]$PipeIntProp,
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$True)]
        [int[]]$PipeArrayProp,
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$True)]
        [string]$PipeStringProp
    )
    begin{
        $p = 0
    }
    process {
        foreach($i in $input)
        {
            $p += 1
            write-output @{
                index=$p;
                val=$i;
                PipeInt1=$PipeInt1;
                PipeInt2=$PipeInt2;
                PipeStr=$PipeStr;
                PipeIntProp=$PipeIntProp;
                PipeArrayProp=$PipeArrayProp;
                PipeStringProp=$PipeStringProp;
            }
        }
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest { return "I am the mock test that was passed $param1"}

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "boundArg"

    It "Should rename function under test" {
        $renamed = (Test-Path function:PesterIsMocking_FunctionUnderTest)
        $renamed | Should Be $true
    }

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the mock test that was passed boundArg"
    }
}

Describe "When the caller mocks a command Pester uses internally" {
    Mock Write-Host { }

    Context "Context run when Write-Host is mocked" {
        It "does not make extra calls to the mocked command" {
            Write-Host 'Some String'
            Assert-MockCalled 'Write-Host' -Exactly 1
        }

        It "retains the correct mock count after the first test completes" {
            Assert-MockCalled 'Write-Host' -Exactly 1
        }
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing cmdlet" {
    Mock Get-Process {return "I am not Get-Process"}

    $result=Get-Process

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "I am not Get-Process"
    }

    It 'Should not resolve $args to the parent scope' {
        { $args = 'From', 'Parent', 'Scope'; Get-Process SomeName } | Should Not Throw
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on an alias' {
    $originalPath = $env:path

    try
    {
        # Our TeamCity server has a dir.exe on the system path, and PowerShell v2 apparently finds that instead of the PowerShell alias first.
        # This annoying bit of code makes sure our test works as intended even when this is the case.

        $dirExe = Get-Command dir -CommandType Application -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
        if ($null -ne $dirExe)
        {
            foreach ($app in $dirExe)
            {
                $parent = (Split-Path $app.Path -Parent).TrimEnd('\')
                $pattern = "^$([regex]::Escape($parent))\\?"

                $env:path = $env:path -split ';' -notmatch $pattern -join ';'
            }
        }

        Mock dir {return 'I am not dir'}

        $result = dir

        It 'Should Invoke the mocked script' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not dir'
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        $env:path = $originalPath
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on an alias that refers to a function Pester can''t see' {
    It 'Mocks the aliased command successfully' {
        # This function is defined in a non-global scope; code inside the Pester module can't see it directly.
        function orig {'orig'}
        New-Alias 'ali' orig

        ali | Should Be 'orig'

        { mock ali {'mck'} } | Should Not Throw

        ali | Should Be 'mck'
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on a filter' {
    Mock FilterUnderTest {return 'I am not FilterUnderTest'}

    $result = 'Yes I am' | FilterUnderTest

    It 'Should Invoke the mocked script' {
        $result | Should Be 'I am not FilterUnderTest'
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on an external script' {
    $ps1File = New-Item 'TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1' -ItemType File -Force
    $ps1File | Set-Content -Value "'I am tempExternalScript.ps1'"

    Mock 'TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1' {return 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'}

    <#
        # Invoking the script using its absolute path is not supported

        $result = TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the absolute-path-qualified mocked script using just the script name' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = & TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the absolute-path-qualified mocked script using the command-invocation operator (&)' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = . TestDrive:\tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the absolute-path-qualified mocked script using dot source notation' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }
    #>

    Push-Location TestDrive:\

    try
    {
        $result = tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the mocked script using just the script name' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = & tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the mocked script using the command-invocation operator' {
            #the command invocation operator is (&). Moved this to comment because it breaks the continuous builds.
            #there is issue for this on GH

            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        $result = . tempExternalScript.ps1
        It 'Should Invoke the mocked script using dot source notation' {
            $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
        }

        <#
            # Invoking the script using only its relative path is not supported

            $result = .\tempExternalScript.ps1
            It 'Should Invoke the relative-path-qualified mocked script' {
                $result | Should Be 'I am not tempExternalScript.ps1'
            }
        #>

    }
    finally
    {
        Pop-Location
    }

    Remove-Item $ps1File -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on an application command' {
    Mock schtasks.exe {return 'I am not schtasks.exe'}

    $result = schtasks.exe

    It 'Should Invoke the mocked script' {
        $result | Should Be 'I am not schtasks.exe'
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock in the Describe block" {
    Mock Out-File {return "I am not Out-File"}

    It "Should mock Out-File successfully" {
        $outfile = "test" | Out-File "TestDrive:\testfile.txt"
        $outfile | Should Be "I am not Out-File"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing cmdlet to handle pipelined input" {
    Mock Get-ChildItem {
        if($_ -eq 'a'){
            return "AA"
        }
        if($_ -eq 'b'){
            return "BB"
        }
    }

    $result = ''
    "a", "b" | Get-ChildItem | % { $result += $_ }

    It "Should process the pipeline in the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "AABB"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing cmdlet with Common params" {
    Mock CommonParamFunction

    $result=[string](Get-Content function:\CommonParamFunction)

    It "Should strip verbose" {
        $result.contains("`${Verbose}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip Debug" {
        $result.contains("`${Debug}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip ErrorAction" {
        $result.contains("`${ErrorAction}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip WarningAction" {
        $result.contains("`${WarningAction}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip ErrorVariable" {
        $result.contains("`${ErrorVariable}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip WarningVariable" {
        $result.contains("`${WarningVariable}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip OutVariable" {
        $result.contains("`${OutVariable}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should strip OutBuffer" {
        $result.contains("`${OutBuffer}") | Should Be $false
    }
    It "Should not strip an Uncommon param" {
        $result.contains("`${Uncommon}") | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on non-existing function" {
    try{
        Mock NotFunctionUnderTest {return}
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw correct error" {
        $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "Could not find command NotFunctionUnderTest"
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock, StrictMode is enabled, and variables are used in the ParameterFilter' {
    Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

    $result = $null
    $testValue = 'test'

    try
    {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest { 'I am the mock' } -ParameterFilter { $param1 -eq $testValue }
    }
    catch
    {
        $result = $_
    }

    It 'Does not throw an error when testing the parameter filter' {
        $result | Should Be $null
    }

    It 'Calls the mock properly' {
        FunctionUnderTest $testValue | Should Be 'I am the mock'
    }

    It 'Properly asserts the mock was called when there is a variable in the parameter filter' {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest -Exactly 1 -ParameterFilter { $param1 -eq $testValue }
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function without matching bound params" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "test"}

    $result=FunctionUnderTest "badTest"

    It "Should redirect to real function" {
        $result | Should Be "I am a real world test"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function with matching bound params" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "badTest"}

    $result=FunctionUnderTest "badTest"

    It "Should return mocked result" {
        $result | Should Be "fake results"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function without matching unbound arguments" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "test" -and $args[0] -eq 'notArg0'}

    $result=FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams -param1 "test" "arg0"

    It "Should redirect to real function" {
        $result | Should Be "I am a real world test with no params"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on existing function with matching unbound arguments" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams {return "fake results"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "badTest" -and $args[0] -eq 'arg0'}

    $result=FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams "badTest" "arg0"

    It "Should return mocked result" {
        $result | Should Be "fake results"
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on a function that has no parameters' {
    function Test-Function { }
    Mock Test-Function { return $args.Count }

    It 'Sends the $args variable properly with 2+ elements' {
        Test-Function 1 2 3 4 5 | Should Be 5
    }

    It 'Sends the $args variable properly with 1 element' {
        Test-Function 1 | Should Be 1
    }

    It 'Sends the $args variable properly with 0 elements' {
        Test-Function | Should Be 0
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on cmdlet Used by Mock" {
    Mock Set-Item {return "I am not Set-Item"}
    Mock Set-Item {return "I am not Set-Item"}

    $result = Set-Item "mypath" -value "value"

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script" {
        $result | Should Be "I am not Set-Item"
    }
}

Describe "When calling Mock on More than one command" {
    Mock Invoke-Command {return "I am not Invoke-Command"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the mock test"}

    $result = Invoke-Command {return "yes I am"}
    $result2 = FunctionUnderTest

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the first Mock" {
        $result | Should Be "I am not Invoke-Command"
    }
    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the second Mock" {
        $result2 | Should Be "I am the mock test"
    }
}

Describe 'When calling Mock on a module-internal function.' {
    New-Module -Name TestModule {
        function InternalFunction { 'I am the internal function' }
        function PublicFunction   { InternalFunction }
        function PublicFunctionThatCallsExternalCommand { Start-Sleep 0 }

        function FuncThatOverwritesExecutionContext {
            param ($ExecutionContext)

            InternalFunction
        }

        Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction, PublicFunctionThatCallsExternalCommand, FuncThatOverwritesExecutionContext
    } | Import-Module -Force

    New-Module -Name TestModule2 {
        function InternalFunction { 'I am the second module internal function' }
        function InternalFunction2 { 'I am the second module, second function' }
        function PublicFunction   { InternalFunction }
        function PublicFunction2 { InternalFunction2 }

        function FuncThatOverwritesExecutionContext {
            param ($ExecutionContext)

            InternalFunction
        }

        function ScopeTest {
            return Get-CallerModuleName
        }

        function Get-CallerModuleName {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param ( )

            return $PSCmdlet.SessionState.Module.Name
        }

        Export-ModuleMember -Function PublicFunction, PublicFunction2, FuncThatOverwritesExecutionContext, ScopeTest
    } | Import-Module -Force

    It 'Should fail to call the internal module function' {
        { TestModule\InternalFunction } | Should Throw
    }

    It 'Should call the actual internal module function from the public function' {
        TestModule\PublicFunction | Should Be 'I am the internal function'
    }

    Context 'Using Mock -ModuleName "ModuleName" "CommandName" syntax' {
        Mock -ModuleName TestModule InternalFunction { 'I am the mock test' }

        It 'Should call the mocked function' {
            TestModule\PublicFunction | Should Be 'I am the mock test'
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule Start-Sleep { }

        It 'Should mock calls to external functions from inside the module' {
            PublicFunctionThatCallsExternalCommand

            Assert-MockCalled -ModuleName TestModule Start-Sleep -Exactly 1
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule2 InternalFunction -ParameterFilter { $args[0] -eq 'Test' } {
            "I'm the mock who's been passed parameter Test"
        }

        It 'Should only call mocks within the same module' {
            TestModule2\PublicFunction | Should Be 'I am the second module internal function'
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule2 InternalFunction2 {
            InternalFunction 'Test'
        }

        It 'Should call mocks from inside another mock' {
            TestModule2\PublicFunction2 | Should Be "I'm the mock who's been passed parameter Test"
        }

        It 'Should work even if the function is weird and steps on the automatic $ExecutionContext variable.' {
            TestModule2\FuncThatOverwritesExecutionContext | Should Be 'I am the second module internal function'
            TestModule\FuncThatOverwritesExecutionContext | Should Be 'I am the mock test'
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule2 Get-CallerModuleName -ParameterFilter { $false }

        It 'Should call the original command from the proper scope if no parameter filters match' {
            TestModule2\ScopeTest | Should Be 'TestModule2'
        }

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule2 Get-Content { }

        It 'Does not trigger the mocked Get-Content from Pester internals' {
            Mock -ModuleName TestModule2 Get-CallerModuleName -ParameterFilter { $false }
            Assert-MockCalled -ModuleName TestModule2 Get-Content -Times 0 -Scope It
        }
    }

    AfterAll {
        Remove-Module TestModule -Force
        Remove-Module TestModule2 -Force
    }
}

Describe "When Applying multiple Mocks on a single command" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the Second mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "two"}

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "one"
    $result2= FunctionUnderTest "two"

    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the first Mock" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the first mock test"
    }
    It "Should Invoke the mocked script for the second Mock" {
        $result2 | Should Be "I am the Second mock test"
    }
}

Describe "When Applying multiple Mocks with filters on a single command where both qualify" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1.Length -gt 0 }
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the Second mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -gt 1 }

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "one"

    It "The last Mock should win" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the Second mock test"
    }
}

Describe "When Applying multiple Mocks on a single command where one has no filter" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the paramless mock test"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the Second mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "two"}

    $result = FunctionUnderTest "one"
    $result2= FunctionUnderTest "three"

    It "The parameterless mock is evaluated last" {
        $result | Should Be "I am the first mock test"
    }

    It "The parameterless mock will be applied if no other wins" {
        $result2 | Should Be "I am the paramless mock test"
    }
}

Describe "When Creating a Verifiable Mock that is not called" {
    Context "In the test script's scope" {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am a verifiable test"} -Verifiable -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
        FunctionUnderTest "three" | Out-Null

        try {
            Assert-VerifiableMocks
        } Catch {
            $result=$_
        }

        It "Should throw" {
            $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "`r`n Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called with `$param1 -eq `"one`""
        }
    }

    Context "In a module's scope" {
        New-Module -Name TestModule -ScriptBlock {
            function ModuleFunctionUnderTest { return 'I am the function under test in a module' }
        } | Import-Module -Force

        Mock -ModuleName TestModule ModuleFunctionUnderTest {return "I am a verifiable test"} -Verifiable -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
        TestModule\ModuleFunctionUnderTest "three" | Out-Null

        try {
            Assert-VerifiableMocks
        } Catch {
            $result=$_
        }

        It "Should throw" {
            $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "`r`n Expected ModuleFunctionUnderTest in module TestModule to be called with `$param1 -eq `"one`""
        }

        AfterAll {
            Remove-Module TestModule -Force
        }
    }
}

Describe "When Creating a Verifiable Mock that is called" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest -Verifiable -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"
    It "Assert-VerifiableMocks Should not throw" {
        { Assert-VerifiableMocks } | Should Not Throw
    }
}

Describe "When Calling Assert-MockCalled 0 without exactly" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"

    try {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 0
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw if mock was called" {
        $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called 0 times exactly but was called 1 times"
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was not called" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 0 { $param1 -eq "stupid" }
    }
}

Describe "When Calling Assert-MockCalled with exactly" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"
    FunctionUnderTest "one"

    try {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest -exactly 3
    } Catch {
        $result=$_
    }

    It "Should throw if mock was not called the number of times specified" {
        $result.Exception.Message | Should Be "Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called 3 times exactly but was called 2 times"
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was called the number of times specified" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest -exactly 2 { $param1 -eq "one" }
    }
}

Describe "When Calling Assert-MockCalled without exactly" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {}
    FunctionUnderTest "one"
    FunctionUnderTest "one"
    FunctionUnderTest "two"

    It "Should throw if mock was not called at least the number of times specified" {
        $scriptBlock = { Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 4 }
        $scriptBlock | Should Throw "Expected FunctionUnderTest to be called at least 4 times but was called 3 times"
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was called at least the number of times specified" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest
    }

    It "Should not throw if mock was called at exactly the number of times specified" {
        Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest 2 { $param1 -eq "one" }
    }

    It "Should throw an error if any non-matching calls to the mock are made, and the -ExclusiveFilter parameter is used" {
        $scriptBlock = { Assert-MockCalled FunctionUnderTest -ExclusiveFilter { $param1 -eq 'one' } }
        $scriptBlock | Should Throw '1 non-matching calls were made'
    }
}

Describe "Using Pester Scopes (Describe,Context,It)" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the first mock test"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the paramless mock test"}

    Context "When in the first context" {
        It "should mock Describe scoped paramles mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }
        It "should mock Describe scoped single param mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the first mock test"
        }
    }

    Context "When in the second context" {
        It "should mock Describe scoped paramles mock again" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }
        It "should mock Describe scoped single param mock again" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the first mock test"
        }
    }

    Context "When using mocks in both scopes" {
        Mock FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams {return "I am the other function"}

        It "should mock Describe scoped mock." {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }
        It "should mock Context scoped mock." {
            FunctionUnderTestWithoutParams | should be "I am the other function"
        }
    }

    Context "When context hides a describe mock" {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the context mock"}
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the parameterized context mock"} -parameterFilter {$param1 -eq "one"}

        It "should use the context paramles mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the context mock"
        }
        It "should use the context parameterized mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the parameterized context mock"
        }
    }

    Context "When context no longer hides a describe mock" {
        It "should use the describe mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the paramless mock test"
        }

        It "should use the describe parameterized mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest "one" | should be "I am the first mock test"
        }
    }

    Context 'When someone calls Mock from inside an It block' {
        Mock FunctionUnderTest { return 'I am the context mock' }

        It 'Sets the mock' {
            Mock FunctionUnderTest { return 'I am the It mock' }
        }

        It 'Leaves the mock active in the parent scope' {
            FunctionUnderTest | Should Be 'I am the It mock'
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Testing mock history behavior from each scope' {
    function MockHistoryChecker { }
    Mock MockHistoryChecker { 'I am the describe mock.' }

    Context 'Without overriding the mock in lower scopes' {
        It "Reports that zero calls have been made to in the describe scope" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 0 -Scope Describe
        }

        It 'Calls the describe mock' {
            MockHistoryChecker | Should Be 'I am the describe mock.'
        }

        It "Reports that zero calls have been made in an It block, after a context-scoped call" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 0 -Scope It
        }

        It "Reports one Context-scoped call" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1
        }

        It "Reports one Describe-scoped call" {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1 -Scope Describe
        }
    }

    Context 'After exiting the previous context' {
        It 'Reports zero context-scoped calls in the new context.' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 0
        }

        It 'Reports one describe-scoped call from the previous context' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1 -Scope Describe
        }
    }

    Context 'While overriding mocks in lower scopes' {
        Mock MockHistoryChecker { 'I am the context mock.' }

        It 'Calls the context mock' {
            MockHistoryChecker | Should Be 'I am the context mock.'
        }

        It 'Reports one context-scoped call' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 1
        }

        It 'Reports two describe-scoped calls, even when one is an override mock in a lower scope' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 2 -Scope Describe
        }

        It 'Calls an It-scoped mock' {
            Mock MockHistoryChecker { 'I am the It mock.' }
            MockHistoryChecker | Should Be 'I am the It mock.'
        }

        It 'Reports 2 context-scoped calls' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 2
        }

        It 'Reports 3 describe-scoped calls' {
            Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 3 -Scope Describe
        }
    }

    It 'Reports 3 describe-scoped calls using the default scope in a Describe block' {
        Assert-MockCalled MockHistoryChecker -Exactly 3
    }
}

Describe "Using a single no param Describe" {
    Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the describe mock test"}

    Context "With a context mocking the same function with no params"{
        Mock FunctionUnderTest {return "I am the context mock test"}
        It "Should use the context mock" {
            FunctionUnderTest | should be "I am the context mock test"
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Dot Source Test' {
    # This test is only meaningful if this test file is dot-sourced in the global scope.  If it's executed without
    # dot-sourcing or run by Invoke-Pester, there's no problem.

    function TestFunction { Test-Path -Path 'Test' }
    Mock Test-Path { }

    $null = TestFunction

    It "Calls the mock with parameter 'Test'" {
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Path -Exactly 1 -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq 'Test' }
    }

    It "Doesn't call the mock with any other parameters" {
        InModuleScope Pester {
            $global:calls = $mockTable['||Test-Path'].CallHistory
        }
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Path -Exactly 0 -ParameterFilter { $Path -ne 'Test' }
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking Cmdlets with dynamic parameters' {
    $mockWith = { if (-not $CodeSigningCert) { throw 'CodeSigningCert variable not found, or set to false!' } }
    Mock Get-ChildItem -MockWith $mockWith -ParameterFilter { [bool]$CodeSigningCert }

    It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
        { Get-ChildItem -Path Cert:\ -CodeSigningCert } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Get-ChildItem
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking functions with dynamic parameters' {
    Context 'Dynamicparam block that uses the variables of static parameters in its logic' {
        # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
        # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

        function Get-Greeting {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [string] $Name
            )

            DynamicParam {
                if ($Name -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                    $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                    $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                    $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                    $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                    $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                    $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                    $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                    $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                    $ParamDictionary
                }
            }

            end
            {
                if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                    $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                        $Name,
                        '\b\w',
                        { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                    )
                }

                "Welcome $Name!"
            }
        }

        $mockWith = { if (-not $Capitalize) { throw 'Capitalize variable not found, or set to false!' } }
        Mock Get-Greeting -MockWith $mockWith -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }

        It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
            { Get-Greeting -Name lowercase -Capitalize } | Should Not Throw
            Assert-MockCalled Get-Greeting
        }

        $Capitalize = $false

        It 'Sets the dynamic parameter variable properly' {
            { Get-Greeting -Name lowercase -Capitalize } | Should Not Throw
            Assert-MockCalled Get-Greeting -Scope It
        }
    }

    Context 'When the mocked command is in a module' {
        New-Module -Name TestModule {
            function PublicFunction { Get-Greeting -Name lowercase -Capitalize }

            $script:DoDynamicParam = $true

            # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
            # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

            function script:Get-Greeting {
                [CmdletBinding()]
                param (
                    [string] $Name
                )

                DynamicParam {
                    # This check is here to make sure the mocked version can still work if the
                    # original function's dynamicparam block relied on script-scope variables.
                    if (-not $script:DoDynamicParam) { return }

                    if ($Name -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                        $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                        $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                        $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                        $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                        $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                        $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                        $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                        $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                        $ParamDictionary
                    }
                }

                end
                {
                    if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                        $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                            $Name,
                            '\b\w',
                            { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                        )
                    }

                    "Welcome $Name!"
                }
            }
        } | Import-Module -Force

        $mockWith = { if (-not $Capitalize) { throw 'Capitalize variable not found, or set to false!' } }
        Mock Get-Greeting -MockWith $mockWith -ModuleName TestModule -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }

        It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
            { TestModule\PublicFunction } | Should Not Throw
            Assert-MockCalled Get-Greeting -ModuleName TestModule
        }

        AfterAll {
            Remove-Module TestModule -Force
        }
    }

    Context 'When the mocked command has mandatory parameters that are passed in via the pipeline' {
        # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
        # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

        function Get-Greeting2 {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
                [string] $MandatoryParam,

                [string] $Name
            )

            DynamicParam {
                if ($Name -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                    $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                    $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                    $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                    $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                    $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                    $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                    $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                    $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                    $ParamDictionary
                }
            }

            end
            {
                if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                    $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                        $Name,
                        '\b\w',
                        { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                    )
                }

                "Welcome $Name!"
            }
        }

        Mock Get-Greeting2 { 'Mocked' } -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }
        $hash = @{ Result = $null }
        $scriptBlock = { $hash.Result = 'Mandatory' | Get-Greeting2 -Name test -Capitalize }

        It 'Should successfully call the mock and generate the dynamic parameters' {
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
            $hash.Result | Should Be 'Mocked'
        }
    }

    Context 'When the mocked command has parameter sets that are ambiguous at the time the dynamic param block is executed' {
        # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
        # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

        function Get-Greeting3 {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true, ParameterSetName = 'One')]
                [string] $One,

                [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true, ParameterSetName = 'Two')]
                [string] $Two,

                [string] $Name
            )

            DynamicParam {
                if ($Name -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                    $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                    $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                    $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                    $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                    $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                    $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                    $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                    $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                    $ParamDictionary
                }
            }

            end
            {
                if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                    $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                        $Name,
                        '\b\w',
                        { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                    )
                }

                "Welcome $Name!"
            }
        }

        Mock Get-Greeting3 { 'Mocked' } -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }
        $hash = @{ Result = $null }
        $scriptBlock = { $hash.Result = New-Object psobject -Property @{ One = 'One' } | Get-Greeting3 -Name test -Capitalize }

        It 'Should successfully call the mock and generate the dynamic parameters' {
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
            $hash.Result | Should Be 'Mocked'
        }
    }

    Context 'When the mocked command''s dynamicparam block depends on the contents of $PSBoundParameters' {
        # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
        # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

        function Get-Greeting4 {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [string] $Name
            )

            DynamicParam {
                if ($PSBoundParameters['Name'] -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                    $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                    $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                    $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                    $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                    $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                    $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                    $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                    $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                    $ParamDictionary
                }
            }

            end
            {
                if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                    $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                        $Name,
                        '\b\w',
                        { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                    )
                }

                "Welcome $Name!"
            }
        }

        Mock Get-Greeting4 { 'Mocked' } -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }
        $hash = @{ Result = $null }
        $scriptBlock = { $hash.Result = Get-Greeting4 -Name test -Capitalize }

        It 'Should successfully call the mock and generate the dynamic parameters' {
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
            $hash.Result | Should Be 'Mocked'
        }
    }

    Context 'When the mocked command''s dynamicparam block depends on the contents of $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName' {
        # Get-Greeting sample function borrowed and modified from Bartek Bielawski's
        # blog at http://becomelotr.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/using-and-abusing-dynamic-parameters/

        function Get-Greeting5 {
            [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = 'One')]
            param (
                [string] $Name,

                [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'Two')]
                [string] $Two
            )

            DynamicParam {
                if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Two' -and $Name -cmatch '\b[a-z]') {
                    $Attributes = New-Object Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
                    $Attributes.ParameterSetName = "__AllParameterSets"
                    $Attributes.Mandatory = $false

                    $AttributeCollection = New-Object Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[Attribute]
                    $AttributeCollection.Add($Attributes)

                    $Dynamic = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter('Capitalize', [switch], $AttributeCollection)

                    $ParamDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
                    $ParamDictionary.Add("Capitalize", $Dynamic)
                    $ParamDictionary
                }
            }

            end
            {
                if($PSBoundParameters.Capitalize) {
                    $Name = [regex]::Replace(
                        $Name,
                        '\b\w',
                        { $args[0].Value.ToUpper() }
                    )
                }

                "Welcome $Name!"
            }
        }

        Mock Get-Greeting5 { 'Mocked' } -ParameterFilter { [bool]$Capitalize }
        $hash = @{ Result = $null }
        $scriptBlock = { $hash.Result = Get-Greeting5 -Two 'Two' -Name test -Capitalize }

        It 'Should successfully call the mock and generate the dynamic parameters' {
            $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
            $hash.Result | Should Be 'Mocked'
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking Cmdlets with dynamic parameters in a module' {
    New-Module -Name TestModule {
        function PublicFunction   { Get-ChildItem -Path Cert:\ -CodeSigningCert }
    } | Import-Module -Force

    $mockWith = { if (-not $CodeSigningCert) { throw 'CodeSigningCert variable not found, or set to false!' } }
    Mock Get-ChildItem -MockWith $mockWith -ModuleName TestModule -ParameterFilter { [bool]$CodeSigningCert }

    It 'Allows calls to be made with dynamic parameters (including parameter filters)' {
        { TestModule\PublicFunction } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Get-ChildItem -ModuleName TestModule
    }

    AfterAll {
        Remove-Module TestModule -Force
    }
}

Describe 'DynamicParam blocks in other scopes' {
    New-Module -Name TestModule1 {
        $script:DoDynamicParam = $true

        function DynamicParamFunction {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param ( )

            DynamicParam {
                if ($script:DoDynamicParam)
                {
                    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3)
                    {
                        # -Parameters needs to be a PSBoundParametersDictionary object to work properly, due to internal
                        # details of the PS engine in v5.  Naturally, this is an internal type and we need to use reflection
                        # to make a new one.

                        $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance,NonPublic'
                        $params = $PSBoundParameters.GetType().GetConstructor($flags, $null, @(), $null).Invoke(@())
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        $params = @{}
                    }

                    $params['Path'] = [string[]]'Cert:\'
                    Get-MockDynamicParameters -CmdletName Get-ChildItem -Parameters $params
                }
            }

            end
            {
                'I am the original function'
            }
        }
    } | Import-Module -Force

    New-Module -Name TestModule2 {
        function CallingFunction
        {
            DynamicParamFunction -CodeSigningCert
        }

        function CallingFunction2 {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [ValidateScript({ [bool](DynamicParamFunction -CodeSigningCert) })]
                [string]
                $Whatever
            )
        }
    } | Import-Module -Force

    Mock DynamicParamFunction { if ($CodeSigningCert) { 'I am the mocked function' } } -ModuleName TestModule2

    It 'Properly evaluates dynamic parameters when called from another scope' {
        CallingFunction | Should Be 'I am the mocked function'
    }

    It 'Properly evaluates dynamic parameters when called from another scope when the call is from a ValidateScript block' {
        CallingFunction2 -Whatever 'Whatever'
    }

    AfterAll {
        Remove-Module TestModule1 -Force
        Remove-Module TestModule2 -Force
    }
}

Describe 'Parameter Filters and Common Parameters' {
    function Test-Function { [CmdletBinding()] param ( ) }

    Mock Test-Function { } -ParameterFilter { $VerbosePreference -eq 'Continue' }

    It 'Applies common parameters correctly when testing the parameter filter' {
        { Test-Function -Verbose } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Function
        Assert-MockCalled Test-Function -ParameterFilter { $VerbosePreference -eq 'Continue' }
    }
}

Describe "Mocking Get-ItemProperty" {
    Mock Get-ItemProperty { New-Object -typename psobject -property @{ Name = "fakeName" } }
    It "Does not fail with NotImplementedException" {
        Get-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\Software\Key\" -Name "Property" | Select -ExpandProperty Name | Should Be fakeName
    }
}

Describe 'When mocking a command with parameters that match internal variable names' {
    function Test-Function
    {
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param (
            [string] $ArgumentList,
            [int] $FunctionName,
            [double] $ModuleName
        )
    }

    Mock Test-Function { return 'Mocked!' }

    It 'Should execute the mocked command successfully' {
        { Test-Function } | Should Not Throw
        Test-Function | Should Be 'Mocked!'
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking commands with potentially ambiguous parameter sets' {
    function SomeFunction
    {
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param
        (
            [parameter(ParameterSetName                = 'ps1',
                       ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
            [string]
            $p1,

            [parameter(ParameterSetName                = 'ps2',
                       ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName = $true)]
            [string]
            $p2
        )
        process
        {
            return $true
        }
    }

    Mock SomeFunction { }

    It 'Should call the function successfully, even with delayed parameter binding' {
        $object = New-Object psobject -Property @{ p1 = 'Whatever' }
        { $object | SomeFunction } | Should Not Throw
        Assert-MockCalled SomeFunction -ParameterFilter { $p1 -eq 'Whatever' }
    }
}

Describe 'When mocking a command that has an ArgumentList parameter with validation' {
    Mock Start-Process { return 'mocked' }

    It 'Calls the mock properly' {
        $hash = @{ Result = $null }
        $scriptBlock = { $hash.Result = Start-Process -FilePath cmd.exe -ArgumentList '/c dir c:\' }

        $scriptBlock | Should Not Throw
        $hash.Result | Should Be 'mocked'
    }
}

# These assertions won't actually "fail"; we had an infinite recursion bug in Get-DynamicParametersForCmdlet
# if the caller mocked New-Object.  It should be fixed by making that call to New-Object module-qualified,
# and this test will make sure it's working properly.  If this test fails, it'll take a really long time
# to execute, and then will throw a stack overflow error.

Describe 'Mocking New-Object' {
    It 'Works properly' {
        Mock New-Object

        $result = New-Object -TypeName Object
        $result | Should Be $null
        Assert-MockCalled New-Object
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking a function taking input from pipeline' {
    $psobj = New-Object -TypeName psobject -Property @{'PipeIntProp'='1';'PipeArrayProp'=1;'PipeStringProp'=1}
    $psArrayobj = New-Object -TypeName psobject -Property @{'PipeArrayProp'[email protected](1)}
    $noMockArrayResult = @(1,2) | PipelineInputFunction
    $noMockIntResult = 1 | PipelineInputFunction
    $noMockStringResult = '1' | PipelineInputFunction
    $noMockResultByProperty = $psobj | PipelineInputFunction -PipeStr 'val'
    $noMockArrayResultByProperty = $psArrayobj | PipelineInputFunction -PipeStr 'val'

    Mock PipelineInputFunction { write-output 'mocked' } -ParameterFilter { $PipeStr -eq 'blah' }

    context 'when calling original function with an array' {
        $result = @(1,2) | PipelineInputFunction
        it 'Returns actual implementation' {
            $result[0].keys | % {
                $result[0][$_] | Should Be $noMockArrayResult[0][$_]
                $result[1][$_] | Should Be $noMockArrayResult[1][$_]
            }
        }
    }

    context 'when calling original function with an int' {
        $result = 1 | PipelineInputFunction
        it 'Returns actual implementation' {
            $result.keys | % {
                $result[$_] | Should Be $noMockIntResult[$_]
            }
        }
    }

    context 'when calling original function with a string' {
        $result = '1' | PipelineInputFunction
        it 'Returns actual implementation' {
            $result.keys | % {
                $result[$_] | Should Be $noMockStringResult[$_]
            }
        }
    }

    context 'when calling original function and pipeline is bound by property name' {
        $result = $psobj | PipelineInputFunction -PipeStr 'val'
        it 'Returns actual implementation' {
            $result.keys | % {
                $result[$_] | Should Be $noMockResultByProperty[$_]
            }
        }
    }

    context 'when calling original function and forcing a parameter binding exception' {
        Mock PipelineInputFunction {
            if($MyInvocation.ExpectingInput) {
                throw New-Object -TypeName System.Management.Automation.ParameterBindingException
            }
            write-output $MyInvocation.ExpectingInput
        }
        $result = $psobj | PipelineInputFunction

        it 'falls back to no pipeline input' {
            $result | Should Be $false
        }
    }

    context 'when calling original function and pipeline is bound by property name with array values' {
        $result = $psArrayobj | PipelineInputFunction -PipeStr 'val'
        it 'Returns actual implementation' {
            $result.keys | % {
                $result[$_] | Should Be $noMockArrayResultByProperty[$_]
            }
        }
    }

    context 'when calling the mocked function' {
        $result = 'blah' | PipelineInputFunction
        it 'Returns mocked implementation' {
            $result | Should Be 'mocked'
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking module-qualified calls' {
    It 'Mock alias should not exist before the mock is defined' {
        $alias = Get-Alias -Name 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-Content' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
        $alias | Should Be $null
    }

    $mockFile = 'TestDrive:\TestFile'
    $mockResult = 'Mocked'

    Mock Get-Content { return $mockResult } -ParameterFilter { $Path -eq $mockFile }
    Setup -File TestFile -Content 'The actual file'

    It 'Creates the alias while the mock is in effect' {
        $alias = Get-Alias -Name 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-Content' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
        $alias | Should Not Be $null
    }

    It 'Calls the mock properly even if the call is module-qualified' {
        $result = Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-Content -Path $mockFile
        $result | Should Be $mockResult
    }
}

Describe 'After a mock goes out of scope' {
    It 'Removes the alias after the mock goes out of scope' {
        $alias = Get-Alias -Name 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Management\Get-Content' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
        $alias | Should Be $null
    }
}

Describe 'Assert-MockCalled with Aliases' {
    AfterEach {
        if (Test-Path alias:PesterTF) { Remove-Item Alias:PesterTF }
    }

    It 'Allows calls to Assert-MockCalled to use both aliases and the original command name' {
        function TestFunction { }
        Set-Alias -Name PesterTF -Value TestFunction
        Mock PesterTF
        $null = PesterTF

        { Assert-MockCalled PesterTF } | Should Not Throw
        { Assert-MockCalled TestFunction } | Should Not Throw
    }
}

Describe 'Mocking Get-Command' {
    # This was reported as a bug in 3.3.12; we were relying on Get-Command to safely invoke other commands.
    # Mocking Get-Command, though, would result in infinite recursion.

    It 'Does not break when Get-Command is mocked' {
        { Mock Get-Command } | Should Not Throw
    }
}

Describe 'Mocks with closures' {
    $closureVariable = 'from closure'
    $scriptBlock = { "Variable resolved $closureVariable" }
    $closure = $scriptBlock.GetNewClosure()
    $closureVariable = 'from script'

    function TestClosure([switch] $Closure) { 'Not mocked' }

    Mock TestClosure $closure -ParameterFilter { $Closure }
    Mock TestClosure $scriptBlock

    It 'Resolves variables in the closure rather than Pester''s current scope' {
        TestClosure | Should Be 'Variable resolved from script'
        TestClosure -Closure | Should Be 'Variable resolved from closure'
    }
}

Describe '$args handling' {

    function AdvancedFunction {
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param()
        'orig'
    }
    function SimpleFunction {
        . AdvancedFunction
    }
    function AdvancedFunctionWithArgs {
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param($Args)
        'orig'
    }
    Add-Type -TypeDefinition '
        using System.Management.Automation;
        [Cmdlet(VerbsLifecycle.Invoke, "CmdletWithArgs")]
        public class InvokeCmdletWithArgs : Cmdlet {
            public InvokeCmdletWithArgs() { }
            [Parameter]
            public object Args {
                set { }
            }
            protected override void EndProcessing() {
                WriteObject("orig");
            }
        }
    ' -PassThru | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Assembly | Import-Module

    Mock AdvancedFunction { 'mock' }
    Mock AdvancedFunctionWithArgs { 'mock' }
    Mock Invoke-CmdletWithArgs { 'mock' }

    It 'Advanced function mock should be callable with dot operator' {
        SimpleFunction garbage | Should Be mock
    }
    It 'Advanced function with Args parameter should be mockable' {
        AdvancedFunctionWithArgs -Args garbage | Should Be mock
    }
    It 'Cmdlet with Args parameter should be mockable' {
        Invoke-CmdletWithArgs -Args garbage | Should Be mock
    }

}

Describe 'Single quote in command/module name' {
    BeforeAll {
        $module = New-Module "Module '‘’‚‛" {
            Function NormalCommandName { 'orig' }
            New-Item "Function::Command '‘’‚‛" -Value { 'orig' }
        } | Import-Module -PassThru
    }

    AfterAll {
        if ($module) { Remove-Module $module; $module = $null }
    }

    It 'Command with single quote in module name should be mockable' {
        Mock NormalCommandName { 'mock' }
        NormalCommandName | Should Be mock
    }
    It 'Command with single quote in name should be mockable' {
        Mock "Command '‘’‚‛" { 'mock' }
        & "Command '‘’‚‛" | Should Be mock
    }

}

if ($global:PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3) {
    Describe 'Mocking cmdlet without positional parameters' {

        Add-Type -TypeDefinition '
            using System.Management.Automation;
            [Cmdlet(VerbsLifecycle.Invoke, "CmdletWithoutPositionalParameters")]
            public class InvokeCmdletWithoutPositionalParameters : Cmdlet {
                public InvokeCmdletWithoutPositionalParameters() { }
                [Parameter]
                public object Parameter {
                    set { }
                }
            }
            [Cmdlet(VerbsLifecycle.Invoke, "CmdletWithValueFromRemainingArguments")]
            public class InvokeCmdletWithValueFromRemainingArguments : Cmdlet {
                private string parameter;
                private string[] remainings;
                public InvokeCmdletWithValueFromRemainingArguments() { }
                [Parameter]
                public string Parameter {
                    set {
                        parameter=value;
                    }
                }
                [Parameter(ValueFromRemainingArguments=true)]
                public string[] Remainings {
                    set {
                        remainings=value;
                    }
                }
                protected override void EndProcessing() {
                    WriteObject(string.Concat(parameter, "; ", string.Join(", ", remainings)));
                }
            }
        ' -PassThru | Select-Object -First 1 -ExpandProperty Assembly | Import-Module

        It 'Original cmdlet does not have positional parameters' {
            { Invoke-CmdletWithoutPositionalParameters garbage } | Should Throw
        }
        Mock Invoke-CmdletWithoutPositionalParameters
        It 'Mock of cmdlet should not make parameters to be positional' {
            { Invoke-CmdletWithoutPositionalParameters garbage } | Should Throw
        }

        It 'Original cmdlet bind all to Remainings' {
            Invoke-CmdletWithValueFromRemainingArguments asd fgh jkl | Should Be '; asd, fgh, jkl'
        }
        Mock Invoke-CmdletWithValueFromRemainingArguments { -join ($Parameter, '; ', ($Remainings -join ', ')) }
        It 'Mock of cmdlet should bind all to Remainings' {
            Invoke-CmdletWithValueFromRemainingArguments asd fgh jkl | Should Be '; asd, fgh, jkl'
        }

    }
}

Describe 'Nested Mock calls' {
    $testDate = New-Object DateTime(2012,6,13)

    Mock Get-Date -ParameterFilter { $null -eq $Date } {
        Get-Date -Date $testDate -Format o
    }

    It 'Properly handles nested mocks' {
        $result = @(Get-Date)
        $result.Count | Should Be 1
        $result[0] | Should Be '2012-06-13T00:00:00.0000000'
    }
}

Describe 'Globbing characters in command name' {

    function f[f]f { 'orig1' }
    function f?f { 'orig2' }
    function f*f { 'orig3' }
    function fff { 'orig4' }

    It 'Command with globbing characters in name should be mockable' {
        Mock f[f]f { 'mock1' }
        Mock f?f { 'mock2' }
        Mock f*f { 'mock3' }
        f[f]f | Should Be mock1
        f?f | Should Be mock2
        f*f | Should Be mock3
        fff | Should Be orig4
    }

}

Describe 'Naming conflicts in mocked functions' {
    function Sample {
        param(
            [string]
            ${Metadata}
        )
    }

    function Wrapper {
        Sample -Metadata 'test'
    }

    Mock -CommandName Sample { 'mocked' }

    It 'Works with commands that contain variables named Metadata' {
        Wrapper | Should Be 'mocked'
    }
}
tools\Functions\New-Fixture.ps1
function New-Fixture {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    This function generates two scripts, one that defines a function
    and another one that contains its tests.

    .DESCRIPTION
    This function generates two scripts, one that defines a function
    and another one that contains its tests. The files are by default
    placed in the current directory and are called and populated as such:


    The script defining the function: .\Clean.ps1:

    function Clean {

    }

    The script containing the example test .\Clean.Tests.ps1:

    $here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
    $sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path).Replace(".Tests.", ".")
    . "$here\$sut"

    Describe "Clean" {

        It "does something useful" {
            $false | Should Be $true
        }
    }


    .PARAMETER Name
    Defines the name of the function and the name of the test to be created.

    .PARAMETER Path
    Defines path where the test and the function should be created, you can use full or relative path.
    If the parameter is not specified the scripts are created in the current directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-Fixture -Name Clean

    Creates the scripts in the current directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-Fixture C:\Projects\Cleaner Clean

    Creates the scripts in the C:\Projects\Cleaner directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-Fixture Cleaner Clean

    Creates a new folder named Cleaner in the current directory and creates the scripts in it.

    .LINK
    Describe
    Context
    It
    about_Pester
    about_Should
    #>

    param (
        [String]$Path = $PWD,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [String]$Name
    )
    #region File contents
    #keep this formatted as is. the format is output to the file as is, including indentation
    $scriptCode = "function $name {`r`n`r`n}"

    $testCode = '$here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
$sut = (Split-Path -Leaf $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path) -replace ''\.Tests\.'', ''.''
. "$here\$sut"

Describe "#name#" {
    It "does something useful" {
        $true | Should Be $false
    }
}' -replace "#name#",$name

    #endregion

    $Path = $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Path.GetUnresolvedProviderPathFromPSPath($Path)

    Create-File -Path $Path -Name "$Name.ps1" -Content $scriptCode
    Create-File -Path $Path -Name "$Name.Tests.ps1" -Content $testCode
}

function Create-File ($Path,$Name,$Content) {
    if (-not (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path $Path)) {
        & $SafeCommands['New-Item'] -ItemType Directory -Path $Path | & $SafeCommands['Out-Null']
    }

    $FullPath = & $SafeCommands['Join-Path'] -Path $Path -ChildPath $Name
    if (-not (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path $FullPath)) {
        & $SafeCommands['Set-Content'] -Path  $FullPath -Value $Content -Encoding UTF8
        & $SafeCommands['Get-Item'] -Path $FullPath
    }
    else
    {
        # This is deliberately not sent through $SafeCommands, because our own tests rely on
        # mocking Write-Warning, and it's not really the end of the world if this call happens to
        # be screwed up in an edge case.
        Write-Warning "Skipping the file '$FullPath', because it already exists."
    }
}
tools\Functions\New-Fixture.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

Describe "New-Fixture" {
    It "Name parameter is mandatory:" {
        (get-command New-Fixture ).Parameters.Name.ParameterSets.__AllParameterSets.IsMandatory | Should Be $true
    }

    Context "Only Name parameter is specified:" {
        It "Creates fixture in current directory:" {
            $name = "Test-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
    }

    Context "Name and Path parameter is specified:" {
        #use different fixture names to avoid interference among the test cases
        #cleaning up would be also possible, but difficult if the assertion fails
        It "Creates fixture in full Path:" {
            $name = "Test-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\full"

            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path $path | Out-Null

            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path $path -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist

            #cleanup
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Remove-Item -Force
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Remove-Item -Force
        }

        It "Creates fixture in relative Path:" {
            $name = "Relative1-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path relative | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path "$path\relative" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path "$path\relative" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
        It "Creates fixture if Path is set to '.':" {
            $name = "Relative2-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path . | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
        It "Creates fixture if Path is set to '(pwd)':" {
            $name = "Relative3-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            pushd  $path
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path (pwd) | Out-Null
            popd

            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.ps1" | Should Exist
            Join-Path -Path "$path" -ChildPath "$name.Tests.ps1" | Should Exist
        }
        It "Writes warning if file exists" {
            $name = "Warning-Fixture"
            $path = "TestDrive:\"

            Mock -Verifiable -ModuleName Pester Write-Warning { }

            #Create the same files twice
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path $path | Out-Null
            New-Fixture -Name $name -Path $path -WarningVariable warnings -WarningAction SilentlyContinue | Out-Null

            Assert-VerifiableMocks
        }

    }
    #TODO add tests that validate the contents of default files
}

tools\Functions\New-MockObject.ps1
function New-MockObject {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
        This function instantiates a .NET object from a type. The assembly for the particular type must be
        loaded.

    .PARAMETER Type
        The .NET type to create an object from.

    .EXAMPLE
        PS> $obj = New-MockObject -Type 'System.Diagnostics.Process'
        PS> $obj.GetType().FullName
            System.Diagnostics.Process
    #>

    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [type]$Type
    )

    [System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatterservices]::GetUninitializedObject($Type)

}
tools\Functions\New-MockObject.Tests.ps1
describe 'New-MockObject' {

    it 'instantiates an object from a class with no public constructors' {
        $type = 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.Language'
        New-MockObject -Type $type | should beoftype $type
    }
}
tools\Functions\Output.Tests.ps1
InModuleScope -ModuleName Pester -ScriptBlock {
    Describe 'Has-Flag' -Fixture {
        It 'Returns true when setting and value are the same' {
            $setting = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed
            $value = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed

            $value | Has-Flag $setting | Should Be $true
        }

        It 'Returns false when setting and value are the different' {
            $setting = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed
            $value = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Failed

            $value | Has-Flag $setting | Should Be $false
        }

        It 'Returns true when setting contains value' {
            $setting = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed -bor [Pester.OutputTypes]::Failed
            $value = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed

            $value | Has-Flag $setting | Should Be $true
        }

        It 'Returns false when setting does not contain the value' {
            $setting = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed -bor [Pester.OutputTypes]::Failed
            $value = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Summary

            $value | Has-Flag $setting | Should Be $false
        }

        It 'Returns true when at least one setting is contained in value' {
            $setting = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed -bor [Pester.OutputTypes]::Failed
            $value = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Summary -bor [Pester.OutputTypes]::Failed

            $value | Has-Flag $setting | Should Be $true
        }

        It 'Returns false when none of settings is contained in value' {
            $setting = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Passed -bor [Pester.OutputTypes]::Failed
            $value = [Pester.OutputTypes]::Summary -bor [Pester.OutputTypes]::Describe

            $value | Has-Flag $setting | Should Be $false
        }
    }

    Describe 'Default OutputTypes' -Fixture {
        It 'Fails output type contains all except passed' {
            $expected = [Pester.OutputTypes]'Default, Failed, Pending, Skipped, Inconclusive, Describe, Context, Summary'
            [Pester.OutputTypes]::Fails | Should Be $expected
        }

        It 'All output type contains all flags' {
            $expected = [Pester.OutputTypes]'Default, Passed, Failed, Pending, Skipped, Inconclusive, Describe, Context, Summary'
            [Pester.OutputTypes]::All | Should Be $expected
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\PesterState.ps1
function New-PesterState
{
    param (
        [String[]]$TagFilter,
        [String[]]$ExcludeTagFilter,
        [String[]]$TestNameFilter,
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]$SessionState,
        [Switch]$Strict,
        [Pester.OutputTypes]$Show = 'All',
        [object]$PesterOption
    )

    if ($null -eq $SessionState) { $SessionState = $ExecutionContext.SessionState }

    if ($null -eq $PesterOption)
    {
        $PesterOption = New-PesterOption
    }
    elseif ($PesterOption -is [System.Collections.IDictionary])
    {
        try
        {
            $PesterOption = New-PesterOption @PesterOption
        }
        catch
        {
            throw
        }
    }

    & $SafeCommands['New-Module'] -Name Pester -AsCustomObject -ScriptBlock {
        param (
            [String[]]$_tagFilter,
            [String[]]$_excludeTagFilter,
            [String[]]$_testNameFilter,
            [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]$_sessionState,
            [Switch]$Strict,
            [Pester.OutputTypes]$Show,
            [object]$PesterOption
        )

        #public read-only
        $TagFilter = $_tagFilter
        $ExcludeTagFilter = $_excludeTagFilter
        $TestNameFilter = $_testNameFilter

        $script:SessionState = $_sessionState
        $script:CurrentContext = ""
        $script:CurrentDescribe = ""
        $script:CurrentTest = ""
        $script:Stopwatch = [System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch]::StartNew()
        $script:MostRecentTimestamp = 0
        $script:CommandCoverage = @()
        $script:BeforeEach = @()
        $script:AfterEach = @()
        $script:BeforeAll = @()
        $script:AfterAll = @()
        $script:Strict = $Strict
        $script:Show = $Show

        $script:TestResult = @()

        $script:TotalCount = 0
        $script:Time = [timespan]0
        $script:PassedCount = 0
        $script:FailedCount = 0
        $script:SkippedCount = 0
        $script:PendingCount = 0
        $script:InconclusiveCount = 0

        $script:IncludeVSCodeMarker = $PesterOption.IncludeVSCodeMarker

        $script:SafeCommands = @{}

        $script:SafeCommands['New-Object']          = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) -Name New-Object          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility -CommandType Cmdlet
        $script:SafeCommands['Select-Object']       = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) -Name Select-Object       -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility -CommandType Cmdlet
        $script:SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) -Name Export-ModuleMember -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core    -CommandType Cmdlet
        $script:SafeCommands['Add-Member']          = & (Pester\SafeGetCommand) -Name Add-Member          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility -CommandType Cmdlet

        function EnterDescribe([string]$Name)
        {
            if ($CurrentDescribe)
            {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "You already are in Describe, you cannot enter Describe twice"
            }
            $script:CurrentDescribe = $Name
        }

        function LeaveDescribe
        {
            if ( $CurrentContext ) {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "Cannot leave Describe before leaving Context"
            }

            $script:CurrentDescribe = $null
        }

        function EnterContext([string]$Name)
        {
            if ( -not $CurrentDescribe )
            {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "Cannot enter Context before entering Describe"
            }

            if ( $CurrentContext )
            {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "You already are in Context, you cannot enter Context twice"
            }

            if ($CurrentTest)
            {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "You already are in It, you cannot enter Context inside It"
            }

            $script:CurrentContext = $Name
        }

        function LeaveContext
        {
            if ($CurrentTest)
            {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "Cannot leave Context before leaving It"
            }

            $script:CurrentContext = $null
        }

        function EnterTest([string]$Name)
        {
            if (-not $script:CurrentDescribe)
            {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "Cannot enter It before entering Describe"
            }

            if ( $CurrentTest )
            {
                throw & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] InvalidOperationException "You already are in It, you cannot enter It twice"
            }

            $script:CurrentTest = $Name
        }

        function LeaveTest
        {
            $script:CurrentTest = $null
        }

        function AddTestResult
        {
            param (
                [string]$Name,
                [ValidateSet("Failed","Passed","Skipped","Pending","Inconclusive")]
                [string]$Result,
                [Nullable[TimeSpan]]$Time,
                [string]$FailureMessage,
                [string]$StackTrace,
                [string] $ParameterizedSuiteName,
                [System.Collections.IDictionary] $Parameters,
                [System.Management.Automation.ErrorRecord] $ErrorRecord
            )

            $previousTime = $script:MostRecentTimestamp
            $script:MostRecentTimestamp = $script:Stopwatch.Elapsed

            if ($null -eq $Time)
            {
                $Time = $script:MostRecentTimestamp - $previousTime
            }

            if (-not $script:Strict)
            {
                $Passed = "Passed","Skipped","Pending" -contains $Result
            }
            else
            {
                $Passed = $Result -eq "Passed"
                if (($Result -eq "Skipped") -or ($Result -eq "Pending"))
                {
                    $FailureMessage = "The test failed because the test was executed in Strict mode and the result '$result' was translated to Failed."
                    $Result = "Failed"
                }

            }

            $script:TotalCount++
            $script:Time += $Time

            switch ($Result)
            {
                Passed  { $script:PassedCount++; break; }
                Failed  { $script:FailedCount++; break; }
                Skipped { $script:SkippedCount++; break; }
                Pending { $script:PendingCount++; break; }
                Inconclusive { $script:InconclusiveCount++; break; }
            }

            $Script:TestResult += & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] -TypeName PsObject -Property @{
                Describe               = $CurrentDescribe
                Context                = $CurrentContext
                Name                   = $Name
                Passed                 = $Passed
                Result                 = $Result
                Time                   = $Time
                FailureMessage         = $FailureMessage
                StackTrace             = $StackTrace
                ErrorRecord            = $ErrorRecord
                ParameterizedSuiteName = $ParameterizedSuiteName
                Parameters             = $Parameters
            } | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] Describe, Context, Name, Result, Passed, Time, FailureMessage, StackTrace, ErrorRecord, ParameterizedSuiteName, Parameters
        }

        $ExportedVariables = "TagFilter",
        "ExcludeTagFilter",
        "TestNameFilter",
        "TestResult",
        "CurrentContext",
        "CurrentDescribe",
        "CurrentTest",
        "SessionState",
        "CommandCoverage",
        "BeforeEach",
        "AfterEach",
        "BeforeAll",
        "AfterAll",
        "Strict",
        "Show",
        "Time",
        "TotalCount",
        "PassedCount",
        "FailedCount",
        "SkippedCount",
        "PendingCount",
        "InconclusiveCount",
        "IncludeVSCodeMarker"

        $ExportedFunctions = "EnterContext",
        "LeaveContext",
        "EnterDescribe",
        "LeaveDescribe",
        "EnterTest",
        "LeaveTest",
        "AddTestResult"

        & $SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] -Variable $ExportedVariables -function $ExportedFunctions
    } -ArgumentList $TagFilter, $ExcludeTagFilter, $TestNameFilter, $SessionState, $Strict, $Show, $PesterOption |
    & $SafeCommands['Add-Member'] -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name Scope -Value {
        if ($this.CurrentTest) { 'It' }
        elseif ($this.CurrentContext)  { 'Context' }
        elseif ($this.CurrentDescribe) { 'Describe' }
        else { $null }
    } -Passthru |
    & $SafeCommands['Add-Member'] -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name ParentScope -Value {
        $parentScope = $null
        $scope = $this.Scope

        if ($scope -eq 'It' -and $this.CurrentContext)
        {
            $parentScope = 'Context'
        }

        if ($null -eq $parentScope -and $scope -ne 'Describe' -and $this.CurrentDescribe)
        {
            $parentScope = 'Describe'
        }

        return $parentScope
    } -PassThru
}

function Write-Describe
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]$Name
    )
    process {
        Write-Screen Describing $Name -OutputType Describe
    }
}

function Write-Context
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]$Name
    )
    process {
        $margin = " " * 3
        Write-Screen ${margin}Context $Name -OutputType Context
    }
}

function Write-PesterResult
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $TestResult
    )
    process {
        $testDepth = if ( $TestResult.Context ) { 4 } elseif ( $TestResult.Describe ) { 1 } else { 0 }

        $margin = " " * $TestDepth
        $error_margin = $margin + "  "
        $output = $TestResult.name
        $humanTime = Get-HumanTime $TestResult.Time.TotalSeconds

        switch ($TestResult.Result)
        {
            Passed {
                "$margin[+] $output $humanTime" | Write-Screen -OutputType Passed
                break
            }
            Failed {
                "$margin[-] $output $humanTime" | Write-Screen -OutputType Failed

                $failureLines = $TestResult.ErrorRecord | ConvertTo-FailureLines

                if ($Pester.IncludeVSCodeMarker)
                {
                    $marker = $failureLines |
                              & $script:SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -First 1 -ExpandProperty Trace |
                              & $script:SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -First 1

                    Write-Screen -OutputType Failed $($marker -replace '(?m)^',$error_margin)
                }

                $failureLines |
                    & $SafeCommands['ForEach-Object'] {$_.Message + $_.Trace} |
                    & $SafeCommands['ForEach-Object'] { Write-Screen -OutputType Failed $($_ -replace '(?m)^',$error_margin) }
            }
            Skipped {
                "$margin[!] $output $humanTime" | Write-Screen -OutputType Skipped
                break
            }
            Pending {
                "$margin[?] $output $humanTime" | Write-Screen -OutputType Pending
                break
            }
            Inconclusive {
                "$margin[?] $output $humanTime" | Write-Screen -OutputType Inconclusive
                if ($testresult.FailureMessage) {
                    Write-Screen -OutputType Inconclusive $($TestResult.failureMessage -replace '(?m)^',$error_margin)
                }

                Write-Screen -OutputType Inconclusive $($TestResult.stackTrace -replace '(?m)^',$error_margin)
                break
            }
        }
    }
}

function ConvertTo-FailureLines
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $ErrorRecord
    )
    process {
        $lines = & $script:SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property @{
            Message = @()
            Trace = @()
        }

        ## convert the exception messages
        $exception = $ErrorRecord.Exception
        $exceptionLines = @()
        while ($exception)
        {
            $exceptionName = $exception.GetType().Name
            $thisLines = $exception.Message.Split([Environment]::NewLine, [System.StringSplitOptions]::RemoveEmptyEntries)
            if ($ErrorRecord.FullyQualifiedErrorId -ne 'PesterAssertionFailed')
            {
                $thisLines[0] = "$exceptionName`: $($thisLines[0])"
            }
            [array]::Reverse($thisLines)
            $exceptionLines += $thisLines
            $exception = $exception.InnerException
        }
        [array]::Reverse($exceptionLines)
        $lines.Message += $exceptionLines
        if ($ErrorRecord.FullyQualifiedErrorId -eq 'PesterAssertionFailed')
        {
            $lines.Message += "$($ErrorRecord.TargetObject.Line)`: $($ErrorRecord.TargetObject.LineText)".Split([Environment]::NewLine, [System.StringSplitOptions]::RemoveEmptyEntries)
        }

        if ( -not ($ErrorRecord | & $SafeCommands['Get-Member'] -Name ScriptStackTrace) )
        {
            if ($ErrorRecord.FullyQualifiedErrorID -eq 'PesterAssertionFailed')
            {
                $lines.Trace += "at line: $($ErrorRecord.TargetObject.Line) in $($ErrorRecord.TargetObject.File)"
            }
            else
            {
                $lines.Trace += "at line: $($ErrorRecord.InvocationInfo.ScriptLineNumber) in $($ErrorRecord.InvocationInfo.ScriptName)"
            }
            return $lines
        }

        ## convert the stack trace
        $traceLines = $ErrorRecord.ScriptStackTrace.Split([Environment]::NewLine, [System.StringSplitOptions]::RemoveEmptyEntries)

        $count = 0

        # omit the lines internal to Pester
        foreach ( $line in $traceLines )
        {
            if ( $line -match '^at (Invoke-Test|Context|Describe|InModuleScope|Invoke-Pester), .*\\Functions\\.*.ps1: line [0-9]*$' )
            {
                break
            }
            $count ++
        }
        $lines.Trace += $traceLines |
            & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -First $count |
            & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] {
                $_ -notmatch '^at Should<End>, .*\\Functions\\Assertions\\Should.ps1: line [0-9]*$' -and
                $_ -notmatch '^at Assert-MockCalled, .*\\Functions\\Mock.ps1: line [0-9]*$'
            }

        return $lines
    }
}

function Write-PesterReport
{
    param (
        [Parameter(mandatory=$true, valueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $PesterState
    )

    Write-Screen "Tests completed in $(Get-HumanTime $PesterState.Time.TotalSeconds)" -OutputType "Summary"
    Write-Screen ("Passed: {0}, Failed: {1}, Skipped: {2}, Pending: {3}, Inconclusive: {4}" -f
                  $PesterState.PassedCount,
                  $PesterState.FailedCount,
                  $PesterState.SkippedCount,
                  $PesterState.PendingCount,
                  $PesterState.InconclusiveCount) -OutputType "Summary"
}

function Write-Screen {
    #wraps the Write-Host cmdlet to control if the output is written to screen from one place
    param(
        #Write-Host parameters
        [Parameter(Position=0, ValueFromPipeline=$true, ValueFromRemainingArguments=$true)]
        [Object] $Object,
        [Switch] $NoNewline,
        [Object] $Separator,
        #custom parameters
        [Pester.OutputTypes] $OutputFilter = $pester.Show,
        [Pester.OutputTypes] $OutputType = 'Default'
    )

    begin
    {
        $quiet = $OutputFilter -eq [Pester.OutputTypes]::None
        $writeToScreen = $OutputFilter | Has-Flag $OutputType
        $skipOutput = $quiet -or (-not $writeToScreen)

        if ($skipOutput)
        {
            return
        }

        #make the bound parameters compatible with Write-Host
        if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('OutputFilter')) { $PSBoundParameters.Remove('OutputFilter') | & $SafeCommands['Out-Null'] }
        if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('OutputType')) { $PSBoundParameters.Remove('OutputType') | & $SafeCommands['Out-Null'] }

        if (-not ($OutputType | Has-Flag 'Default, Summary'))
        {
            #create the key first to make it work in strict mode
            if (-not $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('ForegroundColor'))
            {
                $PSBoundParameters.Add('ForegroundColor', $null)
            }

            switch ($Host.Name)
            {
                #light background
                "PowerGUIScriptEditorHost" {
                    $ColorSet = @{
                        Failed       = [ConsoleColor]::Red
                        Passed       = [ConsoleColor]::DarkGreen
                        Skipped      = [ConsoleColor]::DarkGray
                        Pending      = [ConsoleColor]::DarkCyan
                        Inconclusive = [ConsoleColor]::DarkCyan
                        Describe     = [ConsoleColor]::Magenta
                        Context      = [ConsoleColor]::Magenta
                    }
                }
                #dark background
                { "Windows PowerShell ISE Host", "ConsoleHost" -contains $_ } {
                    $ColorSet = @{
                        Failed       = [ConsoleColor]::Red
                        Passed       = [ConsoleColor]::Green
                        Skipped      = [ConsoleColor]::Gray
                        Pending      = [ConsoleColor]::Cyan
                        Inconclusive = [ConsoleColor]::Cyan
                        Describe     = [ConsoleColor]::Magenta
                        Context      = [ConsoleColor]::Magenta
                    }
                }
                default {
                    $ColorSet = @{
                        Failed       = [ConsoleColor]::Red
                        Passed       = [ConsoleColor]::DarkGreen
                        Skipped      = [ConsoleColor]::Gray
                        Pending      = [ConsoleColor]::Gray
                        Inconclusive = [ConsoleColor]::Gray
                        Describe     = [ConsoleColor]::Magenta
                        Context      = [ConsoleColor]::Magenta
                    }
                }

             }

            # the output type must be forced to become string, otherwise the color is not found
            $PSBoundParameters.ForegroundColor = $ColorSet[$OutputType.ToString()]
        }

        try {
            $outBuffer = $null
            if ($PSBoundParameters.TryGetValue('OutBuffer', [ref]$outBuffer))
            {
                $PSBoundParameters['OutBuffer'] = 1
            }
            $wrappedCmd = $ExecutionContext.InvokeCommand.GetCommand('Write-Host', [System.Management.Automation.CommandTypes]::Cmdlet)
            $scriptCmd = {& $wrappedCmd @PSBoundParameters }
            $steppablePipeline = $scriptCmd.GetSteppablePipeline($myInvocation.CommandOrigin)
            $steppablePipeline.Begin($PSCmdlet)
        } catch {
            throw
        }
    }

    process
    {
        if ($skipOutput) { return }
        try {
            $steppablePipeline.Process($_)
        } catch {
            throw
        }
    }

    end
    {
        if ($skipOutput) { return }
        try {
            $steppablePipeline.End()
        } catch {
            throw
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\PesterState.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "New-PesterState" {
        Context "TestNameFilter parameter is set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -TestNameFilter "filter"

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TestNameFilter | should be "filter"
            }

        }
        Context "TagFilter parameter is set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -TagFilter "tag","tag2"

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TagFilter | should be ("tag","tag2")
            }
        }

        Context "ExcludeTagFilter parameter is set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -ExcludeTagFilter "tag3", "tag"

            it "sets the ExcludeTagFilter property" {
                $p.ExcludeTagFilter | should be ("tag3", "tag")
            }
        }

        Context "TagFilter and ExcludeTagFilter parameter are set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -TagFilter "tag","tag2" -ExcludeTagFilter "tag3"

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TagFilter | should be ("tag","tag2")
            }

            it "sets the ExcludeTagFilter property" {
                $p.ExcludeTagFilter | should be ("tag3")
            }
        }
        Context "TestNameFilter and TagFilter parameter is set" {
            $p = new-pesterstate -TagFilter "tag","tag2" -testnamefilter "filter"

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TagFilter | should be ("tag","tag2")
            }

            it "sets the TestNameFilter property" {
                $p.TagFilter | should be ("tag","tag2")
            }

        }
    }

    Describe "Pester state object" {
        $p = New-PesterState

        Context "entering describe" {
            It "enters describe" {
                $p.EnterDescribe("describe")
                $p.CurrentDescribe | should be "Describe"
            }
            It "can enter describe only once" {
                { $p.EnterDescribe("describe") } | Should Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | should be "describe"
            }
        }
        Context "leaving describe" {
            It "leaves describe" {
                $p.LeaveDescribe()
                $p.CurrentDescribe | should benullOrEmpty
            }
            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | should benullOrEmpty
            }
        }

        context "Entering It from Describe" {
            $p.EnterDescribe('Describe')

            It "Enters It successfully" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'It'
            }

            It "Cannot enter It after already entered" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Throw
            }

            It "Cannot enter Context from inside It" {
                { $p.EnterContext("Context") } | Should Throw
            }
        }

        context "Leaving It from Describe" {
            It "Leaves It to Describe" {
                { $p.LeaveTest() } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'Describe'
            }

            $p.LeaveDescribe()
        }

        Context "entering Context" {
            it "Cannot enter Context before Describe" {
                { $p.EnterContext("context") } | should throw
            }

            it "enters context from describe" {
                $p.EnterDescribe("Describe")
                $p.EnterContext("Context")
                $p.CurrentContext | should be "Context"
            }
            It "can enter context only once" {
                { $p.EnterContext("Context") } | Should Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | should be "Context"
            }
        }

        Context "leaving context" {
            it "cannot leave describe before leaving context" {
                { $p.LeaveDescribe() } | should throw
            }
            it "leaves context" {
                $p.LeaveContext()
                $p.CurrentContext | should BeNullOrEmpty
            }
            It "Returns from context to describe" {
                $p.Scope | should be "Describe"
            }

            $p.LeaveDescribe()
        }

        context "Entering It from Context" {
            $p.EnterDescribe('Describe')
            $p.EnterContext('Context')

            It "Enters It successfully" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'It'
            }

            It "Cannot enter It after already entered" {
                { $p.EnterTest("It") } | Should Throw
            }
        }

        context "Leaving It from Context" {
            It "Leaves It to Context" {
                { $p.LeaveTest() } | Should Not Throw
            }

            It "Reports scope correctly" {
                $p.Scope | Should Be 'Context'
            }

            $p.LeaveContext()
            $p.LeaveDescribe()
        }

        context "adding test result" {
            $p.EnterDescribe('Describe')

            it "adds passed test" {
                $p.AddTestResult("result","Passed", 100)
                $result = $p.TestResult[-1]
                $result.Name | should be "result"
                $result.passed | should be $true
                $result.Result | Should be "Passed"
                $result.time.ticks | should be 100
            }
            it "adds failed test" {
                try { throw 'message' } catch { $e = $_ }
                $p.AddTestResult("result","Failed", 100, "fail", "stack","suite name",@{param='eters'},$e)
                $result = $p.TestResult[-1]
                $result.Name | should be "result"
                $result.passed | should be $false
                $result.Result | Should be "Failed"
                $result.time.ticks | should be 100
                $result.FailureMessage | should be "fail"
                $result.StackTrace | should be "stack"
                $result.ParameterizedSuiteName | should be "suite name"
                $result.Parameters['param'] | should be 'eters'
                $result.ErrorRecord.Exception.Message | should be 'message'
            }

            it "adds skipped test" {
                $p.AddTestResult("result","Skipped", 100)
                $result = $p.TestResult[-1]
                $result.Name | should be "result"
                $result.passed | should be $true
                $result.Result | Should be "Skipped"
                $result.time.ticks | should be 100
            }

            it "adds Pending test" {
                $p.AddTestResult("result","Pending", 100)
                $result = $p.TestResult[-1]
                $result.Name | should be "result"
                $result.passed | should be $true
                $result.Result | Should be "Pending"
                $result.time.ticks | should be 100
            }

            it "can add test result before entering describe" {
                if ($p.CurrentContext) { $p.LeaveContext()}
                if ($p.CurrentDescribe) { $p.LeaveDescribe() }
                { $p.addTestResult(1,"Passed",1) } | should not throw
            }

            $p.LeaveContext()
            $p.LeaveDescribe()

        }

        Context "Path and TestNameFilter parameter is set" {
            $strict = New-PesterState -Strict

            It "Keeps Passed state" {
                $strict.AddTestResult("test","Passed")
                $result = $strict.TestResult[-1]

                $result.passed | should be $true
                $result.Result | Should be "Passed"
            }

            It "Keeps Failed state" {
                $strict.AddTestResult("test","Failed")
                $result = $strict.TestResult[-1]

                $result.passed | should be $false
                $result.Result | Should be "Failed"
            }

            It "Changes Pending state to Failed" {
                $strict.AddTestResult("test","Pending")
                $result = $strict.TestResult[-1]

                $result.passed | should be $false
                $result.Result | Should be "Failed"
            }

            It "Changes Skipped state to Failed" {
                $strict.AddTestResult("test","Skipped")
                $result = $strict.TestResult[-1]

                $result.passed | should be $false
                $result.Result | Should be "Failed"
            }
        }
    }
    Describe ConvertTo-FailureLines {
        $testPath = Join-Path $TestDrive test.ps1
        $escapedTestPath = [regex]::Escape($testPath)
        It 'produces correct message lines.' {
            try { throw 'message' } catch { $e = $_ }

            $r = $e | ConvertTo-FailureLines

            $r.Message[0] | Should be 'RuntimeException: message'
            $r.Message.Count | Should be 1
        }
        It 'failed should produces correct message lines.' {
            try { 'One' | Should be 'Two' } catch { $e = $_ }
            $r = $e | ConvertTo-FailureLines

            $r.Message[0] | Should be 'String lengths are both 3. Strings differ at index 0.'
            $r.Message[1] | Should be 'Expected: {Two}'
            $r.Message[2] | Should be 'But was:  {One}'
            $r.Message[3] | Should be '-----------^'
            $r.Message[4] | Should match "'One' | Should be 'Two'"
            $r.Message.Count | Should be 5
        }
        Context 'should fails in file' {
            Set-Content -Path $testPath -Value @'
                $script:IgnoreErrorPreference = 'SilentlyContinue'
                'One' | Should be 'Two'
'@

            try { & $testPath } catch { $e = $_ }
            $r = $e | ConvertTo-FailureLines

            It 'produces correct message lines.' {


                $r.Message[0] | Should be 'String lengths are both 3. Strings differ at index 0.'
                $r.Message[1] | Should be 'Expected: {Two}'
                $r.Message[2] | Should be 'But was:  {One}'
                $r.Message[3] | Should be '-----------^'
                $r.Message[4] | Should be "2:                 'One' | Should be 'Two'"
                $r.Message.Count | Should be 5
            }
            if ( $e | Get-Member -Name ScriptStackTrace )
            {
                It 'produces correct trace lines.' {
                    $r.Trace[0] | Should be "at <ScriptBlock>, $testPath`: line 2"
                    $r.Trace[1] -match 'at <ScriptBlock>, .*\\Functions\\PesterState.Tests.ps1: line [0-9]*$' |
                        Should be $true
                    $r.Trace.Count | Should be 2
                }
            }
            else
            {
                It 'produces correct trace lines.' {
                    $r.Trace[0] | Should be "at line: 2 in $testPath"
                    $r.Trace.Count | Should be 1
                }
            }
        }
        Context 'exception thrown in nested functions in file' {
            Set-Content -Path $testPath -Value @'
                function f1 {
                    throw 'f1 message'
                }
                function f2 {
                    f1
                }
                f2
'@

            try { & $testPath } catch { $e = $_ }

            $r = $e | ConvertTo-FailureLines

            It 'produces correct message lines.' {
                $r.Message[0] | Should be 'RuntimeException: f1 message'
            }
            if ( $e | Get-Member -Name ScriptStackTrace )
            {
                It 'produces correct trace lines.' {
                    $r.Trace[0] | Should be "at f1, $testPath`: line 2"
                    $r.Trace[1] | Should be "at f2, $testPath`: line 5"
                    $r.Trace[2] | Should be "at <ScriptBlock>, $testPath`: line 7"
                    $r.Trace[3] -match 'at <ScriptBlock>, .*\\Functions\\PesterState.Tests.ps1: line [0-9]*$' |
                        Should be $true
                    $r.Trace.Count | Should be 4
                }
            }
            else
            {
                It 'produces correct trace lines.' {
                    $r.Trace[0] | Should be "at line: 2 in $testPath"
                    $r.Trace.Count | Should be 1
                }
            }
        }
        Context 'nested exceptions thrown in file' {
            Set-Content -Path $testPath -Value @'
                try
                {
                    throw New-Object System.ArgumentException(
                        'inner message',
                        'param_name'
                    )
                }
                catch
                {
                    throw New-Object System.FormatException(
                        'outer message',
                        $_.Exception
                    )
                }
'@

            try { & $testPath } catch { $e = $_ }

            $r = $e | ConvertTo-FailureLines

            It 'produces correct message lines.' {
                $r.Message[0] | Should be 'ArgumentException: inner message'
                $r.Message[1] | Should be 'Parameter name: param_name'
                $r.Message[2] | Should be 'FormatException: outer message'
            }
            if ( $e | Get-Member -Name ScriptStackTrace )
            {
                It 'produces correct trace line.' {
                    $r.Trace[0] | Should be "at <ScriptBlock>, $testPath`: line 10"
                    $r.Trace[1] -match 'at <ScriptBlock>, .*\\Functions\\PesterState.Tests.ps1: line [0-9]*$'
                    $r.Trace.Count | Should be 2
                }
            }
            else
            {
                It 'produces correct trace line.' {
                    $r.Trace[0] | Should be "at line: 10 in $testPath"
                    $r.Trace.Count | Should be 1
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\SetupTeardown.ps1
function BeforeEach
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Defines a series of steps to perform at the beginning of every It block within
    the current Context or Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
    BeforeEach, AfterEach, BeforeAll, and AfterAll are unique in that they apply
    to the entire Context or Describe block, regardless of the order of the
    statements in the Context or Describe.  For a full description of this
    behavior, as well as how multiple BeforeEach or AfterEach blocks interact
    with each other, please refer to the about_BeforeEach_AfterEach help file.

.LINK
    about_BeforeEach_AfterEach
#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName BeforeEach
}

function AfterEach
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Defines a series of steps to perform at the end of every It block within
    the current Context or Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
    BeforeEach, AfterEach, BeforeAll, and AfterAll are unique in that they apply
    to the entire Context or Describe block, regardless of the order of the
    statements in the Context or Describe.  For a full description of this
    behavior, as well as how multiple BeforeEach or AfterEach blocks interact
    with each other, please refer to the about_BeforeEach_AfterEach help file.

.LINK
    about_BeforeEach_AfterEach
#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName AfterEach
}

function BeforeAll
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Defines a series of steps to perform at the beginning of the current Context
    or Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
    BeforeEach, AfterEach, BeforeAll, and AfterAll are unique in that they apply
    to the entire Context or Describe block, regardless of the order of the
    statements in the Context or Describe.

.LINK
    about_BeforeEach_AfterEach
#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName BeforeAll
}

function AfterAll
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Defines a series of steps to perform at the end of every It block within
    the current Context or Describe block.

.DESCRIPTION
    BeforeEach, AfterEach, BeforeAll, and AfterAll are unique in that they apply
    to the entire Context or Describe block, regardless of the order of the
    statements in the Context or Describe.

.LINK
    about_BeforeEach_AfterEach
#>
    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName AfterAll
}

function Clear-SetupAndTeardown
{
    $pester.BeforeEach = @( $pester.BeforeEach | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -ne $pester.Scope } )
    $pester.AfterEach  = @( $pester.AfterEach  | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -ne $pester.Scope } )
    $pester.BeforeAll  = @( $pester.BeforeAll  | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -ne $pester.Scope } )
    $pester.AfterAll   = @( $pester.AfterAll   | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -ne $pester.Scope } )
}

function Invoke-TestCaseSetupBlocks
{
    $orderedSetupBlocks = @(
        $pester.BeforeEach | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -eq 'Describe' } | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ScriptBlock
        $pester.BeforeEach | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -eq 'Context'  } | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ScriptBlock
    )

    Invoke-Blocks -ScriptBlock $orderedSetupBlocks
}

function Invoke-TestCaseTeardownBlocks
{
    $orderedTeardownBlocks = @(
        $pester.AfterEach | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -eq 'Context'  } | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ScriptBlock
        $pester.AfterEach | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -eq 'Describe' } | & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ScriptBlock
    )

    Invoke-Blocks -ScriptBlock $orderedTeardownBlocks
}

function Invoke-TestGroupSetupBlocks
{
    param ([string] $Scope)

    $scriptBlocks = $pester.BeforeAll |
                    & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -eq $Scope } |
                    & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ScriptBlock

    Invoke-Blocks -ScriptBlock $scriptBlocks
}

function Invoke-TestGroupTeardownBlocks
{
    param ([string] $Scope)

    $scriptBlocks = $pester.AfterAll |
                    & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Scope -eq $Scope } |
                    & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ScriptBlock

    Invoke-Blocks -ScriptBlock $scriptBlocks
}

function Invoke-Blocks
{
    param ([scriptblock[]] $ScriptBlock)

    foreach ($block in $ScriptBlock)
    {
        if ($null -eq $block) { continue }
        $null = . $block
    }
}

function Add-SetupAndTeardown
{
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -le 2)
    {
        Add-SetupAndTeardownV2 -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock
    }
    else
    {
        Add-SetupAndTeardownV3 -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock
    }
}

function Add-SetupAndTeardownV3
{
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    $pattern = '^(?:Before|After)(?:Each|All)$'
    $predicate = {
        param ([System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] $Ast)

        $Ast -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandAst] -and
        $Ast.CommandElements.Count -eq 2 -and
        $Ast.CommandElements[0].ToString() -match $pattern -and
        $Ast.CommandElements[1] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.ScriptBlockExpressionAst]
    }

    $searchNestedBlocks = $false

    $calls = $ScriptBlock.Ast.FindAll($predicate, $searchNestedBlocks)

    foreach ($call in $calls)
    {
        # For some reason, calling ScriptBlockAst.GetScriptBlock() sometimes blows up due to failing semantics
        # checks, even though the code is perfectly valid.  So we'll poke around with reflection again to skip
        # that part and just call the internal ScriptBlock constructor that we need

        $iPmdProviderType = [scriptblock].Assembly.GetType('System.Management.Automation.Language.IParameterMetadataProvider')

        $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance, NonPublic'
        $constructor = [scriptblock].GetConstructor($flags, $null, [Type[]]@($iPmdProviderType, [bool]), $null)

        $block = $constructor.Invoke(@($call.CommandElements[1].ScriptBlock, $false))

        Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $block -SessionState $pester.SessionState
        $commandName = $call.CommandElements[0].ToString()
        Add-SetupOrTeardownScriptBlock -CommandName $commandName -ScriptBlock $block
    }
}

function Add-SetupAndTeardownV2
{
    param (
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    $codeText = $ScriptBlock.ToString()
    $tokens = @(ParseCodeIntoTokens -CodeText $codeText)

    for ($i = 0; $i -lt $tokens.Count; $i++)
    {
        $token = $tokens[$i]
        $type = $token.Type
        if ($type -eq [System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::Command -and
            (IsSetupOrTeardownCommand -CommandName $token.Content))
        {
            $openBraceIndex, $closeBraceIndex = Get-BraceIndicesForCommand -Tokens $tokens -CommandIndex $i

            $block = Get-ScriptBlockFromTokens -Tokens $Tokens -OpenBraceIndex $openBraceIndex -CloseBraceIndex $closeBraceIndex -CodeText $codeText
            Add-SetupOrTeardownScriptBlock -CommandName $token.Content -ScriptBlock $block

            $i = $closeBraceIndex
        }
        elseif ($type -eq [System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::GroupStart)
        {
            # We don't want to parse Setup or Teardown commands in child scopes here, so anything
            # bounded by a GroupStart / GroupEnd token pair which is not immediately preceded by
            # a setup / teardown command name is ignored.
            $i = Get-GroupCloseTokenIndex -Tokens $tokens -GroupStartTokenIndex $i
        }
    }
}

function ParseCodeIntoTokens
{
    param ([string] $CodeText)

    $parseErrors = $null
    $tokens = [System.Management.Automation.PSParser]::Tokenize($CodeText, [ref] $parseErrors)

    if ($parseErrors.Count -gt 0)
    {
        $currentScope = $pester.Scope
        throw "The current $currentScope block contains syntax errors."
    }

    return $tokens
}

function IsSetupOrTeardownCommand
{
    param ([string] $CommandName)
    return (IsSetupCommand -CommandName $CommandName) -or (IsTeardownCommand -CommandName $CommandName)
}

function IsSetupCommand
{
    param ([string] $CommandName)
    return $CommandName -eq 'BeforeEach' -or $CommandName -eq 'BeforeAll'
}

function IsTeardownCommand
{
    param ([string] $CommandName)
    return $CommandName -eq 'AfterEach' -or $CommandName -eq 'AfterAll'
}

function IsTestGroupCommand
{
    param ([string] $CommandName)
    return $CommandName -eq 'BeforeAll' -or $CommandName -eq 'AfterAll'
}

function Get-BraceIndicesForCommand
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $CommandIndex
    )

    $openingGroupTokenIndex = Get-GroupStartTokenForCommand -Tokens $Tokens -CommandIndex $CommandIndex
    $closingGroupTokenIndex = Get-GroupCloseTokenIndex -Tokens $Tokens -GroupStartTokenIndex $openingGroupTokenIndex

    return $openingGroupTokenIndex, $closingGroupTokenIndex
}

function Get-GroupStartTokenForCommand
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $CommandIndex
    )

    # We may want to allow newlines, other parameters, etc at some point.  For now it's good enough to
    # just verify that the next token after our BeforeEach or AfterEach command is an opening curly brace.

    $commandName = $Tokens[$CommandIndex].Content

    if ($CommandIndex + 1 -ge $tokens.Count -or
        $tokens[$CommandIndex + 1].Type -ne [System.Management.Automation.PSTokenType]::GroupStart -or
        $tokens[$CommandIndex + 1].Content -ne '{')
    {
        throw "The $commandName command must be immediately followed by the opening brace of a script block."
    }

    return $CommandIndex + 1
}

& $SafeCommands['Add-Type'] -TypeDefinition @'
    namespace Pester
    {
        using System;
        using System.Management.Automation;

        public static class ClosingBraceFinder
        {
            public static int GetClosingBraceIndex(PSToken[] tokens, int startIndex)
            {
                int groupLevel = 1;
                int len = tokens.Length;

                for (int i = startIndex + 1; i < len; i++)
                {
                    PSTokenType type = tokens[i].Type;
                    if (type == PSTokenType.GroupStart)
                    {
                        groupLevel++;
                    }
                    else if (type == PSTokenType.GroupEnd)
                    {
                        groupLevel--;

                        if (groupLevel <= 0) { return i; }
                    }
                }

                return -1;
            }
        }
    }
'@

function Get-GroupCloseTokenIndex
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $GroupStartTokenIndex
    )

    $closeIndex = [Pester.ClosingBraceFinder]::GetClosingBraceIndex($Tokens, $GroupStartTokenIndex)

    if ($closeIndex -lt 0)
    {
        throw 'No corresponding GroupEnd token was found.'
    }

    return $closeIndex
}

function Get-ScriptBlockFromTokens
{
    param (
        [System.Management.Automation.PSToken[]] $Tokens,
        [int] $OpenBraceIndex,
        [int] $CloseBraceIndex,
        [string] $CodeText
    )

    $blockStart = $Tokens[$OpenBraceIndex + 1].Start
    $blockLength = $Tokens[$CloseBraceIndex].Start - $blockStart
    $setupOrTeardownCodeText = $codeText.Substring($blockStart, $blockLength)

    $scriptBlock = [scriptblock]::Create($setupOrTeardownCodeText)
    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -SessionState $pester.SessionState

    return $scriptBlock
}

function Add-SetupOrTeardownScriptBlock
{
    param (
        [string] $CommandName,
        [scriptblock] $ScriptBlock
    )

    $isSetupCommand = IsSetupCommand -CommandName $CommandName
    $isGroupCommand = IsTestGroupCommand -CommandName $CommandName

    if ($isSetupCommand)
    {
        if ($isGroupCommand)
        {
            Add-BeforeAll -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock
        }
        else
        {
            Add-BeforeEach -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock
        }
    }
    else
    {
        if ($isGroupCommand)
        {
            Add-AfterAll -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock
        }
        else
        {
            Add-AfterEach -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock
        }
    }
}

function Add-BeforeEach
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $props = @{
        Scope       = $pester.Scope
        ScriptBlock = $ScriptBlock
    }

    $pester.BeforeEach += @(& $SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property $props)
}

function Add-AfterEach
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $props = @{
        Scope       = $pester.Scope
        ScriptBlock = $ScriptBlock
    }

    $pester.AfterEach += @(& $SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property $props)
}

function Add-BeforeAll
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $props = @{
        Scope       = $pester.Scope
        ScriptBlock = $ScriptBlock
    }

    $pester.BeforeAll += @(& $SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property $props)
}

function Add-AfterAll
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $props = @{
        Scope       = $pester.Scope
        ScriptBlock = $ScriptBlock
    }

    $pester.AfterAll += @(& $SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property $props)
}
tools\Functions\SetupTeardown.Tests.ps1
Describe 'Describe-Scoped Test Case setup' {
    BeforeEach {
        $testVariable = 'From BeforeEach'
    }

    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    It 'Assigns the correct value in first test' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'From BeforeEach'
        $testVariable = 'Set in It'
    }

    It 'Assigns the correct value in subsequent tests' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'From BeforeEach'
    }
}

Describe 'Context-scoped Test Case setup' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    Context 'The context' {
        BeforeEach {
            $testVariable = 'From BeforeEach'
        }

        It 'Assigns the correct value inside the context' {
            $testVariable | Should Be 'From BeforeEach'
        }
    }

    It 'Reports the original value after the Context' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in Describe'
    }
}

Describe 'Multiple Test Case setup blocks' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    BeforeEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in Describe BeforeEach'
    }

    Context 'The context' {
        It 'Executes Describe setup blocks first, then Context blocks in the order they were defined (even if they are defined after the It block.)' {
            $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in the second Context BeforeEach'
        }

        BeforeEach {
            $testVariable = 'Set in the first Context BeforeEach'
        }

        BeforeEach {
            $testVariable = 'Set in the second Context BeforeEach'
        }
    }

    It 'Continues to execute Describe setup blocks after the Context' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in Describe BeforeEach'
    }
}

Describe 'Describe-scoped Test Case teardown' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    AfterEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in AfterEach'
    }

    It 'Does not modify the variable before the first test' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in Describe'
    }

    It 'Modifies the variable after the first test' {
        $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in AfterEach'
    }
}

Describe 'Multiple Test Case teardown blocks' {
    $testVariable = 'Set in Describe'

    AfterEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in Describe AfterEach'
    }

    Context 'The context' {
        AfterEach {
            $testVariable = 'Set in the first Context AfterEach'
        }

        It 'Performs a test in Context' { "some output to prevent the It being marked as Pending and failing because of Strict mode"}

        It 'Executes Describe teardown blocks after Context teardown blocks' {
            $testVariable | Should Be 'Set in the second Describe AfterEach'
        }
    }

    AfterEach {
        $testVariable = 'Set in the second Describe AfterEach'
    }
}

$script:DescribeBeforeAllCounter = 0
$script:DescribeAfterAllCounter  = 0
$script:ContextBeforeAllCounter  = 0
$script:ContextAfterAllCounter   = 0

Describe 'Test Group Setup and Teardown' {
    It 'Executed the Describe BeforeAll regardless of definition order' {
        $script:DescribeBeforeAllCounter | Should Be 1
    }

    It 'Did not execute any other block yet' {
        $script:DescribeAfterAllCounter | Should Be 0
        $script:ContextBeforeAllCounter | Should Be 0
        $script:ContextAfterAllCounter  | Should Be 0
    }

    BeforeAll {
        $script:DescribeBeforeAllCounter++
    }

    AfterAll {
        $script:DescribeAfterAllCounter++
    }

    Context 'Context scoped setup and teardown' {
        BeforeAll {
            $script:ContextBeforeAllCounter++
        }

        AfterAll {
            $script:ContextAfterAllCounter++
        }

        It 'Executed the Context BeforeAll block' {
            $script:ContextBeforeAllCounter | Should Be 1
        }

        It 'Has not executed any other blocks yet' {
            $script:DescribeBeforeAllCounter | Should Be 1
            $script:DescribeAfterAllCounter  | Should Be 0
            $script:ContextAfterAllCounter   | Should Be 0
        }
    }

    It 'Executed the Context AfterAll block' {
        $script:ContextAfterAllCounter | Should Be 1
    }
}

Describe 'Finishing TestGroup Setup and Teardown tests' {
    It 'Executed each Describe and Context group block once' {
        $script:DescribeBeforeAllCounter | Should Be 1
        $script:DescribeAfterAllCounter  | Should Be 1
        $script:ContextBeforeAllCounter  | Should Be 1
        $script:ContextAfterAllCounter   | Should Be 1
    }
}


if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3)
{
    $thisTestScriptFilePath = $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Path.GetUnresolvedProviderPathFromPSPath($PSCommandPath)

    Describe 'Script Blocks and file association (testing automatic variables)' {
        BeforeEach {
            $commandPath = $PSCommandPath
        }

        $beforeEachBlock = InModuleScope Pester {
            $pester.BeforeEach[0].ScriptBlock
        }

        It 'Creates script block objects associated with the proper file' {
            $scriptBlockFilePath = $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Path.GetUnresolvedProviderPathFromPSPath($beforeEachBlock.File)

            $scriptBlockFilePath | Should Be $thisTestScriptFilePath
        }

        It 'Has the correct automatic variable values inside the BeforeEach block' {
            $commandPath | Should Be $PSCommandPath
        }
    }
}

#Testing if failing setup or teardown will fail 'It' is done in the TestsRunningInCleanRunspace.Tests.ps1 file
tools\Functions\TestDrive.ps1
#
function New-TestDrive ([Switch]$PassThru) {
    $Path = New-RandomTempDirectory
    $DriveName = "TestDrive"

    if (-not (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path $Path))
    {
        & $SafeCommands['New-Item'] -ItemType Container -Path $Path | & $SafeCommands['Out-Null']
    }

    #setup the test drive
    if ( -not (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] "${DriveName}:\") )
    {
        & $SafeCommands['New-PSDrive'] -Name $DriveName -PSProvider FileSystem -Root $Path -Scope Global -Description "Pester test drive" | & $SafeCommands['Out-Null']
    }

    #publish the global TestDrive variable used in few places within the module
    if (-not (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] "Variable:Global:DriveName"))
    {
        & $SafeCommands['New-Variable'] -Name $DriveName -Scope Global -Value $Path
    }

    if ( $PassThru ) { & $SafeCommands['Get-PSDrive'] -Name $DriveName }
}


function Clear-TestDrive ([String[]]$Exclude) {
    $Path = (& $SafeCommands['Get-PSDrive'] -Name TestDrive).Root
    if (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path $Path )
    {
        #Get-ChildItem -Exclude did not seem to work with full paths
        & $SafeCommands['Get-ChildItem'] -Recurse -Path $Path |
        & $SafeCommands['Sort-Object'] -Descending  -Property "FullName" |
        & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $Exclude -NotContains $_.FullName } |
        & $SafeCommands['Remove-Item'] -Force -Recurse
    }
}

function New-RandomTempDirectory {
    do
    {
        $tempPath = Get-TempDirectory
        $Path = & $SafeCommands['Join-Path'] -Path $tempPath -ChildPath ([Guid]::NewGuid())
    } until (-not (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path $Path ))

    & $SafeCommands['New-Item'] -ItemType Container -Path $Path
}

function Get-TestDriveItem {
    #moved here from Pester.psm1
    param( [string]$Path )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Get-TestDriveItem
    & $SafeCommands['Get-Item'] $(& $SafeCommands['Join-Path'] $TestDrive $Path )
}

function Get-TestDriveChildItem {
    $Path = (& $SafeCommands['Get-PSDrive'] -Name TestDrive).Root
    if (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path $Path )
    {
        & $SafeCommands['Get-ChildItem'] -Recurse -Path $Path
    }
}

function Remove-TestDrive {

    $DriveName = "TestDrive"
    $Drive = & $SafeCommands['Get-PSDrive'] -Name $DriveName -ErrorAction $script:IgnoreErrorPreference
    $Path = ($Drive).Root


    if ($pwd -like "$DriveName*" ) {
        #will staying in the test drive cause issues?
        #TODO review this
        & $SafeCommands['Write-Warning'] -Message "Your current path is set to ${pwd}:. You should leave ${DriveName}:\ before leaving Describe."
    }

    if ( $Drive )
    {
        $Drive | & $SafeCommands['Remove-PSDrive'] -Force -ErrorAction $script:IgnoreErrorPreference
    }

    if (& $SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path $Path)
    {
        & $SafeCommands['Remove-Item'] -Path $Path -Force -Recurse
    }

    if (& $SafeCommands['Get-Variable'] -Name $DriveName -Scope Global -ErrorAction $script:IgnoreErrorPreference) {
        & $SafeCommands['Remove-Variable'] -Scope Global -Name $DriveName -Force
    }
}

function Setup {
    #included for backwards compatibility
    param(
    [switch]$Dir,
    [switch]$File,
    $Path,
    $Content = "",
    [switch]$PassThru
    )

    Assert-DescribeInProgress -CommandName Setup

    $TestDriveName = & $SafeCommands['Get-PSDrive'] TestDrive |
                     & $SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty Root

    if ($Dir) {
        $item = & $SafeCommands['New-Item'] -Name $Path -Path "${TestDriveName}\" -Type Container -Force
    }
    if ($File) {
        $item = $Content | & $SafeCommands['New-Item'] -Name $Path -Path "${TestDriveName}\" -Type File -Force
    }

    if($PassThru) {
        return $item
    }
}
tools\Functions\TestDrive.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -lt 6 -or $IsWindows)
{
    $tempPath = $env:TEMP
}
else
{
    $tempPath = '/tmp'
}

Describe "Setup" {
    It "returns a location that is in a temp area" {
        $testDrivePath = (Get-Item $TestDrive).FullName
        $testDrivePath -like "$tempPath*" | Should Be $true
    }

    It "creates a drive location called TestDrive:" {
        "TestDrive:\" | Should Exist
    }
}

Describe "TestDrive" {
    It "handles creation of a drive with . characters in the path" {
        #TODO: currently untested but requirement needs to be here
        "preventing this from failing"
    }
}

Describe "Create filesystem with directories" {
    Setup -Dir "dir1"
    Setup -Dir "dir2"

    It "creates directory when called with no file content" {
        "TestDrive:\dir1" | Should Exist
    }

    It "creates another directory when called with no file content and doesnt remove first directory" {
        $result = Test-Path "TestDrive:\dir2"
        $result = $result -and (Test-Path "TestDrive:\dir1")
        $result | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "Create nested directory structure" {
    Setup -Dir "parent/child"

    It "creates parent directory" {
        "TestDrive:\parent" | Should Exist
    }

    It "creates child directory underneath parent" {
        "TestDrive:\parent\child" | Should Exist
    }
}

Describe "Create a file with no content" {
    Setup -File "file"

    It "creates file" {
        "TestDrive:\file" | Should Exist
    }

    It "also has no content" {
        Get-Content "TestDrive:\file" | Should BeNullOrEmpty
    }
}

Describe "Create a file with content" {
    Setup -File "file" "file contents"

    It "creates file" {
        "TestDrive:\file" | Should Exist
    }

    It "adds content to the file" {
        Get-Content "TestDrive:\file" | Should Be "file contents"
    }
}

Describe "Create file with passthru" {
    $thefile = Setup -File "thefile" -PassThru

    It "returns the file from the temp location" {
        $thefile.FullName -like "$tempPath*" | Should Be $true
        $thefile.Exists | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "Create directory with passthru" {
    $thedir = Setup -Dir "thedir" -PassThru

    It "returns the directory from the temp location" {
        $thedir.FullName -like "$tempPath*" | Should Be $true
        $thedir.Exists | Should Be $true
    }
}

Describe "TestDrive scoping" {
    $describe = Setup -File 'Describe' -PassThru
    Context "Describe file is available in context" {
        It "Finds the file" {
            $describe | Should Exist
        }
        #create file for the next test
        Setup -File 'Context'

        It "Creates It-scoped contents" {
            Setup -File 'It'
            'TestDrive:\It' | Should Exist
        }

        It "Does not clear It-scoped contents on exit" {
            'TestDrive:\It' | Should Exist
        }
    }

    It "Context file are removed when returning to Describe" {
        "TestDrive:\Context" | Should Not Exist
    }

    It "Describe file is still available in Describe" {
        $describe | Should Exist
    }
}

Describe "Cleanup" {
    Setup -Dir "foo"
}

Describe "Cleanup" {
    It "should have removed the temp folder from the previous fixture" {
        Test-Path "$TestDrive\foo" | Should Not Exist
    }

    It "should also remove the TestDrive:" {
        Test-Path "TestDrive:\foo" | Should Not Exist
    }
}

Describe "Cleanup when Remove-Item is mocked" {
    Mock Remove-Item {}

    Context "add a temp directory" {
        Setup -Dir "foo"
    }

    Context "next context" {

        It "should have removed the temp folder" {
            "$TestDrive\foo" | Should Not Exist
        }

    }
}

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "New-RandomTempDirectory" {
        It "creates randomly named directory" {
            $first = New-RandomTempDirectory
            $second = New-RandomTempDirectory

            $first | Remove-Item -Force
            $second | Remove-Item -Force

            $first.name | Should Not Be $second.name

        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\TestResults.ps1
function Get-HumanTime($Seconds) {
    if($Seconds -gt 0.99) {
        $time = [math]::Round($Seconds, 2)
        $unit = 's'
    }
    else {
        $time = [math]::Floor($Seconds * 1000)
        $unit = 'ms'
    }
    return "$time$unit"
}

function GetFullPath ([string]$Path) {
    if (-not [System.IO.Path]::IsPathRooted($Path))
    {
        $Path = & $SafeCommands['Join-Path'] $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentFileSystemLocation $Path
    }

    return $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Path.GetUnresolvedProviderPathFromPSPath($Path)
}

function Export-PesterResults
{
    param (
        $PesterState,
        [string] $Path,
        [string] $Format
    )

    switch ($Format)
    {
        'LegacyNUnitXml' { Export-NUnitReport -PesterState $PesterState -Path $Path -LegacyFormat }
        'NUnitXml'       { Export-NUnitReport -PesterState $PesterState -Path $Path }

        default
        {
            throw "'$Format' is not a valid Pester export format."
        }
    }
}
function Export-NUnitReport {
    param (
        [parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $PesterState,

        [parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [String]$Path,

        [switch] $LegacyFormat
    )

    #the xmlwriter create method can resolve relatives paths by itself. but its current directory might
    #be different from what PowerShell sees as the current directory so I have to resolve the path beforehand
    #working around the limitations of Resolve-Path

    $Path = GetFullPath -Path $Path

    $settings = & $SafeCommands['New-Object'] -TypeName Xml.XmlWriterSettings -Property @{
        Indent = $true
        NewLineOnAttributes = $false
    }

    $xmlFile = $null
    $xmlWriter = $null
    try {
        $xmlFile = [IO.File]::Create($Path)
        $xmlWriter = [Xml.XmlWriter]::Create($xmlFile, $settings)

        Write-NUnitReport -XmlWriter $xmlWriter -PesterState $PesterState -LegacyFormat:$LegacyFormat

        $xmlWriter.Flush()
        $xmlFile.Flush()
    }
    finally
    {
        if ($null -ne $xmlWriter) {
            try { $xmlWriter.Close() } catch {}
        }
        if ($null -ne $xmlFile) {
            try { $xmlFile.Close() } catch {}
        }
    }
}

function Write-NUnitReport($PesterState, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    # Write the XML Declaration
    $XmlWriter.WriteStartDocument($false)

    # Write Root Element
    $xmlWriter.WriteStartElement('test-results')

    Write-NUnitTestResultAttributes @PSBoundParameters
    Write-NUnitTestResultChildNodes @PSBoundParameters

    $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
}

function Write-NUnitTestResultAttributes($PesterState, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('xmlns','xsi', $null, 'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('xsi','noNamespaceSchemaLocation', [Xml.Schema.XmlSchema]::InstanceNamespace , 'nunit_schema_2.5.xsd')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('name','Pester')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('total', ($PesterState.TotalCount - $PesterState.SkippedCount))
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('errors', '0')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('failures', $PesterState.FailedCount)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('not-run', '0')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('inconclusive', $PesterState.PendingCount + $PesterState.InconclusiveCount)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('ignored', $PesterState.SkippedCount)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('skipped', '0')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('invalid', '0')
    $date = & $SafeCommands['Get-Date']
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('date', (& $SafeCommands['Get-Date'] -Date $date -Format 'yyyy-MM-dd'))
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('time', (& $SafeCommands['Get-Date'] -Date $date -Format 'HH:mm:ss'))
}

function Write-NUnitTestResultChildNodes($PesterState, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    Write-NUnitEnvironmentInformation @PSBoundParameters
    Write-NUnitCultureInformation @PSBoundParameters

    $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('test-suite')
    Write-NUnitGlobalTestSuiteAttributes @PSBoundParameters

    $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('results')

    Write-NUnitDescribeElements @PSBoundParameters

    $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
    $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
}

function Write-NUnitEnvironmentInformation($PesterState, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('environment')

    $environment = Get-RunTimeEnvironment
    foreach ($keyValuePair in $environment.GetEnumerator()) {
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString($keyValuePair.Name, $keyValuePair.Value)
    }

    $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
}

function Write-NUnitCultureInformation($PesterState, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('culture-info')

    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('current-culture', ([System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture).Name)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('current-uiculture', ([System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentUiCulture).Name)

    $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
}

function Write-NUnitGlobalTestSuiteAttributes($PesterState, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('type', 'PowerShell')

    # TODO: This used to be writing $PesterState.Path, back when that was a single string (and existed.)
    #       Better would be to produce a test suite for each resolved file, rather than for the value
    #       of the path that was passed to Invoke-Pester.

    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('name', 'Pester')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('executed', 'True')

    $isSuccess = $PesterState.FailedCount -eq 0
    $result = Get-ParentResult $PesterState
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('result', $result)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('success',[string]$isSuccess)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('time',(Convert-TimeSpan $PesterState.Time))
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('asserts','0')
}

function Write-NUnitDescribeElements($PesterState, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    $Describes = $PesterState.TestResult | & $SafeCommands['Group-Object'] -Property Describe
    if ($null -ne $Describes)
    {
        foreach ($currentDescribe in $Describes)
        {
            $DescribeInfo = Get-TestSuiteInfo $currentDescribe

            #Write test suites
            $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('test-suite')

            if ($LegacyFormat) { $suiteType = 'PowerShell' } else { $suiteType = 'TestFixture' }

            Write-NUnitTestSuiteAttributes -TestSuiteInfo $DescribeInfo -TestSuiteType $suiteType -XmlWriter $XmlWriter -LegacyFormat:$LegacyFormat

            $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('results')

            Write-NUnitDescribeChildElements -TestResults $currentDescribe.Group -XmlWriter $XmlWriter -LegacyFormat:$LegacyFormat -DescribeName $DescribeInfo.Name

            $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
            $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
        }
    }
}

function Get-TestSuiteInfo ([Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.GroupInfo]$TestSuiteGroup)
{
    $suite = @{
        resultMessage = 'Failure'
        success = 'False'
        totalTime = '0.0'
        name = $TestSuiteGroup.Name
        description = $TestSuiteGroup.Name
    }

    #calculate the time first, I am converting the time into string in the TestCases
    $suite.totalTime = (Get-TestTime $TestSuiteGroup.Group)
    $suite.success = (Get-TestSuccess $TestSuiteGroup.Group)
    $suite.resultMessage = Get-GroupResult $TestSuiteGroup.Group
    $suite
}

function Get-TestTime($tests) {
    [TimeSpan]$totalTime = 0;
    if ($tests)
    {
        foreach ($test in $tests)
        {
            $totalTime += $test.time
        }
    }

    Convert-TimeSpan -TimeSpan $totalTime
}
function Convert-TimeSpan {
    param (
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $TimeSpan
    )
    process {
        if ($TimeSpan) {
            [string][math]::round(([TimeSpan]$TimeSpan).totalseconds,4)
        }
        else
        {
            '0'
        }
    }
}
function Get-TestSuccess($tests) {
    $result = $true
    if ($tests)
    {
        foreach ($test in $tests) {
            if (-not $test.Passed) {
                $result = $false
                break
            }
        }
    }
    [String]$result
}
function Write-NUnitTestSuiteAttributes($TestSuiteInfo, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [string] $TestSuiteType, [switch] $LegacyFormat)
{
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('type', $TestSuiteType)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('name', $TestSuiteInfo.name)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('executed', 'True')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('result', $TestSuiteInfo.resultMessage)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('success', $TestSuiteInfo.success)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('time',$TestSuiteInfo.totalTime)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('asserts','0')

    if (-not $LegacyFormat)
    {
        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('description', $TestSuiteInfo.Description)
    }
}

function Write-NUnitDescribeChildElements([object[]] $TestResults, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat, [string] $DescribeName)
{
    $suites = $TestResults | & $SafeCommands['Group-Object'] -Property ParameterizedSuiteName

    foreach ($suite in $suites)
    {
        if ($suite.Name)
        {
            $suiteInfo = Get-TestSuiteInfo -TestSuiteGroup $suite

            $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('test-suite')

            if (-not $LegacyFormat)
            {
                $suiteInfo.Name = "$DescribeName.$($suiteInfo.Name)"
            }

            Write-NUnitTestSuiteAttributes -TestSuiteInfo $suiteInfo -TestSuiteType 'ParameterizedTest' -XmlWriter $XmlWriter -LegacyFormat:$LegacyFormat

            $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('results')
        }

        Write-NUnitTestCaseElements -TestResults $suite.Group -XmlWriter $XmlWriter -LegacyFormat:$LegacyFormat -DescribeName $DescribeName -ParameterizedSuiteName $suite.Name

        if ($suite.Name)
        {
            $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
            $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
        }
    }
}

function Write-NUnitTestCaseElements([object[]] $TestResults, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat, [string] $DescribeName, [string] $ParameterizedSuiteName)
{
    foreach ($testResult in $TestResults)
    {
        $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('test-case')

        Write-NUnitTestCaseAttributes -TestResult $testResult -XmlWriter $XmlWriter -LegacyFormat:$LegacyFormat -DescribeName $DescribeName -ParameterizedSuiteName $ParameterizedSuiteName

        $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement()
    }
}

function Write-NUnitTestCaseAttributes($TestResult, [System.Xml.XmlWriter] $XmlWriter, [switch] $LegacyFormat, [string] $DescribeName, [string] $ParameterizedSuiteName)
{
    $testName = $TestResult.Name

    if (-not $LegacyFormat)
    {
        if ($testName -eq $ParameterizedSuiteName)
        {
            $paramString = ''
            if ($null -ne $TestResult.Parameters)
            {
                $params = @(
                    foreach ($value in $TestResult.Parameters.Values)
                    {
                        if ($null -eq $value)
                        {
                            'null'
                        }
                        elseif ($value -is [string])
                        {
                            '"{0}"' -f $value
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            #do not use .ToString() it uses the current culture settings
                            #and we need to use en-US culture, which [string] or .ToString([Globalization.CultureInfo]'en-us') uses
                            [string]$value
                        }
                    }
                )

                $paramString = $params -join ','
            }

            $testName = "$testName($paramString)"
        }

        $testName = "$DescribeName.$testName"

        $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('description', $TestResult.Name)
    }

    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('name', $testName)
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('time', (Convert-TimeSpan $TestResult.Time))
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('asserts', '0')
    $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('success', $TestResult.Passed)

    switch ($TestResult.Result)
    {
        Passed
        {
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('result', 'Success')
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('executed', 'True')
            break
        }
        Skipped
        {
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('result', 'Ignored')
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('executed', 'False')
            break
        }

        Pending
        {
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('result', 'Inconclusive')
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('executed', 'True')
            break
        }
        Inconclusive
        {
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('result', 'Inconclusive')
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('executed', 'True')

            if ($TestResult.FailureMessage)
            {
                $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('reason')
                $xmlWriter.WriteElementString('message', $TestResult.FailureMessage)
                $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() # Close reason tag
            }

            break
        }
        Failed
        {
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('result', 'Failure')
            $XmlWriter.WriteAttributeString('executed', 'True')
            $XmlWriter.WriteStartElement('failure')
            $xmlWriter.WriteElementString('message', $TestResult.FailureMessage)
            $XmlWriter.WriteElementString('stack-trace', $TestResult.StackTrace)
            $XmlWriter.WriteEndElement() # Close failure tag
            break
        }
    }
}
function Get-RunTimeEnvironment() {
    # based on what we found during startup, use the appropriate cmdlet
    if ( $SafeCommands['Get-CimInstance'] -ne $null )
    {
        $osSystemInformation = (& $SafeCommands['Get-CimInstance'] Win32_OperatingSystem)
    }
    elseif ( $SafeCommands['Get-WmiObject'] -ne $null )
    {
        $osSystemInformation = (& $SafeCommands['Get-WmiObject'] Win32_OperatingSystem)
    }
    else
    {
        $osSystemInformation = @{
            Name = "Unknown"
            Version = "0.0.0.0"
            }
    }
    @{
        'nunit-version' = '2.5.8.0'
        'os-version' = $osSystemInformation.Version
        platform = $osSystemInformation.Name
        cwd = (& $SafeCommands['Get-Location']).Path #run path
        'machine-name' = $env:ComputerName
        user = $env:Username
        'user-domain' = $env:userDomain
        'clr-version' = [string]$PSVersionTable.ClrVersion
    }
}

function Exit-WithCode ($FailedCount) {
    $host.SetShouldExit($FailedCount)
}

function Get-ParentResult ($InputObject)
{
    #I am not sure about the result precedence, and can't find any good source
    #TODO: Confirm this is the correct order of precedence
    if ($inputObject.FailedCount  -gt 0) { return 'Failure' }
    if ($InputObject.SkippedCount -gt 0) { return 'Ignored' }
    if ($InputObject.PendingCount -gt 0) { return 'Inconclusive' }
    return 'Success'
}

function Get-GroupResult ($InputObject)
{
    #I am not sure about the result precedence, and can't find any good source
    #TODO: Confirm this is the correct order of precedence
    if ($InputObject | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] {$_.Result -eq 'Failed'}) { return 'Failure' }
    if ($InputObject | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] {$_.Result -eq 'Skipped'}) { return 'Ignored' }
    if ($InputObject | & $SafeCommands['Where-Object'] {$_.Result -eq 'Pending' -or $_.Result -eq 'Inconclusive'}) { return 'Inconclusive' }
    return 'Success'
}
tools\Functions\TestResults.Tests.ps1
Set-StrictMode -Version Latest

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe "Write nunit test results (Legacy)" {
        Setup -Dir "Results"

        It "should write a successful test result" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase","Passed",(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestCase = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-case'
            $xmlTestCase.name     | Should Be "Successful testcase"
            $xmlTestCase.result   | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestCase.time     | Should Be "1"
        }

        It "should write a failed test result" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $time = [TimeSpan]::FromSeconds(2.5)
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase","Failed",$time,'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"','at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1')

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestCase = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-case'
            $xmlTestCase.name                   | Should Be "Failed testcase"
            $xmlTestCase.result                 | Should Be "Failure"
            $xmlTestCase.time                   | Should Be "2.5"
            $xmlTestCase.failure.message        | Should Be 'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"'
            $xmlTestCase.failure.'stack-trace'  | Should Be 'at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1'
        }

         It "should write the test summary" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Testcase","Passed",(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestResult = $xmlResult.'test-results'
            $xmlTestResult.total    | Should Be 1
            $xmlTestResult.failures | Should Be 0
            $xmlTestResult.date     | Should Be $true
            $xmlTestResult.time     | Should Be $true
        }

        it "should write the test-suite information" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase","Passed",[timespan]10000000) #1.0 seconds
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase","Passed",[timespan]11000000) #1.1 seconds

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlTestResult = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'

            $description = $null
            if ($xmlTestResult.PSObject.Properties['description'])
            {
                $description = $xmlTestResult.description
            }

            $xmlTestResult.type    | Should Be "PowerShell"
            $xmlTestResult.name    | Should Be "Mocked Describe"
            $description           | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            $xmlTestResult.result  | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestResult.success | Should Be "True"
            $xmlTestResult.time    | Should Be 2.1
        }

        it "should write two test-suite elements for two describes" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase","Passed",(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #2')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase","Failed",(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 2))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlTestSuite1 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[0]

            $description = $null
            if ($xmlTestSuite1.PSObject.Properties['description'])
            {
                $description = $xmlTestSuite1.description
            }

            $xmlTestSuite1.name    | Should Be "Describe #1"
            $description           | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            $xmlTestSuite1.result  | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestSuite1.success | Should Be "True"
            $xmlTestSuite1.time    | Should Be 1.0

            $xmlTestSuite2 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[1]
            $description = $null
            if ($xmlTestSuite2.PSObject.Properties['description'])
            {
                $description = $xmlTestSuite2.description
            }

            $xmlTestSuite2.name    | Should Be "Describe #2"
            $description           | Should BeNullOrEmpty
            $xmlTestSuite2.result  | Should Be "Failure"
            $xmlTestSuite2.success | Should Be "False"
            $xmlTestSuite2.time    | Should Be 2.0
        }

        it "should write parent results in tree correctly" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Failed')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed","Failed")
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Skipped","Skipped")
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Pending","Pending")
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Passed","Passed")
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()

            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Skipped')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Skipped","Skipped")
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Pending","Pending")
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Passed","Passed")
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()

            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Pending')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Pending","Pending")
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Passed","Passed")
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()

            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Passed')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Passed","Passed")
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlTestSuite1 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[0]
            $xmlTestSuite1.name     | Should Be "Failed"
            $xmlTestSuite1.result   | Should Be "Failure"
            $xmlTestSuite1.success  | Should Be "False"

            $xmlTestSuite2 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[1]
            $xmlTestSuite2.name     | Should Be "Skipped"
            $xmlTestSuite2.result   | Should Be "Ignored"
            $xmlTestSuite2.success  | Should Be "True"

            $xmlTestSuite3 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[2]
            $xmlTestSuite3.name     | Should Be "Pending"
            $xmlTestSuite3.result   | Should Be "Inconclusive"
            $xmlTestSuite3.success  | Should Be "True"

            $xmlTestSuite4 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[3]
            $xmlTestSuite4.name     | Should Be "Passed"
            $xmlTestSuite4.result   | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestSuite4.success  | Should Be "True"

        }

        it "should write the environment information" {
            $state = New-PesterState "."
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $state $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlEnvironment = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'environment'
            $xmlEnvironment.'os-Version'    | Should Be $true
            $xmlEnvironment.platform        | Should Be $true
            $xmlEnvironment.cwd             | Should Be (Get-Location).Path
            if ($env:Username) {
                $xmlEnvironment.user        | Should Be $env:Username
            }
            $xmlEnvironment.'machine-name'  | Should Be $env:ComputerName
        }

        it "Should validate test results against the nunit 2.5 schema" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase","Passed",(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #2')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase","Failed",(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 2))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xml = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $schemePath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
            $xml.Schemas.Add($null,$schemePath) > $null
            { $xml.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
        }

        it "handles special characters in block descriptions well [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./""- " {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./"- #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./""-","Passed",(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xml = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $schemePath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
            $xml.Schemas.Add($null,$schemePath) > $null
            { $xml.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
        }

        Context 'Exporting Parameterized Tests (New Legacy)' {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')

            $TestResults.AddTestResult(
                'Parameterized Testcase One',
                'Passed',
                (New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1),
                $null,
                $null,
                'Parameterized Testcase <A>',
                @{ Parameter = 'One' }
            )

            $TestResults.AddTestResult(
                'Parameterized Testcase <A>',
                'Failed',
                (New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1),
                'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"',
                'at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1',
                'Parameterized Testcase <A>',
                @{ Parameter = 'Two' }

            )

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile -LegacyFormat
            $xmlResult    = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            It 'should write parameterized test results correctly' {
                $xmlTestSuite = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'

                $description = $null
                if ($xmlTestSuite.PSObject.Properties['description'])
                {
                    $description = $xmlTestSuite.description
                }

                $xmlTestSuite.name    | Should Be 'Parameterized Testcase <A>'
                $description          | Should BeNullOrEmpty
                $xmlTestSuite.type    | Should Be 'ParameterizedTest'
                $xmlTestSuite.result  | Should Be 'Failure'
                $xmlTestSuite.success | Should Be 'False'
                $xmlTestSuite.time    | Should Be '2'

                foreach ($testCase in $xmlTestSuite.results.'test-case')
                {
                    $testCase.Name | Should Match '^Parameterized Testcase (One|<A>)$'
                    $testCase.time | Should Be 1
                }
            }

            it 'Should validate test results against the nunit 2.5 schema' {
                $schemaPath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
                $null = $xmlResult.Schemas.Add($null,$schemaPath)
                { $xmlResult.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
            }
        }
    }

    Describe "Write nunit test results (Newer format)" {
        Setup -Dir "Results"

        It "should write a successful test result" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",'Passed',(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestCase = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-case'
            $xmlTestCase.name     | Should Be "Mocked Describe.Successful testcase"
            $xmlTestCase.result   | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestCase.time     | Should Be "1"
        }

        It "should write a failed test result" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $time = [TimeSpan]25000000 #2.5 seconds
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase",'Failed',$time,'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"','at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1')

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestCase = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-case'
            $xmlTestCase.name                   | Should Be "Mocked Describe.Failed testcase"
            $xmlTestCase.result                 | Should Be "Failure"
            $xmlTestCase.time                   | Should Be "2.5"
            $xmlTestCase.failure.message        | Should Be 'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"'
            $xmlTestCase.failure.'stack-trace'  | Should Be 'at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1'
        }

         It "should write the test summary" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Testcase",'Passed',(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)
            $xmlTestResult = $xmlResult.'test-results'
            $xmlTestResult.total    | Should Be 1
            $xmlTestResult.failures | Should Be 0
            $xmlTestResult.date     | Should Be $true
            $xmlTestResult.time     | Should Be $true
        }

        it "should write the test-suite information" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",'Passed',[timespan]10000000) #1.0 seconds
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",'Passed',[timespan]11000000) #1.1 seconds

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlTestResult = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'
            $xmlTestResult.type            | Should Be "TestFixture"
            $xmlTestResult.name            | Should Be "Mocked Describe"
            $xmlTestResult.description     | Should Be "Mocked Describe"
            $xmlTestResult.result          | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestResult.success         | Should Be "True"
            $xmlTestResult.time            | Should Be 2.1
        }

        it "should write two test-suite elements for two describes" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",'Passed',(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #2')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase",'Failed',(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 2))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlTestSuite1 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[0]
            $xmlTestSuite1.name        | Should Be "Describe #1"
            $xmlTestSuite1.description | Should Be "Describe #1"
            $xmlTestSuite1.result      | Should Be "Success"
            $xmlTestSuite1.success     | Should Be "True"
            $xmlTestSuite1.time        | Should Be 1.0

            $xmlTestSuite2 = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'[1]
            $xmlTestSuite2.name        | Should Be "Describe #2"
            $xmlTestSuite2.description | Should Be "Describe #2"
            $xmlTestSuite2.result      | Should Be "Failure"
            $xmlTestSuite2.success     | Should Be "False"
            $xmlTestSuite2.time        | Should Be 2.0
        }

        it "should write the environment information" {
            $state = New-PesterState "."
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $state $testFile
            $xmlResult = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $xmlEnvironment = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'environment'
            $xmlEnvironment.'os-Version'    | Should Be $true
            $xmlEnvironment.platform        | Should Be $true
            $xmlEnvironment.cwd             | Should Be (Get-Location).Path
            if ($env:Username) {
                $xmlEnvironment.user        | Should Be $env:Username
            }
            $xmlEnvironment.'machine-name'  | Should Be $env:ComputerName
        }

        it "Should validate test results against the nunit 2.5 schema" {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase",'Passed',(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe #2')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Failed testcase",'Failed',(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 2))

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xml = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $schemePath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
            $xml.Schemas.Add($null,$schemePath) > $null
            { $xml.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
        }

        it "handles special characters in block descriptions well [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./""- " {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Describe [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./"- #1')
            $TestResults.AddTestResult("Successful testcase [email protected]#$%^&*()_+`1234567890[];'',./""-",'Passed',(New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1))
            $TestResults.LeaveDescribe()

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xml = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            $schemePath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
            $xml.Schemas.Add($null,$schemePath) > $null
            { $xml.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
        }

        Context 'Exporting Parameterized Tests (Newer format)' {
            #create state
            $TestResults = New-PesterState -Path TestDrive:\
            $testResults.EnterDescribe('Mocked Describe')

            $TestResults.AddTestResult(
                'Parameterized Testcase One',
                'Passed',
                (New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1),
                $null,
                $null,
                'Parameterized Testcase <A>',
                @{Parameter = 'One'}
            )

            $parameters = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.OrderedDictionary
            $parameters.Add('StringParameter', 'Two')
            $parameters.Add('NullParameter', $null)
            $parameters.Add('NumberParameter', -42.67)

            $TestResults.AddTestResult(
                'Parameterized Testcase <A>',
                'Failed',
                (New-TimeSpan -Seconds 1),
                'Assert failed: "Expected: Test. But was: Testing"',
                'at line: 28 in  C:\Pester\Result.Tests.ps1',
                'Parameterized Testcase <A>',
                $parameters
            )

            #export and validate the file
            $testFile = "$TestDrive\Results\Tests.xml"
            Export-NunitReport $testResults $testFile
            $xmlResult    = [xml] (Get-Content $testFile)

            It 'should write parameterized test results correctly' {
                $xmlTestSuite = $xmlResult.'test-results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'.'results'.'test-suite'

                $xmlTestSuite.name        | Should Be 'Mocked Describe.Parameterized Testcase <A>'
                $xmlTestSuite.description | Should Be 'Parameterized Testcase <A>'
                $xmlTestSuite.type        | Should Be 'ParameterizedTest'
                $xmlTestSuite.result      | Should Be 'Failure'
                $xmlTestSuite.success     | Should Be 'False'
                $xmlTestSuite.time        | Should Be '2'

                $testCase1 = $xmlTestSuite.results.'test-case'[0]
                $testCase2 = $xmlTestSuite.results.'test-case'[1]

                $testCase1.Name | Should Be 'Mocked Describe.Parameterized Testcase One'
                $testCase1.Time | Should Be 1

                $testCase2.Name | Should Be 'Mocked Describe.Parameterized Testcase <A>("Two",null,-42.67)'
                $testCase2.Time | Should Be 1
            }

            it 'Should validate test results against the nunit 2.5 schema' {
                $schemaPath = (Get-Module -Name Pester).Path | Split-Path | Join-Path -ChildPath "nunit_schema_2.5.xsd"
                $null = $xmlResult.Schemas.Add($null,$schemaPath)
                { $xmlResult.Validate({throw $args.Exception }) } | Should Not Throw
            }
        }
    }

    Describe "Get-TestTime" {
        function Using-Culture {
            param (
                [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
                [ScriptBlock]$ScriptBlock,
                [System.Globalization.CultureInfo]$Culture='en-US'
            )

            $oldCulture = [System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture
            try
            {
                [System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = $Culture
                $ExecutionContext.InvokeCommand.InvokeScript($ScriptBlock)
            }
            finally
            {
                [System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = $oldCulture
            }
        }

        It "output is culture agnostic" {
            #on cs-CZ, de-DE and other systems where decimal separator is ",". value [double]3.5 is output as 3,5
            #this makes some of the tests fail, it could also leak to the nUnit report if the time was output

            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]35000000 } #3.5 seconds

            #using the string formatter here to know how the string will be output to screen
            $Result = { Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Out-String -Stream } | Using-Culture -Culture de-DE
            $Result | Should Be "3.5"
        }
        It "Time is measured in seconds with 0,1 millisecond as lowest value" {
            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]1000 }
            Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Should Be 0.0001
            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]100 }
            Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Should Be 0
            $TestResult = New-Object -TypeName psObject -Property @{ Time = [timespan]1234567 }
            Get-TestTime -Tests $TestResult | Should Be 0.1235
        }
    }

    Describe "GetFullPath" {
        It "Resolves non existing path correctly" {
            pushd TestDrive:\
            $p = GetFullPath notexistingfile.txt
            popd
            $p | Should Be (Join-Path $TestDrive notexistingfile.txt)
        }

        It "Resolves existing path correctly" {
            pushd TestDrive:\
            New-Item -ItemType File -Name existingfile.txt
            $p = GetFullPath existingfile.txt
            popd
            $p | Should Be (Join-Path $TestDrive existingfile.txt)
        }

        It "Resolves full path correctly" {
            GetFullPath C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe | Should Be C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe
        }
    }
}
tools\Functions\TestsRunningInCleanRunspace.Tests.ps1
function Invoke-PesterInJob ($ScriptBlock, [switch] $GenerateNUnitReport)
{
    $PesterPath = Get-Module Pester | Select-Object -First 1 -ExpandProperty Path

    $job = Start-Job {
        param ($PesterPath, $TestDrive, $ScriptBlock, $GenerateNUnitReport)
        Import-Module $PesterPath -Force | Out-Null
        $ScriptBlock | Set-Content $TestDrive\Temp.Tests.ps1 | Out-Null

        $params = @{
            PassThru = $true
            Path = $TestDrive
        }

        if ($GenerateNUnitReport)
        {
            $params['OutputFile'] = "$TestDrive\Temp.Tests.xml"
            $params['OutputFormat'] = 'NUnitXml'
        }

        Invoke-Pester @params

    } -ArgumentList  $PesterPath, $TestDrive, $ScriptBlock, $GenerateNUnitReport
    $job | Wait-Job | Out-Null

    #not using Receive-Job to ignore any output to Host
    #TODO: how should this handle errors?
    #$job.Error | foreach { throw $_.Exception  }
    $job.Output
    $job.ChildJobs| foreach {
        $childJob = $_
        #$childJob.Error | foreach { throw $_.Exception }
        $childJob.Output
    }
    $job | Remove-Job
}

Describe "Tests running in clean runspace" {
    It "It - Skip and Pending tests" {
        #tests to be run in different runspace using different Pester instance
        $TestSuite = {
            Describe 'It - Skip and Pending tests' {

                It "Skip without ScriptBlock" -skip
                It "Skip with empty ScriptBlock" -skip {}
                It "Skip with not empty ScriptBlock" -Skip {"something"}

                It "Implicit pending" {}
                It "Pending without ScriptBlock" -Pending
                It "Pending with empty ScriptBlock" -Pending {}
                It "Pending with not empty ScriptBlock" -Pending {"something"}
            }
        }

        $result = Invoke-PesterInJob -ScriptBlock $TestSuite
        $result.SkippedCount | Should Be 3
        $result.PendingCount | Should Be 4
        $result.TotalCount | Should Be 7
    }

    It "It - It without ScriptBlock fails" {
        #tests to be run in different runspace using different Pester instance
        $TestSuite = {
            Describe 'It without ScriptBlock fails' {
               It "Fails whole describe"
               It "is not run" { "but it would pass if it was run" }

            }
        }

        $result = Invoke-PesterInJob -ScriptBlock $TestSuite
        $result.PassedCount | Should Be 0
        $result.FailedCount | Should Be 1

        $result.TotalCount | Should Be 1
    }

    It "Invoke-Pester - PassThru output" {
        #tests to be run in different runspace using different Pester instance
        $TestSuite = {
            Describe 'PassThru output' {
               it "Passes" { "pass" }
               it "fails" { throw }
               it "Skipped" -Skip {}
               it "Pending" -Pending {}
            }
        }

        $result = Invoke-PesterInJob -ScriptBlock $TestSuite
        $result.PassedCount | Should Be 1
        $result.FailedCount | Should Be 1
        $result.SkippedCount | Should Be 1
        $result.PendingCount | Should Be 1

        $result.TotalCount | Should Be 4
    }

    It 'Produces valid NUnit output when syntax errors occur in test scripts' {
        $invalidScript = '
            Describe "Something" {
                It "Works" {
                    $true | Should Be $true
                }
            # Deliberately missing closing brace to trigger syntax error
        '

        $result = Invoke-PesterInJob -ScriptBlock $invalidScript -GenerateNUnitReport

        $result.FailedCount | Should Be 1
        $result.TotalCount | Should Be 1
        'TestDrive:\Temp.Tests.xml' | Should Exist

        $xml = [xml](Get-Content TestDrive:\Temp.Tests.xml)

        $xml.'test-results'.'test-suite'.results.'test-suite'.name | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
    }
}

Describe 'Guarantee It fail on setup or teardown fail (running in clean runspace)' {
    #these tests are kinda tricky. We need to ensure few things:
    #1) failing BeforeEach will fail the test. This is easy, just put the BeforeEach in the same try catch as the invocation
    #   of It code.
    #2) failing AfterEach will fail the test. To do that we might put the AfterEach to the same try as the It code, BUT we also
    #   want to guarantee that the AfterEach will run even if the test in It will fail. For this reason the AfterEach must be triggered in
    #   a finally block. And there we are not protected by the catch clause. So we need another try in the the finally to catch teardown block
    #   error. If we fail to do that the state won't be correctly cleaned up and we can get strange errors like: "You are still in It block", when
    #   running next test. For the same reason I am putting the "ensure all tests run" tests here. otherwise you get false positives because you cannot determine
    #   if the suite failed because of the whole suite failed or just a single test failed.

    It 'It fails if BeforeEach fails' {
        $testSuite = {
            Describe 'Guarantee It fail on setup or teardown fail' {
                BeforeEach {
                    throw [System.InvalidOperationException] 'test exception'
                }

                It 'It fails if BeforeEach fails' {
                    $true
                }
            }
        }

        $result = Invoke-PesterInJob -ScriptBlock $testSuite

        $result.FailedCount | Should Be 1
        $result.TestResult[0].FailureMessage | Should Be "test exception"
    }

    It 'It fails if AfterEach fails' {
        $testSuite = {
            Describe 'Guarantee It fail on setup or teardown fail' {
                It 'It fails if AfterEach fails' {
                    $true
                }

                 AfterEach {
                    throw [System.InvalidOperationException] 'test exception'
                }
            }

            Describe 'Make sure all the tests in the suite run' {
                #when the previous test fails in after each and
                It 'It is pending' -Pending {}
            }
        }

        $result = Invoke-PesterInJob -ScriptBlock $testSuite

        if ($result.PendingCount -ne 1)
        {
            throw "The test suite in separate runspace did not run to completion, it was likely terminated by an uncaught exception thrown in AfterEach."
        }

        $result.FailedCount | Should Be 1
        $result.TestResult[0].FailureMessage | Should Be "test exception"
    }
}
tools\Pester.psd1
@{

# Script module or binary module file associated with this manifest.
ModuleToProcess = 'Pester.psm1'

# Version number of this module.
ModuleVersion = '3.4.6'

# ID used to uniquely identify this module
GUID = 'a699dea5-2c73-4616-a270-1f7abb777e71'

# Author of this module
Author = 'Pester Team'

# Company or vendor of this module
CompanyName = 'Pester'

# Copyright statement for this module
Copyright = 'Copyright (c) 2016 by Pester Team, licensed under Apache 2.0 License.'

# Description of the functionality provided by this module
Description = 'Pester provides a framework for running BDD style Tests to execute and validate PowerShell commands inside of PowerShell and offers a powerful set of Mocking Functions that allow tests to mimic and mock the functionality of any command inside of a piece of PowerShell code being tested. Pester tests can execute any command or script that is accessible to a pester test file. This can include functions, Cmdlets, Modules and scripts. Pester can be run in ad hoc style in a console or it can be integrated into the Build scripts of a Continuous Integration system.'

# Minimum version of the Windows PowerShell engine required by this module
PowerShellVersion = '2.0'

# Functions to export from this module
FunctionsToExport = @( 
    'Describe',
    'Context',
    'It',
    'Should',
    'Mock',
    'Assert-MockCalled',
    'Assert-VerifiableMocks',
    'New-Fixture',
    'Get-TestDriveItem',
    'Invoke-Pester',
    'Setup',
    'In',
    'InModuleScope',
    'Invoke-Mock',
    'BeforeEach',
    'AfterEach',
    'BeforeAll',
    'AfterAll'
    'Get-MockDynamicParameters',
    'Set-DynamicParameterVariables',
    'Set-TestInconclusive',
    'SafeGetCommand',
    'New-PesterOption',
    'New-MockObject'
)

# # Cmdlets to export from this module
# CmdletsToExport = '*'

# Variables to export from this module
VariablesToExport = @(
    'Path',
    'TagFilter',
    'ExcludeTagFilter',
    'TestNameFilter',
    'TestResult',
    'CurrentContext',
    'CurrentDescribe',
    'CurrentTest',
    'SessionState',
    'CommandCoverage',
    'BeforeEach',
    'AfterEach',
    'Strict'
)

# # Aliases to export from this module
# AliasesToExport = '*'

# List of all modules packaged with this module
# ModuleList = @()

# List of all files packaged with this module
# FileList = @()

PrivateData = @{
    # PSData is module packaging and gallery metadata embedded in PrivateData
    # It's for rebuilding PowerShellGet (and PoshCode) NuGet-style packages
    # We had to do this because it's the only place we're allowed to extend the manifest
    # https://connect.microsoft.com/PowerShell/feedback/details/421837
    PSData = @{
        # The primary categorization of this module (from the TechNet Gallery tech tree).
        Category = "Scripting Techniques"

        # Keyword tags to help users find this module via navigations and search.
        Tags = @('powershell','unit_testing','bdd','tdd','mocking')

        # The web address of an icon which can be used in galleries to represent this module
        IconUri = "http://pesterbdd.com/images/Pester.png"

        # The web address of this module's project or support homepage.
        ProjectUri = "https://github.com/Pester/Pester"

        # The web address of this module's license. Points to a page that's embeddable and linkable.
        LicenseUri = "http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html"

        # Release notes for this particular version of the module
        # ReleaseNotes = False

        # If true, the LicenseUrl points to an end-user license (not just a source license) which requires the user agreement before use.
        # RequireLicenseAcceptance = ""

        # Indicates this is a pre-release/testing version of the module.
        IsPrerelease = 'False'
    }
}

# HelpInfo URI of this module
# HelpInfoURI = ''

# Default prefix for commands exported from this module. Override the default prefix using Import-Module -Prefix.
# DefaultCommandPrefix = ''

}
tools\Pester.psm1
# Pester
# Version: 3.4.6
# Changeset: 

if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3)
{
    $script:IgnoreErrorPreference = 'Ignore'
    $outNullModule = 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Core'
}
else
{
    $script:IgnoreErrorPreference = 'SilentlyContinue'
    $outNullModule = 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility'
}

# Tried using $ExecutionState.InvokeCommand.GetCmdlet() here, but it does not trigger module auto-loading the way
# Get-Command does.  Since this is at import time, before any mocks have been defined, that's probably acceptable.
# If someone monkeys with Get-Command before they import Pester, they may break something.

# The -All parameter is required when calling Get-Command to ensure that PowerShell can find the command it is
# looking for. Otherwise, if you have modules loaded that define proxy cmdlets or that have cmdlets with the same
# name as the safe cmdlets, Get-Command will return null.
$safeCommandLookupParameters = @{
    CommandType = [System.Management.Automation.CommandTypes]::Cmdlet
    ErrorAction = [System.Management.Automation.ActionPreference]::Stop
}

if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -gt 2)
{
    $safeCommandLookupParameters['All'] = $true
}

$script:SafeCommands = @{
    'Add-Member'          = Get-Command -Name Add-Member          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Add-Type'            = Get-Command -Name Add-Type            -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Compare-Object'      = Get-Command -Name Compare-Object      -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Export-ModuleMember' = Get-Command -Name Export-ModuleMember -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core       @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'ForEach-Object'      = Get-Command -Name ForEach-Object      -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core       @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Format-Table'        = Get-Command -Name Format-Table        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-ChildItem'       = Get-Command -Name Get-ChildItem       -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Command'         = Get-Command -Name Get-Command         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core       @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Content'         = Get-Command -Name Get-Content         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Date'            = Get-Command -Name Get-Date            -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Item'            = Get-Command -Name Get-Item            -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Location'        = Get-Command -Name Get-Location        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Member'          = Get-Command -Name Get-Member          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Module'          = Get-Command -Name Get-Module          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core       @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-PSDrive'         = Get-Command -Name Get-PSDrive         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Get-Variable'        = Get-Command -Name Get-Variable        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Group-Object'        = Get-Command -Name Group-Object        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Join-Path'           = Get-Command -Name Join-Path           -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Measure-Object'      = Get-Command -Name Measure-Object      -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'New-Item'            = Get-Command -Name New-Item            -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'New-Module'          = Get-Command -Name New-Module          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core       @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'New-Object'          = Get-Command -Name New-Object          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'New-PSDrive'         = Get-Command -Name New-PSDrive         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'New-Variable'        = Get-Command -Name New-Variable        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Out-Null'            = Get-Command -Name Out-Null            -Module $outNullModule                  @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Out-String'          = Get-Command -Name Out-String          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Pop-Location'        = Get-Command -Name Pop-Location        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Push-Location'       = Get-Command -Name Push-Location       -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Remove-Item'         = Get-Command -Name Remove-Item         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Remove-PSBreakpoint' = Get-Command -Name Remove-PSBreakpoint -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Remove-PSDrive'      = Get-Command -Name Remove-PSDrive      -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Remove-Variable'     = Get-Command -Name Remove-Variable     -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Resolve-Path'        = Get-Command -Name Resolve-Path        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Select-Object'       = Get-Command -Name Select-Object       -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Set-Content'         = Get-Command -Name Set-Content         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Set-PSBreakpoint'    = Get-Command -Name Set-PSBreakpoint    -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Set-StrictMode'      = Get-Command -Name Set-StrictMode      -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core       @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Set-Variable'        = Get-Command -Name Set-Variable        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Sort-Object'         = Get-Command -Name Sort-Object         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Split-Path'          = Get-Command -Name Split-Path          -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Start-Sleep'         = Get-Command -Name Start-Sleep         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Test-Path'           = Get-Command -Name Test-Path           -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Where-Object'        = Get-Command -Name Where-Object        -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Core       @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Write-Error'         = Get-Command -Name Write-Error         -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Write-Progress'      = Get-Command -Name Write-Progress      -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Write-Verbose'       = Get-Command -Name Write-Verbose       -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
    'Write-Warning'       = Get-Command -Name Write-Warning       -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility    @safeCommandLookupParameters
}

# Not all platforms have Get-WmiObject (Nano)
# Get-CimInstance is prefered, but we can use Get-WmiObject if it exists
# Moreover, it shouldn't really be fatal if neither of those cmdlets
# exist 
if ( Get-Command -ea SilentlyContinue Get-CimInstance )
{
    $script:SafeCommands['Get-CimInstance'] = Get-Command -Name Get-CimInstance -Module CimCmdlets @safeCommandLookupParameters
}
elseif ( Get-command -ea SilentlyContinue Get-WmiObject )
{
    $script:SafeCommands['Get-WmiObject']   = Get-Command -Name Get-WmiObject   -Module Microsoft.PowerShell.Management @safeCommandLookupParameters
}
else
{
    Write-Warning "OS Information retrieval is not possible, reports will contain only partial system data"
}

# little sanity check to make sure we don't blow up a system with a typo up there
# (not that I've EVER done that by, for example, mapping New-Item to Remove-Item...)

foreach ($keyValuePair in $script:SafeCommands.GetEnumerator())
{
    if ($keyValuePair.Key -ne $keyValuePair.Value.Name)
    {
        throw "SafeCommands entry for $($keyValuePair.Key) does not hold a reference to the proper command."
    }
}

$moduleRoot = & $script:SafeCommands['Split-Path'] -Path $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path

"$moduleRoot\Functions\*.ps1", "$moduleRoot\Functions\Assertions\*.ps1" |
& $script:SafeCommands['Resolve-Path'] |
& $script:SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { -not ($_.ProviderPath.ToLower().Contains(".tests.")) } |
& $script:SafeCommands['ForEach-Object'] { . $_.ProviderPath }

Add-Type -TypeDefinition @"
using System;

namespace Pester
{
	[Flags]
	public enum OutputTypes
	{
        None = 0,
        Default = 1,
        Passed = 2,
        Failed = 4,
        Pending = 8,
        Skipped = 16,
        Inconclusive = 32,
        Describe = 64,
        Context = 128,
        Summary = 256,
        All = Default | Passed | Failed | Pending | Skipped | Inconclusive | Describe | Context | Summary,
        Fails = Default | Failed | Pending | Skipped | Inconclusive | Describe | Context | Summary
	}
}
"@

function Has-Flag  {
     param
     (
         [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
         [Pester.OutputTypes]
         $Setting,
         [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
         [Pester.OutputTypes]
         $Value
     )

  0 -ne ($Setting -band $Value) 
}

function Invoke-Pester {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Runs Pester tests

.DESCRIPTION
The Invoke-Pester function runs Pester tests, including *.Tests.ps1 files and 
Pester tests in PowerShell scripts.

You can run scripts that include Pester tests just as you would any other 
Windows PowerShell script, including typing the full path at the command line 
and running in a script editing program. Typically, you use Invoke-Pester to run 
all Pester tests in a directory, or to use its many helpful parameters, 
including parameters that generate custom objects or XML files.

By default, Invoke-Pester runs all *.Tests.ps1 files in the current directory 
and all subdirectories recursively. You can use its parameters to select tests 
by file name, test name, or tag. 

To run Pester tests in scripts that take parameter values, use the Script 
parameter with a hash table value. 

Also, by default, Pester tests write test results to the console host, much like 
Write-Host does, but you can use the Quiet parameter to suppress the host 
messages, use the PassThru parameter to generate a custom object 
(PSCustomObject) that contains the test results, use the OutputXml and 
OutputFormat parameters to write the test results to an XML file, and use the 
EnableExit parameter to return an exit code that contains the number of failed 
tests. 

You can also use the Strict parameter to fail all pending and skipped tests. 
This feature is ideal for build systems and other processes that require success 
on every test. 

To help with test design, Invoke-Pester includes a CodeCoverage parameter that 
lists commands, functions, and lines of code that did not run during test 
execution and returns the code that ran as a percentage of all tested code.

Invoke-Pester, and the Pester module that exports it, are products of an 
open-source project hosted on GitHub. To view, comment, or contribute to the 
repository, see https://github.com/Pester.

.PARAMETER Script
Specifies the test files that Pester runs. You can also use the Script parameter 
to pass parameter names and values to a script that contains Pester tests. The 
value of the Script parameter can be a string, a hash table, or a collection 
of hash tables and strings. Wildcard characters are supported.

The Script parameter is optional. If you omit it, Invoke-Pester runs all 
*.Tests.ps1 files in the local directory and its subdirectories recursively. 
    
To run tests in other files, such as .ps1 files, enter the path and file name of
the file. (The file name is required. Name patterns that end in "*.ps1" run only
*.Tests.ps1 files.) 

To run a Pester test with parameter names and/or values, use a hash table as the 
value of the script parameter. The keys in the hash table are:

-- Path [string] (required): Specifies a test to run. The value is a path\file 
   name or name pattern. Wildcards are permitted. All hash tables in a Script 
   parameter value must have a Path key. 
    
-- Parameters [hashtable]: Runs the script with the specified parameters. The 
   value is a nested hash table with parameter name and value pairs, such as 
   @{UserName = 'User01'; Id = '28'}. 
    
-- Arguments [array]: An array or comma-separated list of parameter values 
   without names, such as 'User01', 28. Use this key to pass values to positional 
   parameters.
    

.PARAMETER TestName
Runs only tests in Describe blocks that have the specified name or name pattern.
Wildcard characters are supported. 
    
If you specify multiple TestName values, Invoke-Pester runs tests that have any 
of the values in the Describe name (it ORs the TestName values).
    
.PARAMETER EnableExit
Will cause Invoke-Pester to exit with a exit code equal to the number of failed 
tests once all tests have been run. Use this to "fail" a build when any tests fail.

.PARAMETER OutputFile
The path where Invoke-Pester will save formatted test results log file. 
If this path is not provided, no log will be generated.

.PARAMETER OutputFormat
The format of output. Two formats of output are supported: NUnitXML and
LegacyNUnitXML.
    
.PARAMETER OutputXml
The parameter OutputXml is deprecated, please use OutputFile and OutputFormat 
instead.
    
The path where Invoke-Pester will save a NUnit formatted test results log file. 
If this path is not provided, no log will be generated.

.PARAMETER Tag
Runs only tests in Describe blocks with the specified Tag parameter values. 
Wildcard characters and Tag values that include spaces or whitespace characters 
are not supported.
    
When you specify multiple Tag values, Invoke-Pester runs tests that have any 
of the listed tags (it ORs the tags). However, when you specify TestName 
and Tag values, Invoke-Pester runs only describe blocks that have one of the 
specified TestName values and one of the specified Tag values.

If you use both Tag and ExcludeTag, ExcludeTag takes precedence.
    
.PARAMETER ExcludeTag
Omits tests in Describe blocks with the specified Tag parameter values. Wildcard
characters and Tag values that include spaces or whitespace characters are not 
supported.
    
When you specify multiple ExcludeTag values, Invoke-Pester omits tests that have
any of the listed tags (it ORs the tags). However, when you specify TestName 
and ExcludeTag values, Invoke-Pester omits only describe blocks that have one 
of the specified TestName values and one of the specified Tag values.

If you use both Tag and ExcludeTag, ExcludeTag takes precedence

.PARAMETER PassThru
Returns a custom object (PSCustomObject) that contains the test results. 
    
By default, Invoke-Pester writes to the host program, not to the output stream (stdout). 
If you try to save the result in a variable, the variable is empty unless you 
use the PassThru parameter.
    
To suppress the host output, use the Quiet parameter.

.PARAMETER CodeCoverage
Adds a code coverage report to the Pester tests. Takes strings or hash table values.
    
A code coverage report lists the lines of code that did and did not run during 
a Pester test. This report does not tell whether code was tested; only whether 
the code ran during the test.

By default, the code coverage report is written to the host program 
(like Write-Host). When you use the PassThru parameter, the custom object 
that Invoke-Pester returns has an additional CodeCoverage property that contains 
a custom object with detailed results of the code coverage test, including lines 
hit, lines missed, and helpful statistics.
    
However, NUnitXML and LegacyNUnitXML output (OutputXML, OutputFormat) do not include 
any code coverage information, because it's not supported by the schema.
    
Enter the path to the files of code under test (not the test file). 
Wildcard characters are supported. If you omit the path, the default is local 
directory, not the directory specified by the Script parameter.

To run a code coverage test only on selected functions or lines in a script, 
enter a hash table value with the following keys:
    
-- Path (P)(mandatory) <string>. Enter one path to the files. Wildcard characters
   are supported, but only one string is permitted.

One of the following: Function or StartLine/EndLine
    
-- Function (F) <string>: Enter the function name. Wildcard characters are 
   supported, but only one string is permitted.
    
-or-
    
-- StartLine (S): Performs code coverage analysis beginning with the specified 
   line. Default is line 1.
-- EndLine (E): Performs code coverage analysis ending with the specified line. 
   Default is the last line of the script.
    

.PARAMETER Strict
Makes Pending and Skipped tests to Failed tests. Useful for continuous 
integration where you need to make sure all tests passed.

.PARAMETER Quiet
Suppresses the output that Pester writes to the host program, including the 
result summary and CodeCoverage output.
    
This parameter does not affect the PassThru custom object or the XML output that
is written when you use the Output parameters.

.PARAMETER PesterOption
Sets advanced options for the test execution. Enter a PesterOption object, 
such as one that you create by using the New-PesterOption cmdlet, or a hash table
in which the keys are option names and the values are option values.
For more information on the options available, see the help for New-PesterOption.

.Example
Invoke-Pester

This command runs all *.Tests.ps1 files in the current directory and its subdirectories.

.Example
Invoke-Pester -Script .\Util*

This commands runs all *.Tests.ps1 files in subdirectories with names that begin
with 'Util' and their subdirectories.
    
.Example
Invoke-Pester -Script D:\MyModule, @{ Path = '.\Tests\Utility\ModuleUnit.Tests.ps1'; Parameters = @{ Name = 'User01' }; Arguments = srvNano16  }

This command runs all *.Tests.ps1 files in D:\MyModule and its subdirectories. 
It also runs the tests in the ModuleUnit.Tests.ps1 file using the following
parameters: .\Tests\Utility\ModuleUnit.Tests.ps1 srvNano16 -Name User01 

.Example
Invoke-Pester -TestName "Add Numbers"

This command runs only the tests in the Describe block named "Add Numbers".
    
.EXAMPLE
$results = Invoke-Pester -Script D:\MyModule -PassThru -Quiet
$failed = $results.TestResult | where Result -eq 'Failed'

$failed.Name
cannot find help for parameter: Force : in Compress-Archive
help for Force parameter in Compress-Archive has wrong Mandatory value
help for Compress-Archive has wrong parameter type for Force
help for Update parameter in Compress-Archive has wrong Mandatory value
help for DestinationPath parameter in Expand-Archive has wrong Mandatory value
    
$failed[0]
Describe               : Test help for Compress-Archive in Microsoft.PowerShell.Archive (1.0.0.0)
Context                : Test parameter help for Compress-Archive
Name                   : cannot find help for parameter: Force : in Compress-Archive
Result                 : Failed
Passed                 : False
Time                   : 00:00:00.0193083
FailureMessage         : Expected: value to not be empty
StackTrace             : at line: 279 in C:\GitHub\PesterTdd\Module.Help.Tests.ps1
                         279:                     $parameterHelp.Description.Text | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
ErrorRecord            : Expected: value to not be empty
ParameterizedSuiteName :
Parameters             : {}
    
This examples uses the PassThru parameter to return a custom object with the 
Pester test results. By default, Invoke-Pester writes to the host program, but not 
to the output stream. It also uses the Quiet parameter to suppress the host output.
    
The first command runs Invoke-Pester with the PassThru and Quiet parameters and
saves the PassThru output in the $results variable.
    
The second command gets only failing results and saves them in the $failed variable.
    
The third command gets the names of the failing results. The result name is the 
name of the It block that contains the test.

The fourth command uses an array index to get the first failing result. The
property values describe the test, the expected result, the actual result, and
useful values, including a stack tace.

.Example
Invoke-Pester -EnableExit -OutputFile ".\artifacts\TestResults.xml" -OutputFormat NUnitXml

This command runs all tests in the current directory and its subdirectories. It
writes the results to the TestResults.xml file using the NUnitXml schema. The 
test returns an exit code equal to the number of test failures.

 .EXAMPLE
Invoke-Pester -CodeCoverage 'ScriptUnderTest.ps1'

Runs all *.Tests.ps1 scripts in the current directory, and generates a coverage 
report for all commands in the "ScriptUnderTest.ps1" file.

.EXAMPLE
Invoke-Pester -CodeCoverage @{ Path = 'ScriptUnderTest.ps1'; Function = 'FunctionUnderTest' }

Runs all *.Tests.ps1 scripts in the current directory, and generates a coverage 
report for all commands in the "FunctionUnderTest" function in the "ScriptUnderTest.ps1" file.

.EXAMPLE
Invoke-Pester -CodeCoverage @{ Path = 'ScriptUnderTest.ps1'; StartLine = 10; EndLine = 20 }

Runs all *.Tests.ps1 scripts in the current directory, and generates a coverage 
report for all commands on lines 10 through 20 in the "ScriptUnderTest.ps1" file.

.EXAMPLE
Invoke-Pester -Script C:\Tests -Tag UnitTest, Newest -ExcludeTag Bug
    
This command runs *.Tests.ps1 files in C:\Tests and its subdirectories. In those files, it runs only tests that have UnitTest or Newest tags, unless the test also has a Bug tag.
    
.LINK
https://github.com/pester/Pester/wiki/Invoke-Pester
Describe
about_Pester
New-PesterOption

#>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = 'LegacyOutputXml')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Position=0,Mandatory=0)]
        [Alias('Path', 'relative_path')]
        [object[]]$Script = '.',

        [Parameter(Position=1,Mandatory=0)]
        [Alias("Name")]
        [string[]]$TestName,

        [Parameter(Position=2,Mandatory=0)]
        [switch]$EnableExit,

        [Parameter(Position=3,Mandatory=0, ParameterSetName = 'LegacyOutputXml')]
        [string]$OutputXml,

        [Parameter(Position=4,Mandatory=0)]
        [Alias('Tags')]
        [string[]]$Tag,

        [string[]]$ExcludeTag,

        [switch]$PassThru,

        [object[]] $CodeCoverage = @(),

        [Switch]$Strict,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'NewOutputSet')]
        [string] $OutputFile,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName = 'NewOutputSet')]
        [ValidateSet('LegacyNUnitXml', 'NUnitXml')]
        [string] $OutputFormat = 'NUnitXml',

        [Switch]$Quiet,

        [object]$PesterOption,

        [Pester.OutputTypes]$Show = 'All'
    )

    if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('OutputXml'))
    {
        & $script:SafeCommands['Write-Warning'] 'The -OutputXml parameter has been deprecated; please use the new -OutputFile and -OutputFormat parameters instead.  To get the same type of export that the -OutputXml parameter currently provides, use an -OutputFormat of "LegacyNUnitXml".'

        & $script:SafeCommands['Start-Sleep'] -Seconds 2

        $OutputFile = $OutputXml
        $OutputFormat = 'LegacyNUnitXml'
    }

    $script:mockTable = @{}

    if ($Quiet)
    {
        $Show = [Pester.OutputTypes]::None  
    }

    $pester = New-PesterState -TestNameFilter $TestName -TagFilter ($Tag -split "\s") -ExcludeTagFilter ($ExcludeTag -split "\s") -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState -Strict:$Strict -Show:$Show -PesterOption $PesterOption
    Enter-CoverageAnalysis -CodeCoverage $CodeCoverage -PesterState $pester

    Write-Screen "`r`n`r`n`r`n`r`n"

    $invokeTestScript = {
        param (
            [Parameter(Position = 0)]
            [string] $Path,

            [object[]] $Arguments = @(),
            [System.Collections.IDictionary] $Parameters = @{}
        )

        & $Path @Parameters @Arguments
    }

    Set-ScriptBlockScope -ScriptBlock $invokeTestScript -SessionState $PSCmdlet.SessionState

    $testScripts = @(ResolveTestScripts $Script)

    foreach ($testScript in $testScripts)
    {
        try
        {
            do
            {
                & $invokeTestScript -Path $testScript.Path -Arguments $testScript.Arguments -Parameters $testScript.Parameters
            } until ($true)
        }
        catch
        {
            $firstStackTraceLine = $_.ScriptStackTrace -split '\r?\n' | & $script:SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -First 1
            $pester.AddTestResult("Error occurred in test script '$($testScript.Path)'", "Failed", $null, $_.Exception.Message, $firstStackTraceLine, $null, $null, $_)

            # This is a hack to ensure that XML output is valid for now.  The test-suite names come from the Describe attribute of the TestResult
            # objects, and a blank name is invalid NUnit XML.  This will go away when we promote test scripts to have their own test-suite nodes,
            # planned for v4.0
            $pester.TestResult[-1].Describe = "Error in $($testScript.Path)"

            $pester.TestResult[-1] | Write-PesterResult
        }
    }

    $pester | Write-PesterReport
    $coverageReport = Get-CoverageReport -PesterState $pester
    Show-CoverageReport -CoverageReport $coverageReport
    Exit-CoverageAnalysis -PesterState $pester

    if(& $script:SafeCommands['Get-Variable'] -Name OutputFile -ValueOnly -ErrorAction $script:IgnoreErrorPreference) {
        Export-PesterResults -PesterState $pester -Path $OutputFile -Format $OutputFormat
    }

    if ($PassThru) {
        #remove all runtime properties like current* and Scope
        $properties = @(
            "TagFilter","ExcludeTagFilter","TestNameFilter","TotalCount","PassedCount","FailedCount","SkippedCount","PendingCount",'InconclusiveCount',"Time","TestResult"

            if ($CodeCoverage)
            {
                @{ Name = 'CodeCoverage'; Expression = { $coverageReport } }
            }
        )

        $pester | & $script:SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -Property $properties
    }

    if ($EnableExit) { Exit-WithCode -FailedCount $pester.FailedCount }
}

function New-PesterOption
{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
   Creates an object that contains advanced options for Invoke-Pester
.PARAMETER IncludeVSCodeMarker
   When this switch is set, an extra line of output will be written to the console for test failures, making it easier
   for VSCode's parser to provide highlighting / tooltips on the line where the error occurred.
.INPUTS
   None
   You cannot pipe input to this command.
.OUTPUTS
   System.Management.Automation.PSObject
.LINK
   Invoke-Pester
#>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [switch] $IncludeVSCodeMarker
    )

    return & $script:SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property @{
        IncludeVSCodeMarker = [bool]$IncludeVSCodeMarker
    }
}

function ResolveTestScripts
{
    param ([object[]] $Path)

    $resolvedScriptInfo = @(
        foreach ($object in $Path)
        {
            if ($object -is [System.Collections.IDictionary])
            {
                $unresolvedPath = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $object -Key 'Path', 'p'
                $arguments      = @(Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $object -Key 'Arguments', 'args', 'a')
                $parameters     = Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound -Dictionary $object -Key 'Parameters', 'params'

                if ($null -eq $Parameters) { $Parameters = @{} }

                if ($unresolvedPath -isnot [string] -or $unresolvedPath -notmatch '\S')
                {
                    throw 'When passing hashtables to the -Path parameter, the Path key is mandatory, and must contain a single string.'
                }

                if ($null -ne $parameters -and $parameters -isnot [System.Collections.IDictionary])
                {
                    throw 'When passing hashtables to the -Path parameter, the Parameters key (if present) must be assigned an IDictionary object.'
                }
            }
            else
            {
                $unresolvedPath = [string] $object
                $arguments      = @()
                $parameters     = @{}
            }

            if ($unresolvedPath -notmatch '[\*\?\[\]]' -and
                (& $script:SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -LiteralPath $unresolvedPath -PathType Leaf) -and
                (& $script:SafeCommands['Get-Item'] -LiteralPath $unresolvedPath) -is [System.IO.FileInfo])
            {
                $extension = [System.IO.Path]::GetExtension($unresolvedPath)
                if ($extension -ne '.ps1')
                {
                    & $script:SafeCommands['Write-Error'] "Script path '$unresolvedPath' is not a ps1 file."
                }
                else
                {
                    & $script:SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property @{
                        Path       = $unresolvedPath
                        Arguments  = $arguments
                        Parameters = $parameters
                    }
                }
            }
            else
            {
                # World's longest pipeline?

                & $script:SafeCommands['Resolve-Path'] -Path $unresolvedPath |
                & $script:SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { $_.Provider.Name -eq 'FileSystem' } |
                & $script:SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty ProviderPath |
                & $script:SafeCommands['Get-ChildItem'] -Include *.Tests.ps1 -Recurse |
                & $script:SafeCommands['Where-Object'] { -not $_.PSIsContainer } |
                & $script:SafeCommands['Select-Object'] -ExpandProperty FullName -Unique |
                & $script:SafeCommands['ForEach-Object'] {
                    & $script:SafeCommands['New-Object'] psobject -Property @{
                        Path       = $_
                        Arguments  = $arguments
                        Parameters = $parameters
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    )

    # Here, we have the option of trying to weed out duplicate file paths that also contain identical
    # Parameters / Arguments.  However, we already make sure that each object in $Path didn't produce
    # any duplicate file paths, and if the caller happens to pass in a set of parameters that produce
    # dupes, maybe that's not our problem.  For now, just return what we found.

    $resolvedScriptInfo
}

function Get-DictionaryValueFromFirstKeyFound
{
    param ([System.Collections.IDictionary] $Dictionary, [object[]] $Key)

    foreach ($keyToTry in $Key)
    {
        if ($Dictionary.Contains($keyToTry)) { return $Dictionary[$keyToTry] }
    }
}

function Set-ScriptBlockScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'FromSessionState')]
        [System.Management.Automation.SessionState]
        $SessionState,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'FromSessionStateInternal')]
        $SessionStateInternal
    )

    $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance,NonPublic'

    if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'FromSessionState')
    {
        $SessionStateInternal = $SessionState.GetType().GetProperty('Internal', $flags).GetValue($SessionState, $null)
    }

    [scriptblock].GetProperty('SessionStateInternal', $flags).SetValue($ScriptBlock, $SessionStateInternal, $null)
}

function Get-ScriptBlockScope
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [scriptblock]
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    $flags = [System.Reflection.BindingFlags]'Instance,NonPublic'
    [scriptblock].GetProperty('SessionStateInternal', $flags).GetValue($ScriptBlock, $null)
}

function Get-OperatingSystem
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param()

    ## Prior to v6, PowerShell was solely Windows. In v6, the $IsWindows var was introduced.
    if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -lt 6 -or $IsWindows)
    {
        'Windows'
    } 
    elseif ($IsOSX)
    {
        'OSX'
    }
    elseif ($IsLinux)
    {
        'Linux'
    }
}

function Get-TempDirectory
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param()

    if ((Get-OperatingSystem) -eq 'Windows')
    {
        $env:TEMP
    }
    else
    {
        '/tmp'
    }
}

function SafeGetCommand
{
    <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        This command is used by Pester's Mocking framework.  You do not need to call it directly.
    #>

    return $script:SafeCommands['Get-Command']
}

$snippetsDirectoryPath = "$PSScriptRoot\Snippets"
if ((& $script:SafeCommands['Test-Path'] -Path Variable:\psise) -and
    ($null -ne $psISE) -and
    ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3) -and
    (& $script:SafeCommands['Test-Path'] $snippetsDirectoryPath))
{
    Import-IseSnippet -Path $snippetsDirectoryPath
}

& $script:SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] Describe, Context, It, In, Mock, Assert-VerifiableMocks, Assert-MockCalled, Set-TestInconclusive
& $script:SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] New-Fixture, Get-TestDriveItem, Should, Invoke-Pester, Setup, InModuleScope, Invoke-Mock
& $script:SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] BeforeEach, AfterEach, BeforeAll, AfterAll
& $script:SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] Get-MockDynamicParameters, Set-DynamicParameterVariables
& $script:SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] SafeGetCommand, New-PesterOption
& $script:SafeCommands['Export-ModuleMember'] New-MockObject
tools\Pester.Tests.ps1
$here = Split-Path -Parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path

$manifestPath   = "$here\Pester.psd1"
$changeLogPath = "$here\CHANGELOG.md"

# DO NOT CHANGE THIS TAG NAME; IT AFFECTS THE CI BUILD.

Describe -Tags 'VersionChecks' "Pester manifest and changelog" {
    $script:manifest = $null
    It "has a valid manifest" {
        {
            $script:manifest = Test-ModuleManifest -Path $manifestPath -ErrorAction Stop -WarningAction SilentlyContinue
        } | Should Not Throw
    }

    It "has a valid name in the manifest" {
        $script:manifest.Name | Should Be Pester
    }

    It "has a valid guid in the manifest" {
        $script:manifest.Guid | Should Be 'a699dea5-2c73-4616-a270-1f7abb777e71'
    }

    It "has a valid version in the manifest" {
        $script:manifest.Version -as [Version] | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
    }

    $script:changelogVersion = $null
    It "has a valid version in the changelog" {

        foreach ($line in (Get-Content $changeLogPath))
        {
            if ($line -match "^\D*(?<Version>(\d+\.){1,3}\d+)")
            {
                $script:changelogVersion = $matches.Version
                break
            }
        }
        $script:changelogVersion                | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
        $script:changelogVersion -as [Version]  | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
    }

    It "changelog and manifest versions are the same" {
        $script:changelogVersion -as [Version] | Should be ( $script:manifest.Version -as [Version] )
    }

    if (Get-Command git.exe -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue)
    {
        $skipVersionTest = -not [bool]((git remote -v 2>&1) -match "github.com/Pester/")
        $script:tagVersion = $null
        It "is tagged with a valid version" -skip:$skipVersionTest {
            $thisCommit = git.exe log --decorate --oneline HEAD~1..HEAD

            if ($thisCommit -match 'tag:\s*(\d+(?:\.\d+)*)')
            {
                $script:tagVersion = $matches[1]
            }

            $script:tagVersion                  | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
            $script:tagVersion -as [Version]    | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
        }

        It "all versions are the same" -skip:$skipVersionTest {
            $script:changelogVersion -as [Version] | Should be ( $script:manifest.Version -as [Version] )
            $script:manifest.Version -as [Version] | Should be ( $script:tagVersion -as [Version] )
        }

    }
}

if ($PSVersionTable.PSVersion.Major -ge 3)
{
    $error.Clear()
    Describe 'Clean treatment of the $error variable' {
        Context 'A Context' {
            It 'Performs a successful test' {
                $true | Should Be $true
            }
        }

        It 'Did not add anything to the $error variable' {
            $error.Count | Should Be 0
        }
    }

    InModuleScope Pester {
        Describe 'SafeCommands table' {
            $path = $ExecutionContext.SessionState.Module.ModuleBase
            $filesToCheck = Get-ChildItem -Path $path -Recurse -Include *.ps1,*.psm1 -Exclude *.Tests.ps1
            $callsToSafeCommands = @(
                foreach ($file in $files)
                {
                    $tokens = $parseErrors = $null
                    $ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseFile($file.FullName, [ref] $tokens, [ref] $parseErrors)
                    $filter = {
                        $args[0] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandAst] -and
                        $args[0].InvocationOperator -eq [System.Management.Automation.Language.TokenKind]::Ampersand -and
                        $args[0].CommandElements[0] -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.IndexExpressionAst] -and
                        $args[0].CommandElements[0].Target -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.VariableExpressionAst] -and
                        $args[0].CommandElements[0].Target.VariablePath.UserPath -match '^(?:script:)?SafeCommands$'
                    }

                    $ast.FindAll($filter, $true)
                }
            )

            $uniqueSafeCommands = $callsToSafeCommands | ForEach-Object { $_.CommandElements[0].Index.Value } | Select-Object -Unique

            $missingSafeCommands = $uniqueSafeCommands | Where-Object { -not $script:SafeCommands.ContainsKey($_) }

            It 'The SafeCommands table contains all commands that are called from the module' {
                $missingSafeCommands | Should Be $null
            }
        }
    }
}

Describe 'Style rules' {
    $pesterRoot = (Get-Module Pester).ModuleBase

    $files = @(
        Get-ChildItem $pesterRoot -Include *.ps1,*.psm1
        Get-ChildItem $pesterRoot\Functions -Include *.ps1,*.psm1 -Recurse
    )

    It 'Pester source files contain no trailing whitespace' {
        $badLines = @(
            foreach ($file in $files)
            {
                $lines = [System.IO.File]::ReadAllLines($file.FullName)
                $lineCount = $lines.Count

                for ($i = 0; $i -lt $lineCount; $i++)
                {
                    if ($lines[$i] -match '\s+$')
                    {
                        'File: {0}, Line: {1}' -f $file.FullName, ($i + 1)
                    }
                }
            }
        )

        if ($badLines.Count -gt 0)
        {
            throw "The following $($badLines.Count) lines contain trailing whitespace: `r`n`r`n$($badLines -join "`r`n")"
        }
    }

    It 'Pester Source Files all end with a newline' {
        $badFiles = @(
            foreach ($file in $files)
            {
                $string = [System.IO.File]::ReadAllText($file.FullName)
                if ($string.Length -gt 0 -and $string[-1] -ne "`n")
                {
                    $file.FullName
                }
            }
        )

        if ($badFiles.Count -gt 0)
        {
            throw "The following files do not end with a newline: `r`n`r`n$($badFiles -join "`r`n")"
        }
    }
}

InModuleScope Pester {
    Describe 'ResolveTestScripts' {
        Setup -File SomeFile.ps1
        Setup -File SomeFile.Tests.ps1
        Setup -File SomeOtherFile.ps1
        Setup -File SomeOtherFile.Tests.ps1

        It 'Resolves non-wildcarded file paths regardless of whether the file ends with Tests.ps1' {
            $result = @(ResolveTestScripts $TestDrive\SomeOtherFile.ps1)
            $result.Count | Should Be 1
            $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeOtherFile.ps1"
        }

        It 'Finds only *.Tests.ps1 files when the path contains wildcards' {
            $result = @(ResolveTestScripts $TestDrive\*.ps1)
            $result.Count | Should Be 2

            $paths = $result | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Path

            ($paths -contains "$TestDrive\SomeFile.Tests.ps1") | Should Be $true
            ($paths -contains "$TestDrive\SomeOtherFile.Tests.ps1") | Should Be $true
        }

        It 'Finds only *.Tests.ps1 files when the path refers to a directory and does not contain wildcards' {
            $result = @(ResolveTestScripts $TestDrive)

            $result.Count | Should Be 2

            $paths = $result | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Path

            ($paths -contains "$TestDrive\SomeFile.Tests.ps1") | Should Be $true
            ($paths -contains "$TestDrive\SomeOtherFile.Tests.ps1") | Should Be $true
        }

        It 'Assigns empty array and hashtable to the Arguments and Parameters properties when none are specified by the caller' {
            $result = @(ResolveTestScripts "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1")

            $result.Count | Should Be 1
            $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"

            ,$result[0].Arguments | Should Not Be $null
            ,$result[0].Parameters | Should Not Be $null

            $result[0].Arguments.GetType() | Should Be ([object[]])
            $result[0].Arguments.Count | Should Be 0

            $result[0].Parameters.GetType() | Should Be ([hashtable])
            $result[0].Parameters.PSBase.Count | Should Be 0
        }

        Context 'Passing in Dictionaries instead of Strings' {
            It 'Allows the use of a "P" key instead of "Path"' {
                $result = @(ResolveTestScripts @{ P = "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1" })

                $result.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"
            }

            $testArgs = @('I am a string')
            It 'Allows the use of an "Arguments" key in the dictionary' {
                $result = @(ResolveTestScripts @{ Path = "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"; Arguments = $testArgs })

                $result.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"

                $result[0].Arguments.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Arguments[0] | Should Be 'I am a string'
            }

            It 'Allows the use of an "Args" key in the dictionary' {
                $result = @(ResolveTestScripts @{ Path = "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"; Args = $testArgs })

                $result.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"

                $result[0].Arguments.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Arguments[0] | Should Be 'I am a string'
            }

            It 'Allows the use of an "A" key in the dictionary' {
                $result = @(ResolveTestScripts @{ Path = "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"; A = $testArgs })

                $result.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"

                $result[0].Arguments.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Arguments[0] | Should Be 'I am a string'
            }

            $testParams = @{ MyKey = 'MyValue' }
            It 'Allows the use of a "Parameters" key in the dictionary' {
                $result = @(ResolveTestScripts @{ Path = "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"; Parameters = $testParams })

                $result.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"

                $result[0].Parameters.PSBase.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Parameters['MyKey'] | Should Be 'MyValue'
            }

            It 'Allows the use of a "Params" key in the dictionary' {
                $result = @(ResolveTestScripts @{ Path = "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"; Params = $testParams })

                $result.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Path | Should Be "$TestDrive\SomeFile.ps1"

                $result[0].Parameters.PSBase.Count | Should Be 1
                $result[0].Parameters['MyKey'] | Should Be 'MyValue'
            }

            It 'Throws an error if no Path is specified' {
                { ResolveTestScripts @{} } | Should Throw
            }

            It 'Throws an error if a Parameters key is used, but does not contain an IDictionary object' {
                { ResolveTestScripts @{ P='P'; Params = 'A string' } } | Should Throw
            }
        }
    }

    describe 'Get-OperatingSystem' {

        it 'returns Windows' {

            Get-OperatingSystem | should be 'Windows'
        }
    }

    describe 'Get-TempDirectory' {

        it 'returns the correct temp directory for Windows' {
            mock 'Get-OperatingSystem' {
                'Windows'
            }
            Get-TempDirectory | should be $env:TEMP
        }

        it 'returns the correct temp directory for MacOS' {
            mock 'Get-OperatingSystem' {
                'MacOS'
            }
            Get-TempDirectory | should be '/tmp'
        }

        it 'returns the correct temp directory for Linux' {
            mock 'Get-OperatingSystem' {
                'Linux'
            }
            Get-TempDirectory | should be '/tmp'
        }
    }
}

In cases where actual malware is found, the packages are subject to removal. Software sometimes has false positives. Moderators do not necessarily validate the safety of the underlying software, only that a package retrieves software from the official distribution point and/or validate embedded software against official distribution point (where distribution rights allow redistribution).

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Version Downloads Last Updated Status
Pester 4.8.1 7932 Saturday, May 11, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.8.0 904 Wednesday, May 1, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.3 3277 Saturday, March 23, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.2 1206 Friday, March 8, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.1 435 Tuesday, March 5, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.7.0 253 Sunday, March 3, 2019 Approved
Pester 4.4.1 8794 Thursday, September 20, 2018 Approved
Pester 4.4.0 4821 Friday, July 20, 2018 Approved
Pester 4.4.0-beta2 105 Sunday, July 8, 2018 Approved

This package has no dependencies.

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